Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Leadership Book Presentation | Abc Paper

Throughout this course, you have been reading a leadership book you chose from the book list provided in Workshop One.  After reviewing both PowerPoint presentations introduced in Workshop Four, you will create a slide presentation.  This presentation will summarize the leadership principles you gained from your chosen book and apply those principles to effective nurse leadership.
Upon successful completion of the course material, you will be able to:

Summarize leadership principles and practices from a selected leadership book.


File: Creating a PowerPoint Presentation.pptx
File: Citing and Referencing Presentations.pptx


View the presentation: Creating a PowerPoint Presentation.
View the presentation: Citing and Referencing Presentations.
Choose a professional background design using the PowerPoint program that is part of Microsoft Office.
Create a presentation of 12 slides that include the following:

Title slide: Title of Presentation, Your Name, Course Number/Name, Date
Content slides: These 10 slides will summarize five leadership principles you gained from your leadership book and comprehensively apply each principle to a specific situation in the healthcare environment in which a nurse manager could apply the identified principle.
Reference slide with the correct APA reference of your chosen leadership book

Creative and appropriate use of clip art or images is required.
Use correct citations within the slide presentation for both content and images.

Citation and Reference Guidelines for PowerPoint Presentations
Created by Jeannie Short, MSN, RN
Indiana Wesleyan University
Post-licensure Program
© 2019


To guide students in the post-licensure nursing program in using a consistent format for professional slide presentations.

To provide a consistent approach for citing and referencing slide information and images that are aligned with APA guidelines as much as possible.
This presentation is created with the following goals in mind:


It is important to remember….
The American Psychological Association (APA)
manual (7th ed.) does not give specific
guidelines for citing and referencing content
on presentation slides.

However, professional writers agree that just as
it is important to give credit to original sources
in a paper, it is also important to do so in a
professional presentation.


We will begin by reviewing some existing guidelines that we currently use in our program.


The first slide should contain the same information that is included on a title page of a paper submitted in our program.
It should include the title of the presentation, author(s), faculty name, course name/number, and date.
The title slide should have all major words capitalized. It is suggested that title lines be larger font than other lines on the title slide.

The Title Slide


The following slide
shows an example
of a title slide that could
be used for a student
presentation in this program.


David: Courageous
Biblical Leader
Nancy Nurse
Faculty: Carol Bence
NUR 415: Leadership and Management in Nursing
Indiana Wesleyan University
August 1, 2019

APA citations and references on slides should be done just like an APA paper.
Quotes should include quotation marks, author surname(s), date of publication, and location of quoted content (page or page number) within the parenthetical or in-text citation.
Paraphrased content should include author surname(s) and publication date.
Title words are used in place of author surnames for non-authored sources.

Giving Credit to Authors


If a single source is used for a slide, the citation information can be included at the bottom of the slide. This is usually centered in smaller font size and placed in parentheses.

If more than one source is cited on a slide, include in-text citations for the slide information.

Giving Credit to Authors


Let’s look at
examples of slide citations
that follow these guidelines……


Dr. Neuman developed, taught, and refined a community mental health program for postmaster’s level nurses at UCLA.

She designed a conceptual model for nursing in 1970 as a response to a request from UCLA graduate students.

Her nursing model was published in 1972.
(Tomey & Alligood, 2006)
Slide Citation Example

This slide shows paraphrased information from one source.

Slide Citation Example
“System wellness is a condition where all subsystems are in balance and harmony with the whole of the client” (Reed, 1993, p. 7).

The total system needs are being met. The client is in a dynamic state of either wellness or illness, in varying degrees, at any given point in time (Tomey & Alligood, 2006).

This slide shows information cited from two different sources.

What should be considered when using pictures, images, and clipart in PowerPoint


Copyright is the exclusive
right to……
reproduce, or
sell intellectual property.

Ideas cannot be copyrighted, but the means of expressing them, can. Copyright gives the
copyright holder credit for the work, and the opportunity to profit from it. (American Psychological Association, 2017)

Creative Commons

Copyright laws state that “once any document, writing, image, or drawing, or sound recording or software is put into tangible form, it has an automatic copyright protection to the person who created it.” (U.S. Copyright Office, 2011)

Items may also be registered with the copyright office or patent office for additional protection.

Copyrighted Images


This simply means that images, photographs,
soundtracks, or graphics may be part of the public domain OR may not be used without permission from the creator or the people who have been sold the rights.

With this in mind, we must become aware of user license agreements, terms for use statements, copyright symbols and permission rights before copying material into slide presentations.
Copyrighted Images


When giving credit to a source, follow the specific wording the publisher
requires for the copyright statement. If
no wording is specified, follow APA’s standard formatting for citing intellectual property.

Copyright © 2010 Apple Inc. All rights reserved. Terms of Use. Privacy Policy.
These statements may be found at the bottom of the web page

This image is available for editorial and educational use only. Contact Customer Service to inquire about additional uses. This image is available for free use,
“as is”, with no warranty. This public domain photograph may not be used in materials, advertisements, products, or promotions that in any way suggest approval or endorsement of any people appearing in the photos.

Department of Defense guidelines for use

American Soldier Holds the Flag on Top of a Retiring Helicopter.
Click on image
(external hyperlink)
For terms of use details.
…or linked from the image.

Stock Photograph by Department of Defense Public Domain  
Image Number: 0420-0906-2918-5452

The doctrine of “fair use” permits limited use of copyrighted material without acquiring permission from the copyright holder. This doctrine is deliberately vague to better accommodate many kinds of intellectual property and many circumstances of use.

(American Psychological Association, 2017)
Fair Use

Fair use under U.S. law takes four things into consideration:

The purpose and character of the use of the copyrighted work, including whether such work is commercial or for nonprofit or educational purposes.
The nature of the copyrighted work.
The amount and substantiality of the portion used in relation to the work as a whole (for example, a 10-word quotation from a song lyric will be handled differently than the same number of words quoted from a journal article).
And finally, the effect of the use on the potential market for, or value of, the copyrighted work.

(American Psychological Association, 2017)

Under Fair Use law, faculty and students are allowed to use copyrighted material (photos, images, figures, graphs, etc…) in a slide presentation for educational purposes. For-profit or commercial purposes are not considered fair use. A citation must be provided that adheres to the credit guidelines or permission notice found with the cited material.

Fair Use

When looking for images or photographs for a presentation, it is best to consider sources that are not protected by copyright ( i.e. Creative Commons).

Government photographs, images, and other creations can not be copyrighted, and can be considered for fair use.

Material that is considered to be part of the public domain is either unable to be copyrighted, the copyright has expired, or it is impossible to know who the creator is.

Non-Copyright Protected Images


Inserting Images in PowerPoint Slides
It is always best practice to include a citation under all images, pictures, and charts that are used in a presentation.

This provides retrieval information for the image and allows you to credit the source.

References for cited images are only required when copyright status is not clear or permission-for-use clause indicates the need for a required citation for use.

Checking the image properties and Terms of Use is best academic practice.


Inserting Images in PowerPoint Slides
Clipart is no longer a part of the Microsoft Suite. When you want to insert an image, a Bing search engine takes you outside your software program to search on the Internet for an image. This external site, created by someone, may fall outside of the public domain and need both a citation and a reference entry.

Remember, even if the website is described as a “free clip art” site, you still need to provide an in-text citation and references for the image. See example on next slide. 


Inserting Images in PowerPoint Slides
Sleeping crooked [Graphic]. (2011). Retrieved October 2, 2019, from

(“Sleeping Crooked,” 2011)


It is not unusual for a graphic to be untitled.

You might do an image search for a person sitting at a computer. A group of images display and one is selected to use in your slide presentation. There is no title or date; only the URL is given where the image originally is stored. This would be an appropriate way to reference it on the reference slide. An example is shown on the next slide.
Inserting Images in PowerPoint Slides



Untitled image of a man at a computer [Graphic]. (n.d.). Retrieved October 2, 2019, from

Inserting Images in PowerPoint Slides

Use of Google Images
Google Images is a search for images. The search does not own images. Care must be taken to find the original owner of the image. In Google Images, there is a link to the right of the image that says “Visit Page.” Sometimes this link goes to a page that does not identify origination, creator, name or owner of image. If there isn’t enough information to cite an image, locate a more credible image.

More simply, trying to cite an image found on Google Images is the same as citing a Google for a website located using the Google search. Google finds items but does not own, have authority, create or hold the resource. It simply finds them unless the URL contains or the copyright is affiliated clearly with Google.


1- Search FLICKR using Creative Commons license to suit your project.
2- Search BING. They have a search that filters by license.
3- Search Creative Commons. Select “modify, adapt, or build upon.”
4- Search Wikimedia Commons.
5- Search United States Government websites. Many items are public domain and free to use.
The best strategy is to find and use credible images with licenses that allow for their use.

Image sites to use instead of Google Images:



It is still important to give credit to the creator of any image, whether copyrighted or not copyrighted.

Let’s consider what may be the best practice for citing various types of images in slide presentations…..


ClipArt from Creative Commons

Creative Commons
No reference entry on the reference slide is needed for non-copyrighted images
that are licensed under Creative Commons Inc.

Photograph from Internet Site
The above cited photograph would appear on the reference page as:
Sidewalk chalk sailboat [photo]. (n.d.). Retrieved October 29, 2010, from .jpg.html  

(“Sidewalk Chalk Sailboat,” n.d.)


Image from Public Domain

Lincoln Visual by

These images should be cited with the
recommended citation
or credit line. No entry on the reference page is necessary for material offered at public domain
or government websites.


Copyrighted Image from Internet
Used with permission from Curtis Newbold

Reference page listing:
Newbold, C. (2014, July 14). Can I use that picture? [Graphic Art]. Retrieved
January 5, 2017, from


Internet Image with External Hyperlink
Image courtesy of National Institutes of Health
This image is taken
from the NIH Image Bank.
The user policy at this
site appreciates credit
but requires no particular
credit line. This image
contains an external
hyperlink that allows the
viewer to be taken directly
to the website by simply clicking on the image in slideshow mode. This image would require a reference.

Personal Photographs

Image courtesy of Kelly E. Short. Used with permission.
This image would not require a reference, since it is a personal photo and
considered non-retrievable.

Use the title “References” on the reference slide(s).
Model the APA reference page with sources listed in alphabetical order.
Verify that all sources on the reference slide are associated with a slide citation.
All photographs and images that are copyrighted must be cited and listed on the reference slide.
Use the same left margin and hanging indentation rules for all reference entries.
Single spacing is permitted on reference slides.
Creating a Reference Slide for Your

Reed, K. S. (1993). Betty Neuman: The Neuman Systems Model. Newbury Park, CA:
Sage Publications.

Tomey, A. M., & Alligood, M. R. (2006). Nursing theorists and their work (6th ed.).
St. Louis, MO: Mosby.
American Psychological Association. (2017). The basics of copyright and permission
[Presentation]. Retrieved from APA Style Central website:
United States Copyright Office. (2011, December). Copyright law of the United States.
Retrieved January 5, 2017, from

Creative Presentation Guidelines
Created by Jeannie Short, MSN, RN

Indiana Wesleyan University
Post-licensure (RNBSN) Program


Learning Objectives
To identify characteristics of an effective presentation in the Post-licensure Nursing Program at IWU.
To select the appropriate format for delivering a presentation.
To design a group of slides and become familiar with toolbar items for the PowerPoint program.
To list elements that make a PowerPoint presentation consistent.
To use graphics, art and photos, and creative presentation techniques discriminately and effectively.

Selecting a Background Design
for PowerPoint Presentations
When using an LCD to project your presentation:
A blue/dark background is recommended
Dark colors are more soothing to the eye
Bright white is glaring and visually tiring

This is hard on the eyes….

This background is very bright….
Notice how the lettering gets lost on this bright background……

This is also considered hard on the old eyeballs…..

Creative Commons

Be Consistent
Let PowerPoint be your guide
Use the layout designs in PowerPoint
Use consistent colors and fonts throughout the presentation
Each content slide should have a heading.
Use consistent font size for all headings and capitalize major words in a slide heading.
Use consistent capitalization
Be consistent in punctuation
If you use a period after a bulleted point, continue that throughout the entire presentation

Select Readable Type Size
PowerPoint will automatically adjust font size depending on how many characters are on the page.
If you have too many elements on a page, PowerPoint will decrease the size of the font
Size 20 font is best for slide information
Try to center the words on the page
No need to use complete sentences

Font Type
Use a straight font (no curly feet)
Gill Sans

A straight font is more legible on both computer and projection screen.

Serif fonts are more legible in print
Times New Roman

Outline Formats Are Easy to Follow
Use bullets, not numbers
Bullets imply no significant order
They are easy to follow on a slide

Use numbers only to show rank or sequence
Open PowerPoint
Select design

Adjust Lettering to Discriminate or Emphasize
Make titles a larger type size than body elements (size 36-44 font)
Emphasize important statements or words with BOLD, italic, larger size or different fonts
Titles may be in a different color than body

Choose Colors Carefully
Color wheel can be your friend
Complement & contrast
Light color text on dark background
Consistent color throughout presentation

Microsoft clipart obtained from Microsoft Office Online

Use Solid Colors Instead of Fill Patterns on Charts
Patterns on bars or pie slices cause confusion

Solid colors convey a clear bold message

East 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr 20.399999999999999 27.4 90 20.399999999999999 West 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr 30.6 38.6 34.6 31.6 North 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr 4th Qtr 45.9 46.9 45 43.9

The first slide should contain the same information that is included on a title page:
Title of Presentation
Your Name
Faculty Name
Course Number/Name

Creating a Title Slide

David: Courageous
Biblical Leader
Nancy Nurse
Faculty: Carol Bence
NUR 415: Leadership and Management in Nursing
Indiana Wesleyan University
August 1, 2018

Use of Clipart
Add Clipart where appropriate
Use only to accentuate or illustrate
Animations should only be used to demonstrate a point
Use creative commons for images that are not copyrighted and can be cited without a reference (as shown)

Creative Commons

Can you Find the Fracture?

Click and See

This file is made available under the Creative Commons CC0 1.0 Universal Public Domain Dedication.

Pictures and Bitmaps

Pictures can also be used to illustrate or accentuate a point
Allow plenty of room around image borders
Image courtesy of Jean M. Short. Used with permission.

Use the title “References” on a reference slide(s).
Model a reference page with sources in alphabetical order.
Make sure all sources on the reference slide are associated with a slide citation.
Use the same left margin and hanging indent for reference entries.
Use consistent font size on the reference slide.
Single spacing may be used on all slides including the reference slide(s).

The Reference Slide

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