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Changes in Cardiovascular Endurance:
Purpose:
To observe changes in cardiorespiratory endurance over a 3-year span of preadolescence, noting any gender differences.
Aerobic capacity—the ability to perform prolonged moderate physical activity—is typically measured by maximal oxygen uptake, or V.O2max. In this lab, you will analyze children’s scores on a test of prolonged moderate activity—the Progressive Aerobic Cardiovascular Endurance Run (PACER), which is part of Fitnessgram, a comprehensive health-related fitness and activity assessment. The PACER is a test of aerobic capacity that is easy at the beginning and gets progressively harder. Children run back and forth between two lines set 22 yd (20 m) apart. After a starting signal, children must reach the other line before a beep sounds. They cannot turn to run back to the first line until that beep. The interval between beeps shortens after each minute. The number of laps, or trips between lines, is counted as the score. Participants continue until the second time they do not reach a line before a beep sounds.

Instructions

1. Table 1.1 provides PACER scores from five girls for each of 3 consecutive childhood years, then 2 teenage years. Using either a calculator or a computer program such as Excel, calculate the average score for the girls for each year.
2. Table 1.2 provides PACER scores from five boys for each of 3 consecutive childhood years, then 2 teenage years. Using either a calculator or a computer program such as Excel, calculate the average score for the boys for each year.
3. Design a graph and plot the girls’ PACER scores over the 5 years. Plot each individual’s scores, and plot the average score. Do the same on another graph for the boys’ PACER scores.
4. Complete the Lab Questions. Submit the answers to the questions with the data calculations and graphs.
5. This assignment is due on March 23, 2021 at 11:00 AM.

Table 1.1 Pacer scores for girls

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Girls’ PACER performance (laps)

Participant

Age 9

Age 10

Age 11

Age 13

Age 14

Girl 1

28

36

45

30

48

Girl 2

22

40

46

35

45

Girl 3

35

41

45

40

42

Girl 4

30

27

44

35

43

Girl 5

18

38

46

48

50

Group Average

Table 1.2 Pacer scores for boys

Year 1

Year 2

Year 3

Year 4

Year 5

Boys’ PACER performance (laps)

Participant

Age 9

Age 10

Age11

Age 13

Age 14

Boy 1

50

53

60

65

80

Boy 2

53

60

68

70

75

Boy 3

34

36

48

50

55

Boy 4

40

45

39

55

60

Boy 5

41

45

65

70

80

Group Average

Questions for Cardiovascular Endurance Test Results

Complete the data calculations and answer the following questions. You need to support your answers with rationale as presented in class or in the text.

1. Did the PACER scores improve for the boys and for the girls as the children aged? Which average scores demonstrate this trend? Did you expect these results? Why or why not?
2. Did your graph depict a linear performance or a variable performance? What was the difference between year 1 and year 2 for both boys and girls, respectively? Between year 2 and year 3? Between year 3 and 5? Is this change consistent with what you know about maturation and growth? Explain how this change supports maturation or does not support maturation and growth.
3. Compare the boys’ average with the girls’ average (both the actual scores and their respective trends with advancing age). Identify the similarities. Identify the differences between trends for each gender. Is this what you expected? Why or why not?
4. What system changes might alter cardiovascular performance? What physical growth or maturation measurements would be helpful in assessing whether these children are performing consistently with their size or maturation level? If you were the physical education teacher, youth sport coach, or working in a fitness center which programs activities for children, how would you use this information (system changes) and different measurements to adjust the goals set for your students? Choose one of the children. Design an activity which would be appropriate for this age. Give an example of a goal you would use in year 2. Give an example of how the goal and activity would change in year 4.
5. Did every child improve every year? If not, describe a case in which this did not happen. Give three reasons which might account for little or no improvement? What are examples of each of the categories (include sub categories if there are any) of constraints which might be factors for little or no improvement?

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