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Scenario Paper Assignment Instructions: Islamic Law and Islamic States
Due: May 2, 2021 by 11:59 a.m.
In this assignment you will find yourself in various countries as a criminal! In the scenario and analysis you create you will truly be an international criminal. The “crime” committed can be of your choosing is long as it is illegal in the country we are studying.  You will find that this very deep dive into the criminal justice systems of each country we study will help you become a world criminal justice system expert.  
The following is your prompt for the setting of your paper:
1) You are a US Citizen that is travelling to the country we are studying
2) You arrive at the country
3) You commit a crime
a. Make the crime interesting enough to write about
b. Make the crime of a nature that you will work through the country’s criminal justice system
c. Do not get caught up in the detail of the crime at the expense of the analysis – this will lead to failure of the assignment! 
4) You are caught by the country’s law enforcement officers
5) You do not have diplomatic immunity and the country is balking at any means of negotiation with the US for your release from the crime and subsequent punishment
The following is an outline of what you should cover in your paper: 
1) Begin your paper with a brief analysis of the following elements:
a. Country analysis
i. Introduction to the country
ii. People and society of the country
iii. Economy
iv. Transnational issues (if applicable) that may impact law enforcement
v. Relations with the United States
b. What is the basic government structure and its relationship to the criminal justice system
c. What is the “legal family” or basis of law in the country 
d. What are the major components of the criminal justice system in the country
2) Please explain the following elements:
a. What crime did you commit? How were you caught? In other words, briefly set up the scenario.
b. Explain the country specific law 
c. Explain from first contact through arrest and questioning your experience with the country’s law enforcement officials
d. Explain the detention process you will experience as a foreign national for the crime you committed
e. Explain the judicial process you’ll experience for the crime you committed
f. Explain the detention, corrections, and/or incarceration process you’ll experience for the crime you committed
g. Provide an analysis on:
h. The effectiveness of the criminal justice system in the country
i. The human rights perspective of how you were treated through the lens of the country where you were caught
j. A Holy Bible comparison/analysis of the criminal justice system of the country where you were caught  
Each research paper should be a minimum of 8 to 12 pages. The vast difference in page count is due to the fact that some countries are quite easy to study and some countries have very limited information. In some instances there will be a plethora of information and you must use skilled writing to maintain proper page count.  Please keep in mind that this is doctoral level analysis and writing – you are to take the hard-earned road – the road less travelled – the scholarly road in forming your paper.
The paper must use current APA style, and the page count does not include the title page, abstract, reference section, or any extra material. The minimum elements of the paper are listed above.
You must use the following sources:
· At least 8 recent, peer reviewed sources (past 10 years unless waived by professor): some countries may have more recent research articles than others
· 2 verses/citations from the Holy Bible
· 1 recent newspaper article on the country of study
· Books may be used but are considered “additional: sources beyond the stated minimums. 
· You may use .gov sources as your recent, relevant, and academic sources as long as the writing is academic in nature (authored works). 
Again, this paper must reflect graduate level research and writing style. If you need to go over the maximum page count you must obtain professor permission in advance! Please reference the Research Paper Rubric when creating your research paper. 
Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the SafeAssign plagiarism tool

1
CHAPTER 7: ISLAMIC LAW

Book Reference

Terrill, R. J. (2016). World criminal justice systems: A comparative survey. Routledge.

Concepts to Know

· Prophet Muhammad
· The Quran
· The Sunna
· The Pillars of Islam
· Sunni
· Shia
· Ulama
· Sharia
· Mazalim
· Siyasa Sharia
· Madhahib
· Ijma
· Ijtihad
· Hudud
· Quesas
· Tazir
· Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab
· Consultative Council
· Senior Council of the Ulama
· Supreme Judicial Council
· Bureau of Investigation and Public Prosecution
· Commission for the Promotion of Virtue and the Prevention of Vice
· Matawain
· Mujtahid
· Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini
· Faqih
· Council of Guardians
· Basij
· Mustafa Kemal Ataturk
· Supreme Council of Judges and Public Prosecutors
· Constitutional Court

IN THE INTRODUCTION to this text it was mentioned that some countries view the purpose and function of law in a different context from that which emerged in the West. For our purposes, Islamic law will illustrate this fact. It is important to point out that Islam is primarily a religion, a belief system that espouses a specific moral code. Islam means submitting to God’s will. From its inception, the most important group associated with Islam was the umma, the community of believers, and the ultimate goal of Islam was to establish a theocratic society. In such a context, the state is viewed as a vehicle to enhance and foster the revealed religion throughout the community of believers.
Islam is often referred to as one of the three Abrahamic faiths; the other two are Judaism and Christianity. What these three religions have in common is monotheism, the belief in one God. Today, Islam is the second largest religion in the world with more than 1.3 billion followers; Christianity is the largest with more than 2.1 billion adherents, of which 1.1 billion are Roman Catholic.

The Quran

It should be noted that it was not the intent of the Prophet Muhammad (570?–632) to establish a new religion; rather, his objective was to reform the religion of one God. The Quran (trans. 2004) clearly states:
We sent Jesus, son of Mary, in their footsteps, to confirm the Torah that had been sent before him: We gave him the Gospel with guidance, light, and conformation of the Torah already revealed—a guide and lesson for those who take heed of God. So let the followers of the Gospel judge according to what God has sent down in it. Those who do not judge according to what God has revealed are lawbreakers.
We sent to you [Muhammad] the Scriptures with the truth, confirming the Scriptures that came before it, and with final authority over them: so judge between them according to what God has sent down (5:46–48).
Thus, Muslims believe that Muhammad was the last of the great prophets. Those preceding him were Abraham, Moses, and Jesus.
Before proceeding further, it should be noted that when citing the Quran, the first number following the quote refers to the chapter, and the number or numbers following the colon indicate the specific verse(s). Because there is not one standard method of transliteration of Arabic to English, names and terms often have several different spellings. I have attempted to use a simplified form that is free of many diacritical marks. Any quotations, however, are retained in the original form.
As the aforementioned passage indicates, according to the Quran, Muhammad received messages from God through the angel Gabriel. These messages represented God’s final revelations to humankind, with the previous noteworthy revelations coming to Moses and Jesus. As a result, Muslims believe that Islam supersedes Judaism and Christianity, for it is the culmination of God’s message to humankind.
Muhammad received the revelations over a 23-year period, which represented two distinct phases of the Prophet’s life in Mecca and Medina. Initially, Muhammad had tried to introduce the revelations to the people of Mecca, but they were unwilling to believe in the principal feature of his message: that there was one God. As such, he left Mecca, the place of his birth, for Medina, where he would establish the first Islamic government and where he also died in 632.
While the largest number of revelations was received during the initial 12 and one-half years in Mecca, it was during Muhammad’s time in Medina that the legal rules and various regulations pertaining to everyday life were revealed. According to the Quran, “We sent it in this way to strengthen your heart [Prophet]; We gave it to you in gradual revelation” (25:32). In light of this approach, the Prophet and his Companions were able to memorize the Quran. The Quran also states: “[Prophet], do not rush your tongue in an attempt to hasten [your memorization of] the Revelation: We shall make sure of its safe collection and recitation. When We have recited it, repeat the recitation and We shall make it clear” (75:16–18). Because the Arab population was largely illiterate at the time, they found this gradual method of revelation beneficial. During the Prophet Muhammad’s life, parts of the Quran were written. It was not until after his death, however, that a single authorized version of the entire text became available.
Thus, the Quran is Islamic scripture; it is the primary source of these revelations or the Word of God. The Quran consists of 114 chapters or surats (surah, singular) and 6,342 verses or ayas (ayah, singular). Each chapter has a title, with the longest of the chapters appearing first and the remainder getting progressively shorter in the text. It has been pointed out that the “contents of the Qur’an are not classified subject-wise. The ayat [signs of God] on various topics appear in unexpected places, and no particular order can be ascertained in the sequence of its text” (Kamali, 1989).
Of the 6,342 verses in the Quran, scholars offer differing figures on how many verses deal with legal issues. It ranges from 350 to 500, and many of these are concerned with religious duties, such as prayer and fasting. With regard to the legal verses, it has been suggested that “most of which were revealed in response to problems that were actually encountered. Some were revealed with the aim of repealing objectionable customs such as infanticide, usury, gambling and unlimited polygamy. Others laid down penalties with which to enforce the reforms that the Qur’an had introduced. But on the whole, the Qur’an confirmed and upheld the existing customs and institutions of Arab society and only introduced changes that were deemed necessary” (Kamali, 1989). It was further estimated that approximately 30 verses dealt with crimes and corresponding sanctions, while another 30 pertained to matters of justice, equality, and rights and obligations of people.
In the introduction to his translation of the Quran, which is used in this chapter to cite Quranic verses, M.A.S. Abdel Haleem pointed out:
The Qur’an was the starting point for all the Islamic sciences: Arabic grammar was developed to serve the Qur’an, the study of Arabic phonetics was pursued in order to determine the exact pronunciation of Qur’anic words, the science of Arabic rhetoric was developed in order to describe the features of the inimitable style of the Qur’an, the art of Arabic calligraphy was cultivated through writing down the Qur’an, the Qur’an is the basis of Islamic law and theology; indeed, as the celebrated fifteenth-century scholar and author Suyuti said, “Everything is based on the Qur’an.” The entire religious life of the Muslim world is built around the text of the Qur’an.
Muslims consider the Quran as a moral and ethical blueprint for a civilized society, which is neither unique to nor restricted to the society of believers, that is, the Muslim community. The Quran explains the importance of compassion, fairness, honesty, and justice. Although the Quran addresses how a devout Muslim should conduct himself or herself with regard to other people, it is especially concerned with the relationship that a devout Muslim has with God. Moreover, the right to interpret the Quran was not restricted to an elite group. Anyone with a pious disposition and the willingness and aptitude could study the Quran.

The Sunna

The Quran is the primary source of Islamic scripture, because it reveals the Word of God, but another primary source is the Sunna. Sunna means “clear path” or, in this context, established practice. Various approaches have been taken to organize the Sunna. First and foremost, the Sunna consists of three basic methods in which a message was transmitted: verbal, practical, and approved. The verbal method consists of the sayings of the Prophet Muhammad that are called hadiths. The practical method includes the actual deeds of the Prophet. The approved method encompasses the actions or sayings of the Companions that the Prophet approved. The Companions were the initial small group who were followers of Muhammad and who referred to themselves as his Companions.
The Quran indicates the importance of the Sunna on several occasions:
You who believe, obey God and the Messenger, and those in authority among you. If you are in dispute over any matter, refer it to God and the Messenger, if you truly believe in God and the Last Day: (4:59).
By your Lord, they will not be true believers until they let you decide between them in all matters of dispute, and find no resistance in their souls to your decisions, accepting them totally (4:65).
When the true believers are summoned to God and His Messenger in order for him to judge between them, they say, “We hear and we obey.” These are the ones who will prosper (24:51–52).
What makes the Quran the superior source of Islamic teaching is that it is believed to be received from God. The Sunna, on the other hand, consists of recollections of people who witnessed either a verbal, practical, or approved hadith from the Prophet.
The Sunna is a significant source of Islam in its own right for at least three reasons. It reiterates the rules and standards that were already revealed in the Quran, thereby confirming its authenticity. It is a significant aid in explaining or clarifying Quranic verses that are vague or unclear. Finally, it is the source of pronouncements on which the Quran was silent. The rulings from the Sunna, however, could not contradict or oppose a standard that was clearly stated in the Quran. Obviously, it is this last characteristic that makes the Sunna such an important independent source.

The Pillars of Islam

The central beliefs of Islam that unite the umma, the community of believers, and that are prescribed in the Quran are referred to as the Pillars of Islam. The Pillars of Islam are the five practices that devout Muslims are required to follow. Thus, these practices or tenets unite the worldwide community of Islam. The first tenet is the shahada (testimony): “There is no god but God, and Muhammad is His messenger.” The second tenet is the salat (ritual prayer) that is said each day at five different times: dawn, noon, afternoon, sunset, and evening. The third tenet is sawm (the obligatory fasting) during the month of Ramadan. Fasting includes refraining from food, drink, and sexual activity from sunrise to sunset during this month. Exceptions are made for people who are old, ill, or traveling. The fourth tenet is the obligation to participate in the hajj (pilgrimage) to the Kaba in Mecca at least once in a lifetime. The Kaba is a cube-shaped structure that is the major shrine of Islam. Muslim tradition claims that it was built by Abraham and Ishmael. It contains the Black Stone that Muslims believe was given to Abraham by the angel Gabriel. As such, it is considered the sanctuary of the “House of God.” It should also be noted that the pilgrimage is expected of those who are physically and financially able. The fifth tenet is the imposition of the zakat. Zakat means purification and is considered a religious obligation. It is a tax on Muslims for the care of the poor (see Aslan, 2006; Esposito, 2002).

Sunni and Shia

Christianity is divided into several denominations that embrace the basic Christian message. There are differences among the denominations that often deal with biblical interpretations and church governance. Islam is not divided along these same lines, because all devout Muslims adhere to certain core beliefs that include a belief in God, the Quran as divine revelation, the Prophet Muhammad and his teachings, and the basic tenets found in the Pillars of Islam. It should be noted that there are some differences on theological questions, but those are beyond the scope of our purpose.
The significant division in Islam was over the political and religious leadership of the umma, the community of believers, upon the death of Muhammad. When Muhammad died in 632, his efforts to reform the religion of one God was still in its infancy. Because Muhammad had not designated a successor, the elders of Medina, the seat of his reform movement, selected Abu Bakr as leader. Abu Bakr had excellent credentials in that he was noted for his piety and wisdom and the fact that he was an advisor and father-in-law to Muhammad. Abu Bakr’s tenure as caliph (successor to Muhammad) lasted only two years. Upon his death, he was succeeded by Umar, who ruled from 634 to 644 and is credited with expanding Islam to additional cities in the region. The third caliph was Uthman, who managed to antagonize a number of people in the Muslim community, which led to his assassination in 656. He was succeeded by the fourth caliph, Ali, who was both a cousin and son-in-law of Muhammad. Some within the Muslim community were angry over Uthman’s murder and opposed Ali’s selection. This led to Ali’s murder in 661.
Two groups emerged over the leadership issues that plagued the umma during its first four decades of existence. Sunni Muslims (from followers of the Sunna of Muhammad) are the main or orthodox branch of Islam. They noted that Muhammad did not name a successor; as a result, they were of the opinion that the most qualified person should be selected as leader or caliph, and the selection should not rely on hereditary succession. From the Sunni perspective, because Muhammad was the last prophet, a caliph’s authority would be limited to the political realm and would not be given a theocratic status. Of course, the caliph was expected to be a protector and defender of the Islamic faith. Thus, Sunnis believe that an Islamic government is a civil matter without any religious authority. Sunni Muslims account for about 85 percent of the adherents to the Islamic faith.
Shia Muslims (from the party of Ali) gradually developed a movement that asserted the hereditary succession of Ali’s descendants to the position of leader, because they believed that Muslims should be ruled by a male descendant of Muhammad. As such, the people should have no voice in determining the ruler, because it is a prophetic matter. These leaders, who were descendants of Ali, were called Imams, and their leadership authority extended to the realms of both religion and politics. As religious leaders, they were considered the interpreters of God’s will. Although they did not have the status of a prophet, the speeches and writings of Imams are considered important religious texts. Shias became the largest sect in Islam, and Shia Muslims, known as Shiites, represent about 15 percent of Muslims worldwide.
Within Shia Islam there are divisions that are based on differences over how many Imams succeeded the Prophet Muhammad. Today, the largest of these divisions are known as Twelver Shias. They believe that Muhammad, the twelfth Imam, who was born in 869 and a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad through his son-in-law Ali, went into hiding in the ninth century. Originally, it was thought that this period of seclusion would not last long. As the period of Occultation continued over centuries, there emerged the belief that the Imam Muhammad would return on Judgment Day.
While the Imam was in seclusion, there emerged the belief among the Shia community that the ulama, the religious scholars, were the only legitimate authority to offer guidance on governance, for it was the ulama who had undertaken long years of study of the Quran and Sunna. The ulama were not mandated to govern, but they were to offer moral and ethical guidance to the Shia community. The Shia community had its greatest concentration and development in Persia (modern-day Iran). Over time, the ulama of the Shia community established a clerical hierarchy. The upper echelons of this hierarchy are senior leaders who are called ayatollahs (signs of God) that are noted both for their piety and religious knowledge.
What makes this sect of Islam significant and different from Sunni Islam is that from its inception Islam had not established a church hierarchy or an ordained clergy, as those terms are used in a Christian context. Any Muslim could lead a prayer service or preside over a religious ceremony. Today, every mosque has an imam. Here, the term imam is used in a different context from that mentioned previously. An imam is a respected member of the community who is recognized for his piety and knowledge; he leads the prayer service and provides a Friday sermon (Alsaif, 2007; Aslan, 2006; Esposito, 2002; Martin, 2003).
It is important to interject here that the ulama is not unique to Shia Islam. The term ulama is associated with all Muslim men of extensive religious learning. They initially studied at a madrassa, an informal Islamic religious school. These men went beyond merely memorizing the Quran though. They studied the subject in greater depth and were identified by their community for their religious learning. They became the guardians of the beliefs, values, and practices of the umma. Some became noted as famous theological scholars, while others were noted for their legal scholarship and were referred to as jurists. The elite among the ulama were called upon to serve as judges in important courts, as teachers at the famous schools, and as preachers in the major mosques.

As mentioned in the Preface and Introduction, Islamic law will not be examined in the context of a single country, but rather it will be viewed in the manner in which it has influenced the justice system of a few countries associated with Islam. Three countries have been selected; today they are called Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Turkey (see 
.) Each was selected because the overwhelming majority of their populations are Muslim, but also because each has embraced Islam in distinct ways. Some of the distinctions are based on the cultural traditions of each country that predate the arrival of Islam; some are based on when Islam was received and how Islam evolved in the geographical areas that we call Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Turkey. In light of this, a brief sketch is presented of the historical reception of Islam to these three regions.

The Arabian Peninsula

In pre-Islamic times, the Arabian Peninsula was inhabited by Bedouins, whose culture was based on a patriarchal tribal social structure. The various tribes initially created unwritten rules that over time established customary laws for a tribe. A single executive and legislative authority, as we use those terms today, did not exist. As a result, there was no organization for the administration of a central government in general or for criminal justice in particular. Law and order was based on rules established by the tribes.
Much of the region consisted of a vast desert terrain, and its significance to the rest of the known world was limited to that of providing important trade routes, especially when the principal empires in the region—Persian and Byzantium—were at war with one another. During the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries, however, these empires experienced a period of peaceful coexistence. As a result, the significance of the region for trade routes declined somewhat. With regard to religion, it should be noted that the Zoroastrian faith was dominant in Persia, while Christianity was establishing a strong foothold in Byzantium. Both of these, along with the Jewish faith, were more sophisticated than the primitive pagan practices of the Arab region. Through the various trade routes across the peninsula, Arabs were becoming familiar with these religions.

 Saudi Arabia, Iran, and Turkey

Map courtesy of Bruce Jones Design Inc.

In or around the year 570, Muhammad was born in the small market town of Mecca. His family was a member of the Quraysh tribe. When Muhammad was about 40 years of age, it is said that he began to receive messages from God through the angel Gabriel. For Muhammad, these were God’s final revelations to humankind. Because of his monotheistic beliefs, he was associated with the prophets of the Jewish and Christian religions. Both of these religions had small communities within the Arabian Peninsula. While Muhammad began to gather around him a small group of followers, most people in the Arabian Peninsula in general and his Quraysh tribe in particular worshipped multiple gods. As such, they rejected his message, which caused him to leave Mecca and move to Medina, an oasis community. In time the people of Mecca would accept Muhammad’s message and welcome him back.
According to one scholar, “Muhammad worked to create a community based on shared religious beliefs, . . . which would transcend the traditional social structure based on families, clans, and tribes and would unite disparate groups into a new Arabian society.” He further pointed out that the “idea of the family was at the core of the Muslim conception of the individual person and the umma, the community of believers. The family ideals reinforced the concept of individuality by stressing the religious importance of individuals as God’s creatures rather than as mere objects in the clan system of society, and by stressing the individual’s responsibility for moral relations within the family” (Lapidus, 2002). It is important to note that the Middle East is another region of the world where there is a long cultural tradition in which the group is more important than the individual. This is a very significant cultural feature that impacts personal responsibility in general and issues associated with criminal justice in particular.
While creating his community of believers in Medina, Muhammad established the first Islamic government. It has been pointed out by one scholar that unlike the founder of Christianity, Jesus of Nazareth, who said, “Render therefore unto Caesar the things which are Caesar’s; and unto God the things that are God’s” (Matthew 22:21), Muhammad was establishing an Islamic state that would be ruled by God’s messenger, Muhammad, on behalf of God. Thus, whereas Christianity made a distinction between the functions of the imperium and sacerdotium, Muhammad did not acknowledge such a division. His state would be governed by a law found in a new scripture that was designed to supplant the two previous religious testaments revealed by this same God.
That scholar has also pointed out:
There is thus a crucial difference between the career of Muhammad and those of his predecessors, Moses and Jesus, as portrayed in the writings of their followers. Moses was not permitted to enter the promised land, and died while his people went forward. Jesus was crucified, and Christianity remained a persecuted minority religion for centuries, until a Roman emperor, Constantine, embraced the faith and empowered those who upheld it. Muhammad conquered his promised land, and during his lifetime achieved victory and power in this world, exercising political as well as prophetic authority. As the Apostle of God, he brought and taught a religious revelation. But at the same time, as the head of the Muslim Umma, he promulgated laws, dispensed justice, collected taxes, conducted diplomacy, made war, and made peace. The Umma, which began as a community, had become a state. It would soon become an empire (Lewis, 1996).
Thus, this was a religious reform movement with a difference. Its leader set out to conquer territory and to preach his spiritual message. The spread of Islam throughout the Arabian Peninsula set the stage for a rapid expansion beyond these borders. Islam would extend its reach throughout the Middle East and beyond to include northern Africa and Spain. While this was carried out by conquest and colonization, a number of scholars have indicated that the objective was not to impose this new faith by force, for the Quran clearly states, “There is no compulsion in religion” (2:256).
When Muhammad died in 632, his reform movement was still limited to the Arabian Peninsula. The caliphs that succeeded him continued the military expeditions that he had initiated. By the end of the reign of the second caliph, Umar, Arabs controlled all of the Arabian Peninsula and areas in the Persian and Byzantium empires that are known today as Iran, Iraq, Syria, and Egypt. By the middle of the seventh century, the political climate in the region had been transformed in a unique way, and it was the direct result of God’s revelation to Muhammad. As Islam spread through Arab conquest, so also did the Arab language. The Quran was the first book written in Arabic. Arabs were given a heightened status because Islam originated in their region. It should also be noted that it was during the reigns of the first four caliphs that the introduction of Islamic law or Sharia began to develop through the interpretation of the Quran. Finally, many of the early converts to Islam tended to live in urban areas. As their numbers grew, Islamic institutions were established. Among the most notable were the mosque and law court. The emergence of these courts will be discussed later.
The Arab empire that had been created as a result of these military conquests was short-lived, however. Like most empires, it failed because of internal decay, which is frequently precipitated by a combination of internal political, social, and economic factors coupled with an external superior military threat. Through various battles in 749 and 750, the Arab Umayyad dynasty was defeated by the Persian leader, Abu’l-’Abbas, which established the Abbasid Caliphate. With this development, the center of political power moved from Medina to Baghdad. Of course, the spiritual center would remain in Mecca, the site of the Kaba. Nevertheless, the Arabian Peninsula receded in significance until oil was discovered and it became a significant resource in the twentieth century.

Persia

Persia had a long and famous cultural tradition that extended back to the Achaemenid dynasty that ruled from 559 to 330 BCE. Among the famous rulers associated with this ancient dynasty were Cyrus II, Darius I, and Xerxes I. It was the Sasanian Dynasty (224–651 CE) of the Persian Empire that was weakened by prolonged wars with the Byzantine Empire that ultimately led to its defeat by the Arabs. In the 650s, Arab culture was in the ascendancy throughout the region, and many Persians converted to Islam. In spite of this change in faith, Persians retained their language and their long-standing cultural traditions. While they may have embraced Islam, they were not Arabs, but Persians. One hundred years after their defeat in 651, the fortunes of war were reversed with the creation of the Abbasid Caliphate. This dynasty would remain in power until 1258.
For our purposes, Persia was important in the development of Islam because of its cultural and intellectual traditions that were enhanced further by the fertilization of Greek and Roman ideas. Two examples, which are intimately related and intertwined at times, will suffice to illustrate both this tradition and its continued significance that has evolved up to the present time. One deals with politics and political theory, while the other example focuses on the long-standing significant place of religion in Persian culture and society.
Ever since the death of the Prophet Muhammad, there was an ongoing debate over who was the legitimate ruler of the umma, the community of believers. Initially, the umma was small and highly localized in Medina. At the time of his death, however, Muhammad had established an Islamic state that was essentially within the boundaries of the Arabian Peninsula. With further military conquests by succeeding caliphs, an Islamic empire had been created that extended well beyond the geographical confines of Arabia. The principal participants in this leadership debate were members of the ulama, the religious scholars. They had long been acknowledged as the only legitimate authority to offer guidance on governance, for it was the ulama who had undertaken long years of study of the Quran and Sunna.
At issue in this leadership debate was not only who should be the legitimate ruler, but also what should be the extent of the leader’s authority. One of the more fruitful areas for this debate occurred in Baghdad, a center of intellectual activity. Two of the contributors to this debate were Abu Al-Hasan Al-Mawardi (972–1058) and Abu Hamid Muhammad al-Ghazali (1058–1111). …
CJUS 701

Scenario Paper Grading Rubric

Criteria

Levels of Achievement

Content

(70%)

Advanced

92-100%

Proficient

84-91%

Developing

1-83%

Not Present

Total

Introduction

17 to 18.5 points:

The introductory paragraph contains a strong thesis statement, research question (s), and/or statement of research purpose
and
provides an overview of the paper.

15.5 to 16.75 points:

The introductory paragraph contains a moderately developed thesis statement, research question(s), and/or statement of research purpose.

1 to 15.25 points:

The thesis statement, research question(s) and overview of the paper need improvement.

0 points

Not present

Analysis

19 to 20.5 points:

The topic is clearly presented and discussed in detail. Key terms are defined as needed. Complex issues are navigated with precision.

17.25 to 18.75 points:

The topic is presented and discussed appropriately. Key terms are defined as needed. Complex issues are recognized.

1 to 17 points:

The topic is unclear or fairly clear but discussed too broadly or does not meet expectations. Contextual factors are weakly considered and lacking in some significant areas. Complex issues are overlooked or handled without care.

0 points

Not present

Research & Support

17 to 18.5 points:

· Sources are evaluated critically for applicability in the paper.
· Research may incorporate multiple viewpoints of complex issues.
· Arguments are correctly supported with research.

15.5 to 16.75 points:

· Sources are used correctly.
· Research is aware of multiple viewpoints of complex issues.
· Research is aware of multiple viewpoints of complex issues.
· Arguments are correctly supported with research.

1 to 15.25 points:

· Sources are used but not critically evaluated.
· Arguments incorporate limited research but often include personal opinion without appropriate support.
· Sources are, at times, not used appropriately.
· Research is not aware of multiple viewpoints of complex issues.

0 points

Not present

Conclusion

14.25 to 15 points:

The conclusion is strong and clearly summarizes the research presented in the body of the paper.

13.25 to 14 points:

The conclusion summarizes the research presented in the body of the paper.

1 to 13 points:

The conclusion does not adequately summarize the research presented in the body of the paper.

Christian Worldview

14.25 to 15 points:

Creates Christian Worldview (CWV) Section and applies CWV elements and support in explanation of the training program with specific biblical references (book, chapter, and verse).

13.25 to 14 points:

Creates Christian Worldview Section and applies general CWV elements and support in explanation of the training program with global referencing to biblical references (reference does not have book, chapter, and verse, rather, “the Bible says type of references).

1 to 13 points:

Christian Worldview mentioned. No specific section in the paper. Only general CWV elements and support in explanation of the training program with global referencing to biblical references (reference does not have book, chapter, and verse, rather, “the Bible says type of references).

0 points

Not present

Structure (30%)

Advanced

92-100%

Proficient

84-91%

Developing

1-83%

Not Present

Total

Mechanics

11.5 to 12.5 points:

· No grammar, spelling, or punctuation errors are present.
· Voice and person are used correctly and consistently. Writing is precise. Word choice is appropriate.
· Student has proper page count.
Eight to twelve
double-spaced pages (or more if page count waived by instructor) not including title page, abstract, or reference section.

10.5 to 11.25 points:

· Few grammar, spelling, or punctuation errors are present.
· Voice and person are used correctly. Writing style is sufficient. Word choice is adequate.
· Student has 70% of the proper page count of
eight
double-spaced pages not including title page, abstract, or reference section.

1 to 10.25 points:

· Several grammar, spelling, or punctuation errors are present.
· Voice and person are used inconsistently. Writing style is understandable but could be improved. Word choice is generally good.
· Student has less than 70% of the proper page count of
eight
double-spaced pages not including title page, abstract, or reference section.

0 points

Not present

Current APA Format

11.5 to 12.5 points:

· Citations and format are in current APA style.
· Cover page, abstract, main body, and reference section are correctly formatted.
· Paper is double-spaced with 1-inch margins and written in 12 point Times New Roman font.

10.5 to 11.25 points:

· Citations and format are in current APA style with few errors.
· Cover page, abstract, main body, and reference section are present with few errors.
· Paper is double-spaced with 1-inch margins and written in 12 point Times New Roman font.

1 to 10.25 points:

· Citations and format are in current APA style though several errors are present.
· Cover page, abstract, main body, and reference section are included though several errors are present.
· Paper is double-spaced, but margins or fonts are incorrect.

0 points

Not present

Research Elements

11.5 to 12.5 points:

· Academic primary and .gov (when necessary) are used well and include a minimum of 11 citations as listed below.
· 8 recent (past 10 years unless waived by professor), relevant, academic (peer reviewed) journals preferred. However, professional journals (no more than 50%) and .gov references may be used for this requirement.
· Must use at least 2 Holy Bible citations.
· Must use at least one recent newspaper article on the country of study.
· Students may use additional sources to support their claims and may use non-academic sources as long as the minimum requirements above are met.
· The best 11 citations will be graded.

10.5 to 11.25 points:

· Research is aware of multiple viewpoints of complex issues.
· Academic primary and .gov (when necessary) are used well and include a minimum of 70% of the required 11 citations as listed below.
· 8 recent (past 10 years unless waived by professor), relevant, academic (peer reviewed) journals preferred. However, professional journals (no more than 50%) and .gov references may be used for this requirement.
· Must use at least 2 Holy Bible citations.
· Must use at least one recent newspaper article on the country of study.
· Students may use additional sources to support their claims and may use non-academic sources as long as the minimum requirements above are met.
· The best 11 citations will be graded.

1 to 10.25 points:

· Less than 70% of the Academic sources required 11 citations as listed below are used. Reliance on popular sources is evident.
· An incomplete or inaccurate reference section is provided.
· 8 recent (past 10 years unless waived by professor), relevant, academic (peer reviewed) journals preferred. However, professional journals (no more than 50%) and .gov references may be used for this requirement.
· Must use at least 2 Holy Bible citations.
· Must use at least one recent newspaper article on the country of study.
· Students may use additional sources to support their claims and may use non-academic sources as long as the minimum requirements above are met.
· The best 11 citations will be graded.

0 points

Not present

Professor Comments:

Total:

/125

CJUS 701
CJUS 701

Scenario Paper Assignment Instructions

In this assignment you will find yourself in various countries as a criminal! In the scenario and analysis you create you will truly be an international criminal. The “crime” committed can be of your choosing is long as it is illegal in the country we are studying. You will find that this very deep dive into the criminal justice systems of each country we study will help you become a world criminal justice system expert.

The following is your prompt for the setting of your paper:

1) You are a US Citizen that is travelling to the country we are studying
2) You arrive at the country
3) You commit a crime
a. Make the crime interesting enough to write about
b. Make the crime of a nature that you will work through the country’s criminal justice system
c. Do not get caught up in the detail of the crime at the expense of the analysis – this will lead to failure of the assignment!
4) You are caught by the country’s law enforcement officers
5) You do not have diplomatic immunity and the country is balking at any means of negotiation with the US for your release from the crime and subsequent punishment

The following is an outline of what you should cover in your paper:

1) Begin your paper with a brief analysis of the following elements:
a. Country analysis
i. Introduction to the country
ii. People and society of the country
iii. Economy
iv. Transnational issues (if applicable) that may impact law enforcement
v. Relations with the United States
b. What is the basic government structure and its relationship to the criminal justice system
c. What is the “legal family” or basis of law in the country
d. What are the major components of the criminal justice system in the country
2) Please explain the following elements:
a. What crime did you commit? How were you caught? In other words, briefly set up the scenario.
b. Explain the country specific law
c. Explain from first contact through arrest and questioning your experience with the country’s law enforcement officials
d. Explain the detention process you will experience as a foreign national for the crime you committed
e. Explain the judicial process you’ll experience for the crime you committed
f. Explain the detention, corrections, and/or incarceration process you’ll experience for the crime you committed

3) Provide an analysis on:
a. The effectiveness of the criminal justice system in the country
b. The human rights perspective of how you were treated through the lens of the country where you were caught
c. A Holy Bible comparison/analysis of the criminal justice system of the country where you were caught
Each research paper should be a minimum of 8 to 12 pages. The vast difference in page count is due to the fact that some countries are quite easy to study and some countries have very limited information. In some instances there will be a plethora of information and you must use skilled writing to maintain proper page count. Please keep in mind that this is doctoral level analysis and writing – you are to take the hard-earned road – the road less travelled – the scholarly road in forming your paper.
The paper must use current APA style, and the page count does not include the title page, abstract, reference section, or any extra material. The minimum elements of the paper are listed above.
You must use the following sources:
· At least 8 recent, peer reviewed sources (past 10 years unless waived by professor): some countries may have more recent research articles than others
· 2 verses/citations from the Holy Bible
· 1 recent newspaper article on the country of study
· Books may be used but are considered “additional: sources beyond the stated minimums.
· You may use .gov sources as your recent, relevant, and academic sources as long as the writing is academic in nature (authored works).
Again, this paper must reflect graduate level research and writing style. If you need to go over the maximum page count you must obtain professor permission in advance! Please reference the Research Paper Rubric when creating your research paper.

Note: Your assignment will be checked for originality via the SafeAssign plagiarism tool.
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