Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Module 10: Global Strategy | Abc Paper
+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

Module 10: Discussion Forum
For this week’s discussion, read the case study found in your textbook (Case 17): Haier Group: Internationalization Strategy.
Remember, a case study is a puzzle to be solved, so before reading and answering the specific case and study questions, develop your proposed solution by following these five steps:

Read the case study to identify the key issues and underlying issues. These issues are the principles and concepts of the course area which apply to the situation described in the case study.
Record the facts from the case study which are relevant to the principles and concepts of the course area issues. The case may have extraneous information not relevant to the current course area. Your ability to differentiate between relevant and irrelevant information is an important aspect of case analysis, as it will inform the focus of your answers.
Describe in some detail the actions that would address or correct the situation.
Consider how you would support your solution with examples from experience or current real-life examples or cases from textbooks.
Complete this initial analysis and then read the discussion questions. Typically, you will already have the answers to the questions but with a broader consideration. At this point, you can add the details and/or analytical tools required to solve the case.

Case Study Questions:

Compare and contrast the appliance strategies used by another multinational appliance company such as LG, Samsung, Bosch-Siemens, Electrolux, Whirlpool, etc. and Haier.
What is Haier’s internationalization strategy?
Does Haier’s international strategy appear to be effective?
Is it likely that Haier’s success and management practices can be applied outside of China? Why or why not?

Embed course material concepts, principles, and theories (require supporting citations) in your initial response along with at least one scholarly, peer-reviewed journal article. Keep in mind that these scholarly references can be found in the Saudi Digital Library by conducting an advanced search specific to scholarly references. Use Saudi Electronic University academic writing standards and APA style guidelines.
You are required to reply to at least two peer discussion question post answers to this weekly discussion question and/or your instructor’s response to your posting. These post replies need to be substantial and constructive in nature. They should add to the content of the post and evaluate/analyze that post answer. Normal course dialogue doesn’t fulfill these two peer replies but is expected throughout the course. Answering all course questions is also required.

C O N T E M P O R A R Y
S T R AT E G Y
A N A LY S I S

C O N T E M P O R A R Y
S T R AT E G Y
A N A LY S I S

T E N T H E D I T I O N

R O B E R T M . G R A N T

VP AND EDITORIAL DIRECTOR George Hoffman

EDITORIAL DIRECTOR Veronica Visentin

EXECUTIVE EDITOR Lise Johnson

SPONSORING EDITOR Jennifer Manias

SENIOR EDITORIAL MANAGER Leah Michael

EDITORIAL MANAGER Judy Howarth

CONTENT MANAGEMENT DIRECTOR Lisa Wojcik

CONTENT MANAGER Nichole Urban

SENIOR CONTENT SPECIALIST Nicole Repasky

PRODUCTION EDITOR Indirakumari S

COVER PHOTO CREDIT © iStockPhoto/Sergey_Peterman

This book was set in 10/12pt ITC Garamond Std by SPi Global and printed and bound by Quad Graphics.

Founded in 1807, John Wiley & Sons, Inc. has been a valued source of knowledge and understanding for
more than 200 years, helping people around the world meet their needs and fulfill their aspirations. Our
company is built on a foundation of principles that include responsibility to the communities we serve and
where we live and work. In 2008, we launched a Corporate Citizenship Initiative, a global effort to address
the environmental, social, economic, and ethical challenges we face in our business. Among the issues we
are addressing are carbon impact, paper specifications and procurement, ethical conduct within our business
and among our vendors, and community and charitable support. For more information, please visit our web-
site: www.wiley.com/go/citizenship.

Copyright © 2019, 2016, 2013, 2006, 2000 John Wiley & Sons, Inc. All rights reserved. No part of this publica-
tion may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic,
mechanical, photocopying, recording, scanning or otherwise, except as permitted under Sections 107 or
108 of the 1976 United States Copyright Act, without either the prior written permission of the Publisher, or
authorization through payment of the appropriate per-copy fee to the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc., 222
Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923 (Web site: www.copyright.com). Requests to the Publisher for permis-
sion should be addressed to the Permissions Department, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 111 River Street, Hoboken,
NJ 07030-5774, (201) 748-6011, fax (201) 748-6008, or online at: www.wiley.com/go/permissions.

Evaluation copies are provided to qualified academics and professionals for review purposes only, for use in
their courses during the next academic year. These copies are licensed and may not be sold or transferred
to a third party. Upon completion of the review period, please return the evaluation copy to Wiley. Return
instructions and a free of charge return shipping label are available at: www.wiley.com/go/returnlabel. If you
have chosen to adopt this textbook for use in your course, please accept this book as your complimentary
desk copy. Outside of the United States, please contact your local sales representative.

ISBN: 978-1-119-49572-7 (PBK)

ISBN: 978-1-119-49565-9 (EVALC)

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Grant, Robert M., 1948– author.
Title: Contemporary strategy analysis / Robert M. Grant.
Description: Tenth edition. | Hoboken, NJ : Wiley & Sons, 2018. | Includes
index. | Description based on print version record and CIP data provided
by publisher; resource not viewed.
Identifiers: LCCN 2018037723 (print) | LCCN 2018041783 (ebook) | ISBN
9781119495796 (Adobe PDF) | ISBN 9781119495673 (ePub) | ISBN 9781119495727
(pbk.)
Subjects: LCSH: Strategic planning.
Classification: LCC HD30.28 (ebook) | LCC HD30.28 .G722 2018 (print) | DDC
658.4/012—dc23
LC record available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018037723

The inside back cover will contain printing identification and country of origin if omitted from this page.
In addition, if the ISBN on the back cover differs from the ISBN on this page, the one on the back cover is
correct.

http://www.wiley.com/go/citizenship

http://www.wiley.com/go/permissions

http://www.wiley.com/go/returnlabel

To Liam, Ava, Finn, Evie, Max, Lucy, and Bobby

B R I E F C O N T E N T S

Author Biography xiv
Preface to Tenth Edition xv

PART I INTRODUCTION 1

1 The Concept of Strategy 3

PART II THE TOOLS OF STRATEGY ANALYSIS 31

2 Goals, Values, and Performance 33

3 Industry Analysis: The Fundamentals 59

4 Further Topics in Industry and Competitive Analysis 83

5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities 107

6 Organization Structure and Management Systems:
The Fundamentals of Strategy Implementation 131

PART III BUSINESS STRATEGY AND THE QUEST FOR
COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE 153

7 The Sources and Dimensions of Competitive Advantage 155

8 Industry Evolution and Strategic Change 189

9 Technology-Based Industries and the
Management of Innovation 219

PART IV CORPORATE STRATEGY 249

10 Vertical Integration and the Scope of the Firm 251

11 Global Strategy and the Multinational Corporation 269

12 Diversification Strategy 297

viii BRIEF CONTENTS

13 Implementing Corporate Strategy: Managing
the Multibusiness Firm 315

14 External Growth Strategies: Mergers, Acquisitions,
and Alliances 340

15 Current Trends in Strategic Management 360

CASES TO ACCOMPANY CONTEMPORARY STRATEGY
ANALYSIS, TENTH EDITION

Glossary 637
Index 643

Author Biography xiv
Preface to Tenth Edition xv

PART I INTRODUCTION 1

1 The Concept of Strategy 3

Introduction and Objectives 4
The Role of Strategy in Success 4
The Basic Framework for Strategy Analysis 9
A Brief History of Business Strategy 11
Strategy Today 14
How is Strategy Made? The Strategy Process 20
Strategic Management of Not-For-Profit Organizations 24
Summary 26
Self-Study Questions 28
Notes 28

PART II THE TOOLS OF STRATEGY ANALYSIS 31

2 Goals, Values, and Performance 33

Introduction and Objectives 34
Strategy as a Quest for Value 35
Profit, Cash Flow, and Enterprise Value 39
Putting Performance Analysis into Practice 42
Beyond Profit: Values and Corporate Social Responsibility 49
Beyond Profit: Strategy and Real Options 53
Summary 56
Self-Study Questions 57
Notes 57

3 Industry Analysis: The Fundamentals 59

Introduction and Objectives 60
From Environmental Analysis to Industry Analysis 60
Analyzing Industry Attractiveness 62
Applying Industry Analysis to Forecasting Industry Profitability 71
Using Industry Analysis to Develop Strategy 74
Defining Industries: Where to Draw the Boundaries 75
From Industry Attractiveness to Competitive Advantage:

Identifying Key Success Factors 77

C O N T E N T S

x CONTENTS

Summary 80
Self-Study Questions 81
Notes 81

4 Further Topics in Industry and Competitive Analysis 83

Introduction and Objectives 84
The Limits of Industry Analysis 84
Beyond the Five Forces: Complements, Ecosystems, and Business Models 86
Competitive Interaction: Game Theory and Competitor Analysis 91
Segmentation and Strategic Groups 98
Summary 103
Self-Study Questions 103
Notes 104

5 Analyzing Resources and Capabilities 107

Introduction and Objectives 108
The Role of Resources and Capabilities in Strategy Formulation 108
Identifying Resources and Capabilities 112
Appraising Resources and Capabilities 119
Developing Strategy Implications 123
Summary 128
Self-Study Questions 129
Notes 130

6 Organization Structure and Management Systems:
The Fundamentals of Strategy Implementation 131

Introduction and Objectives 132
Strategy Formulation and Strategy Implementation 133
The Fundamentals of Organizing: Specialization,

Cooperation, and Coordination 136
Developing Organizational Capability 139
Organization Design 142
Summary 150
Self-Study Questions 150
Notes 151

PART III BUSINESS STRATEGY AND THE QUEST
FOR COMPETITIVE ADVANTAGE 153

7 The Sources and Dimensions of Competitive Advantage 155

Introduction and Objectives 156
How Is Competitive Advantage Established? 156
How Is Competitive Advantage Sustained? 162
Cost Advantage 166
Differentiation Advantage 173
Can Firms Pursue Both Cost and Differentiation Advantage? 184

CONTENTS xi

Summary 185
Self-Study Questions 186
Notes 186

8 Industry Evolution and Strategic Change 189

Introduction and Objectives 190
The Industry Life Cycle 191
The Challenge of Organizational Adaptation and Strategic Change 198
Managing Strategic Change 204
Summary 215
Self-Study Questions 215
Notes 216

9 Technology-Based Industries and the
Management of Innovation 219

Introduction and Objectives 220
Competitive Advantage in Technology-Intensive Industries 221
Strategies to Exploit Innovation: How and When to Enter 227
Standards, Platforms, and Network Externalities 232
Implementing Technology Strategies: Internal and External

Sources of Innovation 238
Implementing Technology Strategies: Organizing for Innovation 242
Summary 245
Self-Study Questions 246
Notes 246

PART IV CORPORATE STRATEGY 249

10 Vertical Integration and the Scope of the Firm 251

Introduction and Objectives 252
Transaction Costs and the Scope of the Firm 252
The Benefits and Costs of Vertical Integration 256
Designing Vertical Relationships 263
Summary 266
Self-Study Questions 266
Notes 267

11 Global Strategy and the Multinational Corporation 269

Introduction and Objectives 270
Implications of International Competition for Industry Analysis 271
Analyzing Competitive Advantage in an International Context 273
Internationalization Decisions: Locating Production 276
Internationalization Decisions: Entering a Foreign Market 278
Multinational Strategies: Global Integration versus

National Differentiation 281
Implementing International Strategy: Organizing the

Multinational Corporation 287

xii CONTENTS

Summary 293
Self-Study Questions 294
Notes 295

12 Diversification Strategy 297

Introduction and Objectives 298
Motives for Diversification 299
Competitive Advantage from Diversification 303
Diversification and Performance 307
The Meaning of Relatedness in Diversification 309
Summary 311
Self-Study Questions 312
Notes 312

13 Implementing Corporate Strategy: Managing the Multibusiness
Firm 315

Introduction and Objectives 316
The Role of Corporate Management 316
Managing the Corporate Portfolio 317
Managing Linkages Across Businesses 319
Managing Individual Businesses 323
Managing Change in the Multibusiness Corporation 329
Governance of Multibusiness Corporations 333
Summary 337
Self-Study Questions 338
Notes 338

14 External Growth Strategies: Mergers, Acquisitions,
and Alliances 340

Introduction and Objectives 341
Mergers and Acquisitions 342
Strategic Alliances 351
Summary 357
Self-Study Questions 357
Notes 358

15 Current Trends in Strategic Management 360

Introduction 361
The New Environment of Business 361
New Directions in Strategic Thinking 365
Redesigning Organizations 369
The Changing Role of Managers 371
Summary 372
Notes 373

CONTENTS xiii

CASES TO ACCOMPANY CONTEMPORARY STRATEGY
ANALYSIS, TENTH EDITION

1 Tough Mudder Inc.: Building Leadership in Mud Runs 375

2 Kering SA: Probing the Performance Gap with LVMH 384

3 Pot of Gold? The US Legal Marijuana Industry 393

4 The US Airline Industry in 2018 403

5 The Lithium-Ion Battery Industry 415

6 Walmart Inc. in 2018: The World’s Biggest Retailer Faces
New Challenges 428

7 Harley-Davidson, Inc. in 2018 442

8 BP: Organizational Structure and Management Systems 455

9 Starbucks Corporation, March 2018 462

10 Eastman Kodak’s Quest for a Digital Future 475

11 The New York Times: Adapting to the Digital Revolution 492

12 Tesla: Disrupting the Auto Industry 503

13 Video Game Console Industry in 2018 515

14 Eni SpA: The Corporate Strategy of an International
Energy Major 527

15 Zara: Super-Fast Fashion 546

16 Manchester City: Building a Multinational Soccer Enterprise 554

17 Haier Group: Internationalization Strategy 566

18 The Virgin Group in 2018 577

19 Google Is Now Alphabet—But What’s the Corporate Strategy? 587

20 Restructuring General Electric 600

21 Walt Disney, 21st Century Fox, and the Challenge of New Media 617

22 W. L. Gore & Associates: Rethinking Management 629

Glossary 637
Index 643

AU T H O R B I O G R A P H Y

Robert M. Grant is Professor of Strategic Management at Bocconi University, Milan,
Italy and a Visiting Professor at Cass Business School, London. He was born in Bristol,
England and has taught at Georgetown University, London Business School, Univer-
sity of British Columbia, California Polytechnic, UCLA, Insead, and University of South
Africa. His business experience includes making tires (Firestone) and meat pies (Kraft
Foods) and strategy consulting at American Express, Eni, BP, and other companies.

Contemporary Strategy Analysis equips managers and students of management with
the concepts and frameworks needed to make better strategic decisions. My goal is
a strategy text that reflects the dynamism and intellectual rigor of this fast-developing
field of management and takes account of the strategy issues that companies face today.

Contemporary Strategy Analysis endeavors to be both rigorous and relevant. While
embodying the latest thinking in the strategy field, it aims to be accessible to students
from different backgrounds and with varying levels of experience. I achieve this acces-
sibility by combining clarity of exposition, concentration on the fundamentals of value
creation, and an emphasis on practicality.

This tenth edition maintains the book’s focus on the essential tasks of strategy: iden-
tifying the sources of superior business performance and formulating and implement-
ing a strategy that exploits these sources of superior performance. At the same time,
the content of the book has been revised to reflect recent developments in the business
environment and in strategy research.

Distinctive features of the tenth edition include:

● More explicit guidance on how to apply the tools of strategy to analyze strategic
situations and develop strategy recommendations. See, in particular: “Applying
Strategy Analysis” in Chapter 1, “Putting Performance Analysis into Practice”
in Chapter 2, “Using Industry Analysis to Develop Strategy” in Chapter 3, and
“Developing Strategy Implications” [from the analysis of resources and capabil-
ities] in Chapter 5.

● Increased emphasis on strategy making under conditions of technological
change—especially in digital markets where strategy analysis must take account
of complements, network externalities, platform-based competition, and the
application of innovative business models to complex business ecosystems (see
Chapters 4, 8, and 9).

● Integration of stakeholder interests and corporate social responsibility within a
view of the firm as an institution for creating value (Chapter 2).

● An updated approach to strategy implementation. While maintaining an
integrated approach to strategy formulation and strategy implementation,
Chapters 6, 8, and 13 offers a systematic approach to strategy execution that
the role of organizational capabilities and capability development in guid-
ing resource allocation, and the design of organizational structures and
management systems.

My thanks to my editorial and production team at Wiley, especially to Lise Johnson,
Judy Howarth, and S. Indirakumari; and to Mary Fogarty and Nitish Mohan for their

P R E FA C E T O
T E N T H E D I T I O N

xvi PREFACE TO TENTH EDITION

assistance. This tenth edition of Contemporary Strategy Analysis has benefitted hugely
from feedback and suggestions from users—both instructors and students. I thank you
and look forward to continuing my engagement with you. Please feel free to contact me at
[email protected]

Robert M. Grant

I
INTRODUCTION

1 The Concept of Strategy

1

Strategy is the great work of the organization. In situations of life or death, it is the Tao
of survival or extinction. Its study cannot be neglected.

—SUN TZU, THE ART OF WAR

To shoot a great score you need a clever strategy.

—RORY MCILROY, GOLF MONTHLY, MAY 19, 2011

Everybody has a plan until they get punched in the mouth.

—MIKE TYSON, FORMER WORLD HEAVYWEIGHT BOXING CHAMPION

The Concept of Strategy

◆ Introduction and Objectives

◆ The Role of Strategy in Success

◆ The Basic Framework for Strategy Analysis

● Strategic Fit

◆ A Brief History of Business Strategy

● Origins and Military Antecedents

● From Corporate Planning to Strategic Management

◆ Strategy Today

● What Is Strategy?

● Why Do Firms Need Strategy?

● Where Do We Find Strategy?

● Corporate and Business Strategy

● Describing Strategy

◆ How Is Strategy Made? The Strategy Process

● Design versus Emergence

● Applying Strategy Analysis

◆ Strategic Management of Not-For-Profit
Organizations

◆ Summary

◆ Self-Study Questions

◆ Notes

O U T L I N E

4 PART I INTRODUCTION

The Role of Strategy in Success

Strategy Capsules 1.1 and 1.2 describe the careers of two individuals, Queen Elizabeth
II and Lady Gaga, who have been outstandingly successful in leading their organiza-
tions. Although these two remarkable women operate within vastly different arenas,
can their success be attributed to any common factors?

For neither of them can success be attributed to overwhelmingly superior resources.
For all of Queen Elizabeth’s formal status as head of state, she has very little real power
and, in most respects, is a servant of the democratically elected British government.
Lady Gaga is clearly a creative and capable entertainer, but few would claim that
she entered the music business with outstanding talents as a vocalist, musician, or
songwriter.

Introduction and Objectives

Strategy is about achieving success. This chapter explains what strategy is and why it is important to
success, for both organizations and individuals. We will distinguish strategy from planning. Strategy is
not a detailed plan or program of instructions; it is a unifying theme that gives coherence and direction
to the actions and decisions of an individual or an organization.

The principal task of this chapter will be to introduce the basic framework for strategy analysis that
underlies this book. This framework comprises two components of strategy analysis: analysis of the
external environment of the firm (mainly industry analysis) and analysis of the internal environment
(primarily analysis of the firm’s resources and capabilities). We shall then examine what strategy is, how it
has developed over time, how to describe the strategy of a business enterprise, and how organizations
go about making strategy.

Since the purpose of strategy is to help us to win, we start by looking at the role of strategy in success.

By the time you have completed this chapter, you will be able to:

◆ Appreciate the contribution that strategy can make to successful performance and rec-
ognize the essential components of an effective strategy.

◆ Comprehend the basic framework of strategy analysis that underlies this book.

◆ Recognize how strategic management has evolved over the past 60 years.

◆ Identify and describe the strategy of a business enterprise.

◆ Understand how strategy is made within organizations.

◆ Recognize the distinctive features of strategic management among not-for-profit orga-
nizations.

CHAPTER 1 THE CONCEPT Of STRATEgy 5

Nor can their success be attributed either exclusively or primarily to luck. Both have
experienced difficulties and setbacks at different stages of their careers. Central to their
success, however, has been their ability to respond to events—whether positive or neg-
ative—with flexibility and clarity of direction.

My contention is that, common to both the 60-year successful reign of Queen Eliza-
beth II and the short but stellar career of Lady Gaga, is the presence of a soundly for-
mulated and effectively implemented strategy. While these strategies did not exist as
explicit plans, for both Queen Elizabeth and Lady Gaga we can discern a consistency
of direction based upon clear goals and an ability to bend circumstances toward their
desired outcomes.

Elizabeth Windsor’s strategy as queen of the UK and the Commonwealth countries
is apparent in the relationship she has created between herself and her people. As
queen she is figurehead for the nation, an embodiment of its stability and continuity, a
symbol of British family and cultural life, and an exemplar of service and professional
dedication.

Lady Gaga’s remarkable success during 2008–18 reflects a career strategy that uses
music as a gateway to celebrity status, which she has built by combining the generic
tools of star creation—shock value, fashion leadership, and media presence—with a
uniquely differentiated image that has captured the attention and loyalty of teenagers
and young adults throughout the world.

What do these two examples tell us about the characteristics of a strategy that are
conducive to success? In both stories, four common factors stand out (Figure 1.1):

● Goals that are consistent and long term: Both Queen Elizabeth and Lady
Gaga display a focused commitment to career goals that they have pursued
steadfastly.

● Profound understanding of the competitive environment: The ways in
which both Elizabeth II and Lady Gaga define their roles and pursue their
careers reveal a deep and insightful appreciation of the external environ-
ments in which they operate. Queen Elizabeth has been alert both to the
changing political environment in which the monarchy is situated and to the
mood and needs of the British people. Lady Gaga’s business model and stra-
tegic positioning show a keen awareness of the changing economics of the
music business, the marketing potential of social networking, and the needs
of Generation Y.

● Objective appraisal of resources: Both Queen Elizabeth and Lady Gaga have
been adept at recognizing and deploying the resources at their disposal, and
also building those resources—for the Queen, this has included her family, the
royal household, and the recipients of royal patronage; for Lady Gaga, it com-
prises the creative talents of her Haus of Gaga.

● Effective implementation: Without effective implementation, the best-laid strat-
egies are of little use. Critical to the success of Queen Elizabeth and Lady Gaga
has been their effectiveness coordinating and leading “ecosystems” of sup-
portive individuals and organizations.

These observations about the role of strategy in success can be made in relation
to most fields of human endeavor. Whether we look at warfare, chess, politics, sport,
or business, the success of individuals and organizations is seldom the outcome of a

6 PART I INTRODUCTION

purely random process. Nor is superiority in initial endowments of skills and resources
typically the determining factor. Strategies that build on these four elements almost
always play an influential role.

Look at the “high achievers” in any competitive area. Whether we review the
world’s political leaders, the CEOs of the Fortune 500, or our own circles of friends
and acquaintances, those who have achieved outstanding success in their careers
are seldom those who possessed the greatest innate abilities. Success has gone to
those who managed their careers most effectively, typically by combining these
four strategic factors. They are goal focused; their career goals have taken pri-
macy over the multitude of life’s other goals—friendship, love, leisure, knowledge,
spiritual fulfillment—which the majority of us spend most of our lives juggling and
reconciling. They know the environments within which they play and tend to be
fast learners in terms of recognizing the paths to advancement. They know them-
selves well in terms of both strengths and weaknesses. Finally, they implement

STRATEGY CAPSULE 1.1

Queen Elizabeth II and the House of Windsor

By late 2018, Elizabeth Windsor had been queen for 66

years—longer than any of her predecessors.

At her birth on April 21, 1926, 45 other countries were

hereditary monarchies. By 2018, the forces of democracy,

modernity, and reform had reduced these to 26—mostly

small autocracies such as Bahrain, Qatar, Oman, Kuwait,

Bhutan, and Lesotho. Monarchies had also survived in

Denmark, Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, and Bel-

gium, but these royal families had lost most of their

wealth and privileges.

By contrast, the British royal family retains con-

siderable wealth—the Queen’s personal net worth

is about $500 million—not including the $10 billion

worth of palaces and other real estate owned by the

nation but used by her and her family. Queen Eliza-

beth’s formal status is head of state of the UK and 15

other Commonwealth countries (including Canada and

Australia), head of the Church of England, and head of

the British armed forces. Yet none of these positions

confers any decision-making power—her influence

comes from the informal role she has established for

herself. According to her website, she “has a less formal

role as Head of Nation” where she “acts as a focus for

national identity, unity and pride; gives a sense of sta-

bility and continuity; officially recognises success and

excellence; and supports the ideal of voluntary service”

(www.royal.gov.uk).

How has Queen Elizabeth been able to retain not

just the formal position of the monarchy but also its

status, influence, and wealth despite so many chal-

lenges? These include wrenching social and political

changes and the trials of leading such a famously

dysfunctional family—including the failed marriages

of most of her children and the controversy that sur-

rounded the life and death of her daughter-in-law,

Diana, Princess of Wales.

At the heart of Elizabeth’s sustaining of the British

monarchy has been her single-minded devotion to what

she regards as her duties to the monarchy and to the

nation. In cultivating her role as leader of her nation, she

has preserved her political neutrality—even when she

has disagreed with her prime ministers (notably with

CHAPTER 1 THE CONCEPT Of STRATEgy 7

their career strategies with commitment, consistency, and determination. As the
management guru Peter Drucker observed: “we must learn how to be the CEO of
our own career.”1

There is a downside, however. Focusing on a single goal may lead to outstanding
success but may be matched by dismal failure in other areas of life. Many people who
have reached the pinnacles of their careers have led lives scarred by poor relationships
with friends and families and stunted personal development. These include Howard
Hughes and Jean Paul Getty in business, Richard Nixon and Joseph Stalin in politics,
Elvis Presley and Marilyn Monroe in entertainment, Tiger Woods and Boris Becker
in sport, and Bobby Fischer in chess. For most of us, personal fulfillment is likely to
require broad-based rather than narrowly focused goals.2

These same ingredients of successful strategies—clear goals, understanding the
competitive environment, resource appraisal, and effective implementation—form the
key components of our analysis of business strategy.

Margaret Thatcher’s “socially divisive” policies and Tony

Blair’s sending troops to Iraq and Afghanistan).

Through her outreach activities she promotes British

influence, British culture, and British values within the

wider world. She has made multiple visits to each of the

54 Commonwealth nations, including 27 to Canada and

16 to Australia.

The growing unacceptability of hereditary privilege

and the traditional British class system has required her

to reposition the royal family from being the leader of

the ruling class to embodying the nation as a whole. To

make her and her family more inclusive and less socially

stereotyped she has cultivated involvement with

popular culture, with ordinary people engaged in social

service and charitable work, and she has endorsed the

marriage of her grandsons William and Harry—the first

members of the royal family to marry outside the ranks

of the aristocracy.

Elizabeth has been adept at exploiting new media

for communicating both with her subjects and with a

wider global audience: initially through television, more

recently using the web, Twitter, and Facebook. Her press

and public relations staff comprises top professionals

who report to her private secretary.

While respecting tradition and protocol, she adapts

in the face of pressing circumstances. The death of her

daughter-in-law, Diana, created difficult tensions bet-

ween her responsibilities as mother and grandmother

and her need to show leadership to a grieving nation.

In responding to this crisis she recognized the need to

depart from established traditions.

Elizabeth has made effective use of the resources

available to her—especially the underlying desire of

the British people for continuity and their inherent

distrust of their political leaders. By positioning

herself above the political fray and emphasizing her

lineage—including the prominent public roles of her

mother and her children and grandchildren—she

reinforces the …

error: Content is protected !!