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Unit 2: Discussion
Introduction 
The purpose of unit discussion is to have an open dialogue that helps to expand your understanding of the course material as well as demonstrate your critical thinking abilities. While less formal than unit assignments, your posts should be supported with scholarly research. Participation throughout the assigned unit is encouraged so that you can participate in the give and take of a natural dialogue.
Unit Learning Outcomes
· ULO 2.1 Explain knowledge management and explain how knowledge is acquired, interpreted, disseminated, and retained in organizations.
· ULO 2.2 Explain the principles of a learning organization and the four key dimensions that are critical for creating and sustaining a learning organization and define a learning culture.
· ULO 2.3 Describe adult learning theory and its implications for training and development.
· ULO 2.5 Evaluate relevant scholarly research and synthesize research to complete required assignments.
Directions
Initial Post
Conduct scholarly research to provide a detailed response to one of the questions listed below. Review rubric for expectations.
Question:
Given the importance of motivation for learning and other training outcomes, what should trainers do to ensure that trainees are motivated to learn? What should managers do? Analyze the pros and cons of different approaches.

PowerPoint Presentation for
Managing Performance through Training and Development

Adapted by
Alan Saks
University of Toronto

Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
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Chapter 2
Learning and Motivation
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Learning Outcomes
After reading this chapter, you should be able to:
Define learning and workplace learning and describe how individuals learn through formal and informal learning methods
Describe how to classify learning outcomes
Explain how people learn using the three stages of learning and resource allocation theory
Use Kolb’s learning model and the VARK model to distinguish and describe the different ways people learn and the implications for training
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Learning Outcomes
Compare and contrast the different theories of learning and discuss their implications for training
Describe the six core principles of andragogy and their implications for training programs
Explain goal-setting theory and why training motivation is important for learning and training effectiveness
Describe the model of training effectiveness
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Introduction
Understanding adult learning theory, how people learn, and how their motivation for learning is integral to a training program’s success
Organizations need to be strategic in their approach to achieve organizational effectiveness
Training is the means to accomplish the goal of learning

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What Is Learning?
Learning is the process of:
Acquiring knowledge and skills
Change in individual behaviour as a result of some experience (formal or informal)
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Learning occurs when one experiences a new way of acting, thinking, or feeling; finds the new pattern gratifying or useful; and incorporates it into the repertoire of behaviours
When the behaviour is learned, it can be thought of as a skill
The most important issue is whether trainees have learned what was covered in a training program

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Workplace Learning
Workplace learning:
Process of acquiring job-related knowledge and skills through both formal training programs and informal social interactions among employees
About 70 percent of learning comes from on-the-job experiences and assignments; 20 percent from relationships and interactions with others; and 10 percent from formal learning activities and events
This breakdown is known as the 70-20-10 model
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Workplace Learning
Informal learning:
Learning that occurs naturally as part of work and is not planned or designed by the organization
Formal learning:
Learning that is structured and planned by the organization
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Formal and Informal Learning
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Informal Learning
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Learning Outcomes:
Gagné’s Model

Verbal information
Intellectual skills
Cognitive strategies (cognitive outcomes)
Motor skills (skill-based outcomes)
Attitudes (affective outcomes)
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Verbal information—facts, knowledge, principles, and packages of information also known as “declarative knowledge”; for example, the five disciplines of a learning organization
Intellectual skills—concepts, rules, and procedures that are known as “procedural knowledge”; for example, how to drive a car
Cognitive strategies (cognitive outcomes)—the application of information and techniques; for example, how and when to use knowledge and information
Motor skills (skill-based outcomes)—the coordination and execution of physical movements that involve muscles; for example, learning how to swim
Attitudes (affective outcomes)—preferences and internal states associated with one’s beliefs and feelings; for example, belief in the value of postsecondary education; note that attitudes are believed to be the most difficult domain to influence through training

Learning Outcomes:
Kraiger and Colleagues’ Model

Cognitive domain: verbal knowledge, knowledge organization, cognitive strategies
Skill-based outcomes: compilation, automaticity
Affective outcomes: attitudinal and motivational
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Cognitive domain—quantity and type of knowledge; includes verbal knowledge, knowledge organization, and cognitive strategies
Skill-based outcomes—motor skills/technical; includes compilation, proceduralization, composition (fast and fluid performance), and automaticity (ability to perform without conscious monitoring)
Affective outcomes—attitudinal (internal state that affects behaviour) and motivational (goal orientation, self-efficacy, goals)

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Implications of Learning Outcomes on Training and Development
A training program can focus on one or more learning outcomes
The extent to which a training program has an effect on any of the outcomes depends in part on the training objectives
Training methods are more or less effective depending on the learning outcome a program was designed to influence

Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
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A training program can focus on one or more learning outcomes
Training methods are more or less effective depending on the learning outcome a program was designed to influence

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Implications of Learning Outcomes on Training and Development
Different instructional events and conditions of learning are required for each of the learning outcomes
The more the learning outcomes are interrelated, changes in one might result in changes in another
Learning generally occurs over a period of time and progresses through a series of stages

Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
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Different instructional events and conditions of learning are required for each of the learning outcomes
The more the learning outcomes are interrelated, changes in one might result in changes in another
Learning generally occurs over a period of time and progresses through a series of stages

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Adaptive Character of Thought Theory:
Stages of Learning
Declarative

Knowledge compilation

Procedural knowledge
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ACT theory, developed by John Anderson and called the adaptive character of thought theory (ACT), describes the learning process as it unfolds across three stages: declarative, knowledge compilation, and procedural knowledge or proceduralization

Adaptive Character of Thought Theory:
Stages of Learning
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Declarative knowledge involves learning knowledge, facts, and information; for example, when learning to drive a car all your attention is focused on the task of learning
Knowledge compilation involves integrating tasks into sequences to simplify and streamline; for example, during this stage of learning to drive a car, the process that involved many separate tasks is now integrated into one smooth sequence (get into the car, put on the seatbelt, adjust the seat and mirror, and start the car); performance is still somewhat fragmented and piecemeal
Procedural knowledge involves mastery of the task and performance becomes automatic and habitual; for example, we can now perform the driving task without giving much thought to what we are doing; it is possible to perform the task of driving while listening to music or talking to others

Implications of ACT Theory on T&D
Recognizes that learning takes place in stages (declarative knowledge, compilation, procedural knowledge)
Indicates that different types of learning take place at different stages
The effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning and performance depend on the stage of learning

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Resource Allocation Theory
Suggests that individuals possess limited cognitive resources that can be used to learn a new task
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The amount of cognitive resources an individual can allocate to learning a new task varies across the three stages of learning, as identified in ACT theory
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Resource Allocation Theory
Performance is determined by:
Individual differences in attention and cognitive resources
The requirements of the task (task complexity)
Self-regulatory activities (self-monitoring and self-evaluation)

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Recognizes that learning takes place in stages (declarative knowledge, compilation, proceduralization)
Indicates that different types of learning take place at different stages
The effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning and performance depend on the stage of learning
NOTE: research has shown that goal setting can be harmful to learning during the early stages of learning when all of one’s attention and cognitive resources must be devoted to learning the task; resource allocation theory states that during the early stages of learning, cognitive ability is more important than motivational strategies. When goals are set in the later stages of learning, they can have a positive effect on performance.

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Learning Styles
Individuals differ in how they prefer to learn and how they learn best
These differences in learning preferences are known as learning styles
Two models of learning styles:
Kolb’s experiential learning theory
Fleming’s VARK model

Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
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Recognizes that learning takes place in stages (declarative knowledge, compilation, proceduralization)
Indicates that different types of learning take place at different stages
The effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning and performance depend on the stage of learning
NOTE: research has shown that goal-setting can be harmful to learning during the early stages of learning when all of one’s attention and cognitive resources must be devoted to learning the task; resource allocation theory states that during the early stages of learning, cognitive ability is more important than motivational strategies. When goals are set in the later stages of learning, they can have a positive effect on performance.

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Kolb’s Learning Styles
The way in which an individual gathers information and processes and evaluates it during the learning process
The combination of learning modes (the way a person gathers information and the way a person processes information) results in a learning style

Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
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Recognizes that learning takes place in stages (declarative knowledge, compilation, proceduralization)
Indicates that different types of learning take place at different stages
The effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning and performance depend on the stage of learning
NOTE: research has shown that goal setting can be harmful to learning during the early stages of learning when all of one’s attention and cognitive resources must be devoted to learning the task; resource allocation theory states that during the early stages of learning, cognitive ability is more important than motivational strategies. When goals are set in the later stages of learning, they can have a positive effect on performance.

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Kolb’s Learning Styles
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Learning modes involve the way people gather information:
CE = concrete experience
AC = abstract conceptualization
Learning modes also involve the way people process or evaluate information:
AC = active experimentation
RO = reflective observation
The combination of these learning modes results in a learning style
Converging: combines abstract conceptualization and active experimentation (thinking and doing); problem solving and practical application of ideas and theories
Diverging: combines concrete experience and reflective observation (feeling and watching); view situations from different points of view and generate alternative courses of action
Assimilation: combines abstract conceptualization and reflective observation (thinking and watching); process and integrate information/ideas into logical forms and theoretical models
Accommodating: combines concrete experience and active experimentation (feeling and doing); prefer hands-on experience and like to be involved in new experiences

Kolb’s Learning Styles
People can learn best by using all four styles
Kolb identifies a “learning cycle” in which people use all four modes of learning in a sequence
Learning is most effective when all four steps in the learning cycle are part of the learning experience
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Fleming’s Learning Styles
An individual’s preferred ways of gathering, organizing, and thinking about information
There are four different perceptual preferences for how people prefer to learn
V = Visual
A = Auditory/auditory
R = Read/write
K = Kinesthetic

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Recognizes that learning takes place in stages (declarative knowledge, compilation, proceduralization)
Indicates that different types of learning take place at different stages
The effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning and performance depend on the stage of learning
NOTE: research has shown that goal setting can be harmful to learning during the early stages of learning when all of one’s attention and cognitive resources must be devoted to learning the task; resource allocation theory states that during the early stages of learning, cognitive ability is more important than motivational strategies. When goals are set in the later stages of learning, they can have a positive effect on performance.

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Fleming’s Learning Styles
It is possible to have a combination of two, three, or four learning style preferences
While some people might have one primary learning style, others might have multiple learning styles or what is known as a multimodal learning style
There is some evidence that students perform better in courses in which the learning activities match their learning style

Copyright © 2019 by Nelson Education Ltd.
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Recognizes that learning takes place in stages (declarative knowledge, compilation, proceduralization)
Indicates that different types of learning take place at different stages
The effects of both cognitive ability and motivational interventions on learning and performance depend on the stage of learning
NOTE: research has shown that goal setting can be harmful to learning during the early stages of learning when all of one’s attention and cognitive resources must be devoted to learning the task; resource allocation theory states that during the early stages of learning, cognitive ability is more important than motivational strategies. When goals are set in the later stages of learning, they can have a positive effect on performance.

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Implications of Learning Style Theory for Training
People differ in the way they prefer to learn
Motivation and success in training depends on matching training (design, content, methods) with learning style
Design training programs to appeal to people’s different learning styles
Programs should be designed with each learning mode as part of a sequence of learning experiences

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Recognizes that people differ in the way they prefer to learn
Success and comfort in training depends on how training approach and learning style match
Design training programs to appeal to people’s different learning styles
Programs should be designed with each learning mode as part of a sequence of learning experiences

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Implications of Learning Style Theory for Training
Instructors should use a multimodal approach that includes activities and methods that will appeal to the visual (e.g., diagrams, charts), aural/auditory (e.g., lectures, discussions), read/write (e.g., readings, handouts), and kinesthetic (e.g., demonstrations, practice) learning styles

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Recognizes that people differ in the way they prefer to learn
Success and comfort in training depends on how training approach and learning style match
Design training programs to appeal to people’s different learning styles
Programs should be designed with each learning mode as part of a sequence of learning experiences

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Learning Theories
Conditioning theory
B. Social cognitive theory

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The learning process and how people learn is explained in different theories of learning
These are important because they help explain how people learn and how to design training programs to maximize learning and retention
Two theories will be explained that have important implications for training

Learning Theories:
Conditioning Theory
A. Conditioning theory (B.F. Skinner)
Learning is a result of reward and punishment contingencies that follow a response to a stimulus
A stimulus or cue would be followed by a response, which is then reinforced
Strengthens the likelihood that response will occur again and that learning will result

Note that both forms of reinforcement will increase or maintain behaviour
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Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour in response to stimulus
This is the behaviourist school of psychology that states learning is a result of reward and punishment
Negative reinforcement is not the same as punishment (the application of a negative consequence in response to undesirable behaviour)

Learning Theories:
Conditioning Theory
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Learning is a relatively permanent change in behaviour in response to stimulus
This is the behaviourist school of psychology that states learning is a result of reward and punishment
Negative reinforcement is not the same as punishment (the application of a negative consequence in response to undesirable behaviour)

Learning Theories:
Conditioning Theory
The conditioning process involves:
Shaping: the reinforcement of each step in a process until it is mastered
Chaining: the reinforcement of entire sequences of a task
Generalization: the conditioned response that occurs in circumstances different from those during learning
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The conditioning process involves linking desired behaviour to pleasurable consequences through shaping, chaining, and generalization
Shaping (reinforcement until mastery) is extremely important for complex behaviour
Chaining (reinforcement of entire sequences) is to learn to combine each step and perform the entire response
Generalization (conditioned response) is when the learner can perform the task in a variety of situations

Learning Theories:
Social Cognitive Theory
B. Social cognitive theory involves social learning and states that people learn by:
Observing the behaviour of others
Making choices about different courses of action to pursue
Managing their own behaviour in the process of learning
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Social learning involves learning though the interactions with others
This can be formal or informal

People learn by:
– Observing the behaviour of others
– Making choices about different courses of action to pursue
– Managing their own behaviour in the process of learning
We observe the actions of others and make note of reinforcing or punishing outcomes
We imitate what we have observed and expect certain consequences
Research suggests that people observe and reproduce the actions and attitudes of others

Learning Theories:
Social Cognitive Theory
Social cognitive theory has 3 key components:
Observation
Self-efficacy
Self-regulation

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Learning Theories:
Social Cognitive Theory

Observation: learning by observing the actions of others and the consequences with 4 key critical elements:
Attention
Retention
Reproduction
Reinforcement
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Four key critical elements:
Attention—learners must attend to the behaviour (be aware of the skills that are observable)
Retention—learners must remember what they have observed and encode it in their own repertoire so they can recall the skills
Reproduction—they must try out the skill through practice and rehearsal
Reinforcement—if the reproduction results in positive outcomes (reinforcement) it is likely to continue

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Learning Theories:
Social Cognitive Theory

2. Self-efficacy: judgments people have about their ability to successfully perform a specific task
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Self-efficacy has a strong effect on people’s attitudes, emotions, and behaviour
Influences the activities people choose to perform, the amount of effort and persistence devoted to a task, their affective and stress reactions, and performance outcomes

Self-Efficacy
Self-efficacy is influenced by 4 sources of information (in order of importance):
Task performance outcomes
Observation
Verbal persuasion and social influence
Physiological/emotional state
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Learning Theories:
Social Cognitive Theory

Self-regulation: involves managing one’s own behaviour.
Self-regulated learning involves the use of affective, cognitive, and behavioural processes during a learning experience to reach a desired level of achievement

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Self-regulated learning involves the use of affective, cognitive, and behavioural processes during a learning experience to reach a desired level of achievement
Self-regulation training leads to improvements in skill acquisition, maintenance, and performance

Learning Theories:
Social Cognitive Theory
Self-regulation is a goal-oriented cyclical process that involves:
Observing and monitoring one’s own behaviour (self-monitoring) as well as the behaviour of others
Setting performance goals (goal setting)
Practising and rehearsing new and desired behaviours
Keeping track of one’s progress and performance
Comparing performance with one’s goals (self-evaluation)
Rewarding oneself for goal achievement (self-reinforcement

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Implications of Conditioning Theory and Social Cognitive Theory for Training
Conditioning
Trainees should be encouraged and reinforced throughout the training process and training will be more effective
Training tasks should be broken into meaningful parts so that trainees can be reinforced as they learn each part (shaping), are reinforced for performing the entire task during training (chaining), and are reinforced for on-the-job performance (generalization)

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Trainees should be encouraged and reinforced throughout the training process and training will be more effective

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Implications of Conditioning Theory and Social Cognitive Theory for Training

Social cognitive
Importance of training design in improving learning
Consider use of behaviour modelling, increasing self-efficacy, and teaching trainees about self-regulation in design of training
Self-regulation prompts

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Importance of training design in improving learning
Consider use of behaviour modelling, increasing self-efficacy, and teaching trainees about self-regulation in design of training

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Adult Learning Theory
Andragogy:
An adult-oriented approach to learning that takes into account the differences between adult and child learners

Pedagogy:
The traditional approach to learning used to educate children and youth
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Adults differ from children; adults have a great deal of knowledge and work-related experience they bring into a training program
They like to know why they are learning something, the practical implications of what they are learning, and its relevance to their problems and needs
Adults are problem-centred in their approach to learning and prefer to be self-directed
They are motivated to learn by extrinsic and intrinsic factors
Andragogy is a term coined by adult learning theorist Malcolm Knowles and suggests an adult-oriented approach to learning (vs. pedagogy, the traditional approach of learning used to educate children and youth)

Adult Learning Theory
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Andragogy
Six core assumptions about the adult learner:
Need to know
Learner’s self-concept
Learner’s experience
Readiness to learn
Orientation to learning
Motivation to learn

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Learning goal orientation: most concerned about developing competence by acquiring new skills and mastering new tasks
Prove performance goal orientation: concerned about favourable judgments about their performance and demonstrating their capabilities
Avoid performance goal orientation: concerned about avoiding negative judgments from others about their performance
Learning goals: process-oriented goals that focus on the learning process
Performance goals: outcome-oriented goals that focus attention on the achievement of specific performance outcomes

Implications of Adult Learning Theory for Training
Influences every stage of learning process
Importance of design and instruction as a joint collaborative process between trainer and trainees
Adults should have input into the training they need and will receive (objectives, topics, content) as well as how it is designed (training methods)
Learning should be collaborative and supportive

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Impacts at every stage of learning process
Importance of design and instruction as a joint process between the trainer and trainees
Adults should have input into the training they will receive (objectives, topics, content) as well as how it is designed (training methods)
Learning should be collaborative and supportive

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Implications of Adult Learning Theory for Training
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Impacts at every stage of learning process
Importance of design and instruction as a joint process between the trainer and trainees
Adults should have input into the training they will receive (objectives, topics, content) as well as how it is designed (training methods)
Learning should be collaborative and supportive

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Motivation
The degree of persistent effort that one directs toward a goal
Motivation has to do with effort, or how hard one works; persistence, or the extent to which one keeps at a task; and direction, or the extent to which one applies effort and persistence toward a meaningful goal

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Learning goal orientation: most concerned about developing competence by acquiring new skills and mastering new tasks
Prove performance goal orientation: concerned about favourable judgments about their performance and demonstrating their capabilities
Avoid performance goal orientation: concerned about avoiding negative judgments from others about their performance
Learning goals: process-oriented goals that focus on the learning process
Performance goals: outcome-oriented goals that focus attention on the achievement of specific performance outcomes

Goal-Setting Theory
A goal is the object or aim of an action
Goals are motivational as they direct people’s efforts and lead to the development of strategies
They require:
Specificity
Challenge
Feedback
Commitment

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Learning goal orientation: most concerned about developing competence by acquiring new skills and mastering new tasks
Prove performance goal orientation: concerned about favourable judgments about their performance and demonstrating their capabilities
Avoid performance goal orientation: concerned about avoiding negative judgments from others about their performance
Learning goals: process-oriented goals that focus on the learning process
Performance goals: outcome-oriented goals that focus attention on the achievement of specific performance outcomes

Proximal and Distal Goals
A distal goal is a long-term or end goal, such as achieving a certain level of sales performance
A proximal goal is a short-term goal or sub-goal that is instrumental for achieving a distal goal
Proximal goals are especially important for complex tasks

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Learning goal orientation: most concerned about developing competence by acquiring new skills and mastering new tasks
Prove performance goal orientation: concerned about favourable judgments about their performance and demonstrating their capabilities
Avoid performance goal orientation: concerned about avoiding negative judgments from others about their performance
Learning goals: process-oriented goals that focus on the learning process
Performance goals: outcome-oriented goals that focus attention on the …

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