Chat with us, powered by LiveChat HRM635 Week 3 Discussion | Abc Paper
+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

Unit 3: Discussion
No unread replies.No replies.

Introduction 
The purpose of unit discussion is to have an open dialogue that helps to expand your understanding of the course material as well as demonstrate your critical thinking abilities. While less formal than unit assignments, your posts should be supported with scholarly research. Participation throughout the assigned unit is encouraged so that you can participate in the give and take of a natural dialogue.
Unit Learning Outcomes

ULO 3.1 Develop a training needs analysis including task analysis, personal analysis, organization analysis.
ULO 3.2 Evaluate the different methods and sources for performing a needs analysis.
ULO 3.3 Evaluate how to determine the content of a training program.
ULO 3.4 Evaluate relevant scholarly research and synthesize research to complete required assignments.

Directions
Initial Post
Conduct scholarly research to provide a detailed response to one of the questions listed below. Provide a minimum of two (2) thoughtful, peer replies made by your classmates or the instructor. Review rubric for expectations.
 Analyze the reasons why organizations do no always conduct a needs analysis and what a trainer might do to overcome needs analysis obstacles. Assess the pros/cons of designing and implementing a training program without conducting a needs analysis?

PowerPoint Presentation for
Managing Performance through Training and Development

Adapted by
Alan Saks
University of Toronto

Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-1

1

Chapter 3
The Needs Analysis Process
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-2

2

Learning Outcomes
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
Define “needs analysis” and describe the needs analysis process
Explain how to conduct an organizational, task, and person analysis as well as a cognitive task analysis and a team task analysis
Describe how to determine solutions to performance problems and when training is the best solution for a performance problem
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-3

3

Learning Outcomes
Compare and contrast different methods and sources for conducting a needs analysis
Describe the obstacles to conducting a needs analysis and how to conduct a rapid needs analysis
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-4

4

Introduction
Needs analysis is the first critical step of the ISD process
Determines the nature of the problem and whether training is the best solution
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-5

A needs analysis is performed to determine the difference or gap between the way things are and the way things should be
5

Needs Analysis
A process to identify gaps or deficiencies in employee and organizational performance
A need is a gap between current and desired results
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-6

Needs analysis, also known as needs assessment, is the cornerstone and foundation of T&D
Needs analysis is the process to identify gaps or deficiencies in individual, group, or organizational performance
Needs = required results – current results
6

The Needs Analysis Process
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-7

The process starts with an “itch” or problem
If the performance problem is important, stakeholders are consulted and a needs analysis is conducted
Three levels of needs analysis: organizational, task analysis, and person analysis
The process concludes with important outcomes

7

Steps in the Needs Analysis Process
Step one: A concern
Step two: Importance
Step three: Consult stakeholders
Step four: Data collection

Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-8

Step 1: A concern—referred to as an itch or pressure point, something that causes managers to notice it; for example, noticing that customers are being treated rudely or recognizing a change in the external environment, such as new legislation
Step 2: Importance—how central is the concern to the effectiveness of the organization and what are the cost implications of the problem
Step 3: Consult stakeholders—these are the key players in the organization who have a vested interest in the process and outcomes
Step 4: Data collection—documentation of the concern from three levels of analysis (organization, task, and person/employee)

8

Needs Analysis Outcomes
Needs analysis determines:
If T&D is a good solution
Where training is needed in the organization
What type of training is required
Who should receive training
Helps to write training objectives
Assists in designing training programs

Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-9

Needs analysis becomes the cornerstone of the T&D process due to the many outcomes described here
Needs analysis helps to determine the best solution to performance problems and how to proceed if training is a part of the solution
9

Needs Analysis: Levels
Organizational
Task
Cognitive task analysis
Team task analysis
Person
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-10

Each level of needs analysis will be described, including how to conduct an organizational, task, and person needs analysis
10

Organizational Analysis: Components
Strategic alignment
Strategic training and development
Environment
Compliance training
Resource analysis
Organizational context
Training transfer climate
Learning culture
Continuous learning culture
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-11

Strategic alignment—the alignment of an organization’s training needs and programs with an organization’s strategy and objectives
Environment—environment is dynamic and uncertain and can include new government regulations, competitive and social concerns, new technologies, recessions, trade agreements, and many more
Resource analysis—determining the resources available in the organization that might be required to design and implement T&D programs
Organizational context—includes the organization’s climate or attitudes of employees toward work, supervision, and company goals, policies, and procedures
– Training transfer climate—characteristics in the work environment that can either facilitate or inhibit the application of training on the job
– Continuous learning culture—the extent to which members of an organization believe that the knowledge and skill acquisition are a part of their job responsibilities and that learning is an important part of work life in the organization

11

Task Analysis
The process of obtaining information about a job by determining the tasks and activities involved and the KSAs required to perform the task
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-12

Consists of a description of the activities or work operations performed on a job and the conditions under which these activities are performed
Reveals the tasks required for the person to perform a job and the knowledge, skills, and abilities required to perform the tasks successfully
12

Task Analysis
There are six steps in a task analysis:
Identify target jobs
Obtain a job description
Develop rating scales (importance, difficulty, frequency)
Survey a sample of incumbents
Analyze and interpret information
Provide feedback on the results
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-13

Identify target jobs—which jobs are contributing to the performance gap or have a performance gap
Obtain a job description—the statement of tasks, duties, and responsibilities of a job (if not updated within the last year, consult with the manager and employees in the position to obtain a current listing of tasks and qualifications)
Develop rating scales (importance, difficult, frequency)—it is important to rate the importance of each task, its difficulty, and how often it is performed
Survey a sample of incumbents—job incumbents, supervisors, and subject-matter experts must provide ratings of task importance, difficulty, and frequency
Analyze and interpret information—comparisons between groups may reveal important information such as differences between senior employees and newer employees
Provide feedback on the results—provides employees an opportunity to discuss strengths and weaknesses and propose solutions to problems

13

Cognitive Task Analysis
A set of procedures that focuses on understanding the mental and cognitive processes and skills required for performing a job
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-14

The focus is on the mental and cognitive aspects of a job vs. observable behaviours, such as typing or driving
Describes mental and cognitive activities that are not directly observable such as decision making or problem solving
Very useful in jobs requiring an extensive knowledge base, that involve complex judgments in dynamic and uncertain environment, and that have high-stakes outcomes
14

Team Task Analysis
An analysis of tasks as well as the team-based competencies (knowledge, skills, and attitudes) associated with the tasks
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-15

An assessment of team-based competencies; includes things such as how to communicate, interact, and coordinate tasks effectively with team members
The main objective is to identify the key team competencies required for the tasks of the job, which will be used to write training objectives and to design a training program
15

Person Analysis
The process of studying employee behaviour and performance to determine whether performance meets work standards:
Define the desired performance
Determine the gap between desired and actual performance
Identify the obstacles to effective performance
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-16

Focuses on the person performing a job and helps to determine who needs training and whether they are ready for training

Define the desired performance—establish performance standards
Determine the gap between desired and actual performance—compare the standard level of performance and each employee’s performance (performance appraisals, work samples, observations, self-assessments of competencies, and formal tests)
Identify the obstacles to effective performance—if there is a gap between standards and performance, it is necessary to determine the reason for the gap (deficiencies in execution or KSAs; workers may not know the standard, not receive adequate feedback, or not be rewarded for meeting standards)

16

Barriers to Effective Performance
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-17

Important to recognize that not all barriers to performance suggest a training solution (some are related to motivation and work environment)
The solution to performance problems will not always be training

17

Determining Solutions to Performance Problems
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-18
First, we consider some basic solutions or quick fixes
Managers need to develop contingency management programs that reward employees for good performance
The next step is to consider whether there is a genuine skill deficiency

Important to recognize that not all barriers to performance suggest a training solution (some are related to motivation and work environment)
The solution to performance problems will not always be training

18

Determining Solutions to Performance Problems
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-19
If there exists a genuine skill deficiency and the person does not have the potential to change, then replacing the person might be the only solution
If the person does have the potential to change, then consider training as a potential solution

Important to recognize that not all barriers to performance suggest a training solution (some are related to motivation and work environment)
The solution to performance problems will not always be training

19

Training Solution Checklist
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-20

Training is the best solution to performance problems when the conditions described in Table 3.3 exist
Review The Trainer’s Notebook 3.2 on page 98

20

Performance Problems and Training
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-21

Training is the best solution to performance problems when the conditions described in Table 3.3 exist
Review The Trainer’s Notebook 3.2 on page 98
21

Needs Analysis Methods
Observation
Questionnaires
Key consultation
Print media
Interviews

Group discussion
Tests
Records, reports
Work samples
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-22

This list provides a good overview of the types of needs analysis methods commonly used in T&D
Review each needs analysis method, including each method’s advantages and disadvantages shown in Table 3.4 (pages 100–103)
22

Needs Analysis Sources
Employees (including self-assessment)
Managers
Human resource staff
Subject-matter experts
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-23

Employees, managers, HR staff, subject-matter experts
Some retail outlets assess performance through the use of professional shoppers
Some employees rate their own performance and indicate their training needs through self-assessment
The best approach to needs analysis is to use multiple approaches and different sources
23

Obstacles to Needs Analysis
Trainers are not rewarded
Managers prefer action over analysis
Managers believe they can identify training needs (analysis wastes time)
Managers may have their own agenda
Time and cost can be a constraint
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-24

Many organizations do not conduct a thorough or complete needs analysis as there are several obstacles that may get in the way
24

Obstacles to Needs Analysis
Conducting some data collection will almost always result in a better training program
Persuade management of the importance of conducting a needs analysis
Ensure that it is included in the training budget
Conduct a rapid needs analysis
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-25

Many organizations do not conduct a thorough or complete needs analysis as there are several obstacles that may get in the way
25

Summary
Discussed the needs analysis process and three levels of needs analysis—organizational, task, and person analysis—as well as cognitive and team task analysis
Described how to determine solutions to performance problems
Described needs analysis methods and sources
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-26

26

Summary
Considered obstacles and how to overcome them
Demonstrated needs analysis is critical for determining the nature of performance problems and whether training is the right solution
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-27

27

Key Terms
Cognitive task analysis
Competency
Compliance training
Contingency management
Continuous learning culture
Job description
Learning culture
Need
Needs analysis
Organizational analysis
Organizational climate
Person analysis
Rapid needs analysis
Resource analysis
Strategic training and development (ST&D)
Task analysis
Team task analysis
Training transfer climate
Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
3-28

28

error: Content is protected !!