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The purpose of this assignment is to build a pro forma Excel sheet to defend financial projections for your business idea. This pro forma should be prepared as if it were to be presented to key stakeholders. Build a pro forma Excel sheet containing the collection of time and expenses along with your potential operating costs. In a 750-1,000 word paper, describe how you developed the pro forma projected expenses and operating costs. Submit the pro forma Excel sheet and paper.
APA style is not required, but solid academic writing is expected.
Rubric, business model is attached

Readings to help:

Read “Project’s Financial Feasibility,” by Melnic and Iliescu, from Economy Transdisciplinarity Cognition (2017). URL:
Read “Infusing the Capital Review Process With Rigor and Discipline,” by Ashdown and Jasuta, from Healthcare Financial Management(2015). URL:

View “Pro-Forma Financials (Ben Blau),” by Utah State CES (2010), located on the YouTube website. URL:


Course Code Class Code Assignment Title Total Points

ENT-436 ENT-436-O500 Time and Operation Costs 100.0

Criteria Percentage Unsatisfactory (0.00%) Less than Satisfactory (65.00%) Satisfactory (75.00%) Good (85.00%) Excellent (100.00%) Comments Points Earned

Criteria 100.0%

Projected Expenses and Operating Costs Paper 35.0% Projected expenses and operating costs are missing. One key component, such as expenses or operating costs, is missing for each stage of the business proposal. Projected expenses and operating costs are briefly included for each stage of the business proposal. Projected expenses and operating costs are included for each stage of the business proposal. Projected expenses and operating costs are included and thoroughly explained for each stage of the business proposal.

Pro Forma Excel Sheet 35.0% Pro forma Excel sheet is missing. Pro forma Excel sheet is readable but contains many errors. Pro forma Excel sheet is easily readable but contains a few errors. Pro forma Excel sheet is readable and accurate. Pro forma Excel sheet is easily readable and accurate.

Mechanics of Writing (includes spelling, punctuation, grammar, language use) 15.0% Surface errors are pervasive enough that they impede communication of meaning. Inappropriate word choice or sentence construction is used. Frequent and repetitive mechanical errors distract the reader. Inconsistencies in language choice (register) or word choice are present. Sentence structure is correct but not varied. Some mechanical errors or typos are present, but they are not overly distracting to the reader. Correct and varied sentence structure and audience-appropriate language are employed. Prose is largely free of mechanical errors, although a few may be present. The writer uses a variety of effective sentence structures and figures of speech. Writer is clearly in command of standard, written, academic English.

Paper Format (use of appropriate style for the major and assignment) 5.0% Template is not used appropriately, or documentation format is rarely followed correctly. Appropriate template is used, but some elements are missing or mistaken. A lack of control with formatting is apparent. Appropriate template is used. Formatting is correct, although some minor errors may be present. Appropriate template is fully used. There are virtually no errors in formatting style. All format elements are correct.

All format elements are correct. 10.0% Sources are not documented. Documentation of sources is inconsistent or incorrect, as appropriate to assignment and style, with numerous formatting errors. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, although some formatting errors may be present. Sources are documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is mostly correct. Sources are completely and correctly documented, as appropriate to assignment and style, and format is free of error.

Total Weightage 100%

CLC – Smoke Test:
Airborne Pathogen Sensor
March 21, 2021


Airborne Pathogen Sensors

The unprecedented year of 2020 brought new concerns to all parts of the World. People everywhere are genuinely worried about airborne pathogens. The problem derives from the current inability to detect or isolate unknown and/or harmful pathogens in the air that can cause serious illness, hospitalization, or death. Detection of these pathogens will lead to prevention of the consequences which the world has suffered this past year. The solution is STAPS, the Smart Technology Airborne Pathogen Sensor. By installing STAPS in commercially used airplanes, we can isolate potentially harmful pathogens prior to take off. As HEPA filters have done for airplanes to keep the air safe and free from contaminants, these airborne pathogen sensors will do the same but focus directly on pathogens that can cause illness.


2020 – Year of the Pandemic

Airborne Pathogens Make Headlines

Detection = Prevention


Smart Technology Airborne
Pathogen Sensor

For Use in Commercial Airlines

More Effective Than HEPA Filters

Making Air Travel Safer

A World Population Concern
Minimizing Exposure to Diseases
Reduce Exposure by 80% or More
Protects Travelers & Flight Staff
Protects Vacation Destinations
Domestic & International Flights
Consumer Peace of Mind

Because COVID-19 is a health concern to the overall population of the world, the need to isolate dangerous known and unknown pathogens is a top priority to minimize exposure to diseases. How do we do this? We can help fix this serious issue by adding air sensors to commercial airplanes to detect for unknown pathogens. The goal is to reduce exposure by 80% or more. The airline passengers would be directly affected initially, but the staff of the airlines would be as well. Furthermore, the population of vacation destinations will also be protected. By detecting, isolating, and containing an unknown pathogen prior to air travel, the threat of spreading a new virus is minimized. The development of a low-cost sensor to monitor air quality and the behavior of indoor air pollutants, as well as viruses and other pathogens, will reduce health risks and create a safer world community (Chojer, et al, 2020). The individual airlines would purchase and install the sensors for their fleet performing commercial domestic and international flights. This safety measure can be advertised to promote consumer peace of mind knowing they can feel safe when traveling.  

Chojer P.T.B.S., Branco F.G., Martins M.C.M, Alvim-Ferraz, Sousa (2020). Development of
low-cost indoor air quality monitoring devices: Recent advancements


We Value the Air You Breathe

We introduce technology to the air you breathe, eliminating dangerous pathogens to protect families, flight staff, vacationers, and business travelers.
Does your airline want to provide a safe environment for your customers?

The data in the sensors harbor fusion which uses mathematical methods and technical tools to synthesize different sources of information, obtaining high-quality, useful measurement data which requires the highest of intelligence in scientific fields (King, et al, 2020). The STAPS technology was designed by innovative leaders in the mathematical and pathology fields.

The question was posed to commercial airlines based around the world. Would they make the investment to keep their customers safe? 


Market Segment

Specific market segment: We are looking to target Commercial Airlines. These airlines carry millions of customers around the world, and with STAPS in place, they will not have to worry about spreading harmful pathogens in the air that can cause serious illness, or even death. STAPS will give customers and airlines the comfort of enjoying travel while being safe at the same time. 

How many people: On domestic and international flights, 1.0 Billion people use commercial airlines each year according to the Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Using STAPS would have a big impact on travel for our airlines and customers. Accommodating crews and passengers of all ages to help manage airborne infection during every flight. 

The key partners include  CEOs, Executives, Engineers, Technicians, Suppliers, the Business Management Team, Stakeholders and Passengers to accommodate fundamental safety needs. 
What is the common characteristic that allows you to communicate with them? Health and safety of a billion individuals that fly and those that they encounter at their future destination.

TRANSPORTATION, U. D. (2021, March 17). Retrieved from Bureau of Transportation Statistics :


Commercial Airlines

Domestic & International Flights

1 Billion Passengers Annually

CEOs, Executives, Engineers

Technicians, Suppliers, Management

Health & Safety: A Common Concern

Smoke Test Process

Through research and development, a protype can be developed and introduced into the market.
A test group will be studied to monitor the effectiveness of the protype (component).
All feedback and results will be examined, and alterations will be made to achieve desired results.
Value propositions will be sent to Rolls-Royce North America, Inc, Duncan Aviation, Inc., GE Aviation Systems, LLC, Lockheed Martin Corporation, and Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp.

The first step in getting the new component to market is conducting research and development. The company must secure a prototype and test the effectiveness of the component. After testing confirms the effectiveness and data reflects the desired results, manufacturing can begin. Ideally the component will be integrated with existing manufacturing. It may be necessary to secure additional manufacturing facilities. Secondly, the company can leverage existing material suppliers to secure parts for manufacturing the new component.

The value propositions were sent to Rolls-Royce North America, Inc, Duncan Aviation, Inc., GE Aviation Systems, LLC, Lockheed Martin Corporation, and Pratt & Whitney Canada Corp, as they are the leading manufacturers in the aerospace industry (Rolls-royce north America inc., 2020). As early adopters, they can validate our offering, justify further development and become product champions.


Smoke Test Results
Partnered with (2) Early Adopters
Validated the Value Proposition will be beneficial for both our customers and the industry as a whole
Secured funding for Research & Development
Awaiting Contracts

We successfully secured two early adopters. The feedback from both companies was positive and they are both eager to move forward with the project. The executive boards on both GE Aviation Systems, LLC and Duncan Aviation, Inc. have agreed to provide funding for research and development. We are currently awaiting contracts to move forward.


Next Steps

Next steps: First, the company needs to secure funding for research and development. The demand for this new technology is high. It is my suggestion to request funding directly from the early adopters. It is a mutually beneficial proposal for both parties. Second, the company must secure additional team members for the research and development team. Third, a laboratory with the capability to recreate the intended environment is essential for testing. After design and testing reflect the desired results, it is necessary to secure patents on all aspects of the design. Finally, the company should reach out to all current distributors and form strategic partnerships for exclusive distribution of the new component. 

Secure patents on all aspects of the design

Reach out to all current distributors and form strategic partnerships for exclusive distribution of the new component

Market directly to our customers through current email listings, social media page, airline application, and print, radio and television

Incorporate ads through airlines current app to further track and receive feedback, and advertise new development (product)

Thank you


Chojer P.T.B.S., Branco F.G., Martins M.C.M, Alvim-Ferraz,  Sousa (2020). Development of low-cost indoor air quality monitoring devices: Recent advancements 
King, L., Xing, P, Chen, Y, Wang, P, Xu M., (2020) Multi-sensor measurement and data fusion technology for manufacturing process monitoring: a literature review
Rolls-royce north america inc. (2020). (). Fort Mill: Mergent. Retrieved from Business Market Research Collection

Transportation, U. D. (2021, March 17). Bureau of Transportation Statistics.


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Final Business Canvas 4
Final Business Canvas 8

Final Business Model Canvas

Installing airborne Pathogen Sensors
The purpose of the business canvas is to install airborne pathogen sensors on all commercial planes will protect travelers and flight staff from airborne pathogens reducing exposure by 80%. According to the authors, the canvas is to install airborne pathogen sensors to manage behavior, movement, and transmission of airborne droplets, managing respiratory infection in transcontinental flights (Hertzberga et al., 2017). Thus, the purpose of the business is to improve transcontinental flight safety, accommodating human-centered design and technological advances.
It is normally necessary to detect the low concentration of the chemicals, biological and physiological substances in fluid systems. The flexible electronic technologies are of great importance compared to other conventional electronics that are built on rigid substrates. The sensor is much flexible. The combination of number of sensor and the ability to conform to the geometric configuration which allows for large volumes of fluids, gases and solids that are sampled at high sensitivity.
Key partners
The key partners include technicians, suppliers, the business management team, and all stakeholders including passengers to accommodate fundamental safety needs. According to the authors airborne wireless monitoring systems accommodate technicians, manufactures, suppliers, and project management team for effective deliverability (Gao et al., 2018). The key partners such as the organization, suppliers, manufactures, and technical team are necessary for the project.
Key Activities
The installation of airborne pathogen sensors on all commercial planes will protect travelers and flight staff from airborne pathogens reducing exposure by 80%. Fundamental activities include production, problem-solving, and networking platforms. Thus, the project accommodates stepwise activities towards passenger safety propositions.
Customer relationships
The instantiation of airborne pathogen sensors on all commercial planes will protect travelers and flight staff from airborne pathogens reducing exposure by 80%. Customer relationship embraces self-service, automation, dedicated personal assistance and, co-creation. Through automation services, Needlepoint Bi-Polar Ionization Systems in commercial flights will effectively kill airborne germs and pathogens, reducing the risk of contaminating passengers by 75% (Waddell, 2019). Thus, customer relationship is fundamental in the business model canvas.
Customers segments and value promotion
Customers accommodate passengers of all ages accommodating gender in equal measure to manage airborne infection amid transcontinental flights. Notably, customers require health-wise safety amid situations such as Covid-19 to manage personal and group well-being. Passengers and flight and service providers during a flight should acknowledge fundamental guidelines to ensure safety measures. Significantly, the customer description accommodates equality in managing the issues without discrepancies in demographics and psychographics considerations. Biosensors provide underpinning monitoring on airborne pathogens (Fronczek and Yoon, 2015). The value proposition accommodates customer need for wellness and safety amid transnational flights and a healthy environment.
The instantiation of airborne pathogen sensors on all commercial planes will protect travelers and flight staff from airborne pathogens reducing exposure by 80%, fundamental resources include physical, intellectual, human capital, and financial resources. Specifically, machines, patents, and tangible assets are necessary for the project.
Channels through reading the passengers and service providers accommodate awareness, evaluation, purchase delivery, and maintenance. Significantly, automation and dedicated assistance are underscoring channels to ensure passengers’ safety during transcontinental flights.
Cost Structure
The costs accommodate important costs, expensive resources, and activities cost-driven approach encapsulating low price value promotion, automation, and extensive outsourcing. Significantly, the human capital management, including technician accommodates fixed costs. Tangible assets for the instantiation of airborne pathogen sensors on all commercial planes will protect travelers and flight staff from airborne embrace economies of scale and economies of scope for effective articulations for value creation and premium value promotion.
Revenue Streams
Airborne pathogen sensors on all commercial planes will protect travelers and flight staff, revenues stream accommodates costumer’s willingness to pay an additional $15 for the safety and well-being amid transcontinental flights and, the contribution each customer revenue towards the overall revenues in the project. Notably, the revenue streams acknowledge usage fees as types, fixed price in customer segment and product feature dependent and, dynamic pricing negotiation, real-market, and yield management.
Airborne disease transmission has been a topic that has been of interests for many years. For an infection to occur organisms must be present on the environmental surfaces till the time they are transferred to a susceptible host at an appropriate entry point. The cabin presents a unique environment in which infections could occur. The cabin is a highly infectious area in that there is a high passenger through-put and while seated by hours, the sick individuals could contaminate the area. The moment the surface area is contaminated, the immediate people that are in the area are at risk of the being infected. The transmission process begins when an infected person releases the pathogen into the air. The healthy individual could then inhale the air or come in direct contact with the pathogen hence getting infected. The risk is very high in the aircraft cabins. Installing of the airborne pathogen sensor on the all the commercial planes will help to protect travelers and flight staff from airborne pathogens reducing the exposure by 80 percent (ACA, 2021).
From the outbreak of the Ebola to COVID-19, the world has had plenty of strange and scary outbreaks in the years. Some of the pathogens have landed in the U.S from various parts of the world which are mostly deadly. For one to stay healthy, there are standards tips that can be used to manage the infections. The first is to sanitize hands. This is done through brining on board alcohol-based sanitizers. This could be used before one could eat or drink. One could also use after visiting the bathroom or toilet (Fronczek, & Yoon, 2015).
With the current outbreak of the airborne disease such as COVID-19. There is need for technologies for sensors that can detect low concentrations of airborne pathogens in seconds and minutes to help detect pathogens such as COVID-19 and prevent further spread. The virus is particularly highlighted to enable safe conditions during work and travel. The air pathogen sensors aim to identify pathogen signatures suitable for rapid indoor air monitoring and use the signatures to develop and demonstrate readiness (Gao et al., 2018).
The recent developments in the radio frequency vibrometry and emerging immunosensing techniques, together with electrochemical detection methods are best approaches to monitoring of airborne pathogens. The approaches enables sample agnostic detection of low viral concentrations in seconds to minutes of real-time detections (Hertzberga et al., 2018).
The second means of the controlling and managing infections in the airplane cabins is to blow away microbes. It is important to catch a pathogen in the planes recycled air. It would be best to set the ventilation at low or medium. When on puts the hands in on their laps, they should be able to feel the current of the ventilators. Then if something infectious is floating in one’s personal space, the air for the vent will create enough current to block it away. It is important to point out that installing air pathogen sensors would help to increase the effectiveness of the ventilators. The pathogens sensors are program to detect the pathogen levels that could be present in the cabin. Upon increasing number of pathogens in the cabin. The sensors will trigger the ventilators to increase the speed at which it blows the infected air from the cabin (Waddell, 2019).
People can easily get infected while in the areophane. The common areas in which infections could occurs include the toilet button, armrest, and plastic tray table. The areas need to be sterilized frequently to ensure that there are no microbial loads and if existing reduced. It is important to point out that despite sterilization being conducted, it is difficult to determine how safe the cabin could be from the pathogens. It is also through adoption of the pathogen sensors that one can be able to determine the pathogen load. Some of the bacterial survive in surfaces for a long time compared to others. the air pathogen sensors will be able to inform the cleaning staff or sanitizing staff the areas that needs to be worked on further to reduce the pathogen load. The members of the public should be made aware that one stand higher chances of picking an infection from the plane that they could reduce the risk of the following the traditional hygiene protocols such as sanitizing. Sanitizing and air pathogen sensors technology will help to reduce the risk of getting and infection (Waddell, 2019).
Airplanes have high-tech air filters that remove 99 percent of the dust and microbes present in the air. The ventilation is compartmentalized to allow the air to circulate in various parts of the cabin. Despite the effectiveness of the ventilators, one that is sitting close to a sick passenger stands high risk of getting an infection. The several airborne diseases such as TB move around on planes. The pathogen sensor would immediately recognize the presence of a pathogen and swing into action to eliminate it before it can cause any harm. People will not have to worry much about pathogen load that could be present in the air for pathogen sensor systems will be mostly working to ensure they are safe (Fronczek, & Yoon, 2015).

ACA (2021, Feb. 4). Textron Aviation announces ACA cabin ionization system retrofits for select Beechcraft and Cessna aircraft. Aircraft Cost Calculator.
Fronczek, C., and Yoon, J. (2015). Biosensors for Monitoring Airborne Pathogens. Journal of Association and Laboratory Automation. Vol.4. No.20. Pp.1-22
Gao, S., Dai, X., Hung, Y., Guo, Y., and Ji, Q. (2018). Airborne Wireless Sensor Networks for Airplane Monitoring System. Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Volume 2018.
Hertzberga, V., Weiss, H., Elon, L., Si, W., and Norris, S., (2017). Behaviors, movements, and transmission of droplet-mediated respiratory diseases during transcontinental airline flights.
Waddell, C. (2019). An overview of needlepoint bi-polar ionization white paper. Global Plasma Solutions, Inc. Logic/GPS-WhitePaper-NPBI-Explained.pdf

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