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Using the Module 5 in the textbook, On this activity you will work with your team members to create a comprehensive assessment calendar; and then prepare a PowerPoint presentation to share the calendar and assessment plan with appropriate staff members.  If your school or district has an assessment calendar you may use that as a starting point, but you need to ensure that all the required components are included.  If you have never seen an assessment calendar there are several you can find via the internet.
PART 1:  CALENDAR
Step 1:   Each person must find an example of a different, specific school or district assessment calendar.  It should be shared in the discussion forum along with 2-3 key ideas you notice in the calendar.
Step 2:  The team and team leader should review all the assessment calendar formats and decide on a format for the team task.
Step 3:   The team should decide if you are producing a calendar for one grade level, multiple grade levels, a whole school or district.  You need to develop a calendar for a minimum of a single grade level.  If your school / district calendar has a sample calendar you may use that as a starting point.  If your school/district has a calendar with multiple grade levels you may use these, but it will be more challenging to include all the required components.  Classroom formative and summative assessments must be included as well as professional development time as needed to prepare to administer the tests and to analyze the results.
CALENDARS MUST INCLUDE:
1.Standardized testing dates.  For example, state testing dates, periodic assessments such as MAP, STAR, KRAL, Iowas/COGAT, etc.
2.Before and after standardized testing dates there should be specific professional development time allocated to review testing procedures before the administration of the tests and professional development time after to evaluate the results of the tests.
3.Common grade level assessment dates.  There should also be time allocated for preparation and review of results noted.
4.A common rubric that will be used a few times throughout the year to assess a specific learning objective.
5.A final, teacher-created summative, performance-based assessment.  This could be a capstone project, a Problem-based learning (PBL) project, a student portfolio, an end of year student project, etc.
6.A date or dates should be included that introduce assessments and then explain results to parents.
PART 2:  POWERPOINT PRESENTATION
Once the calendar has been developed a PowerPoint presentation needs to be created that will explain the assessment calendar to staff.  Assume that your calendar is being presented at the beginning of the school year and you will be talking to individuals totally new to the teaching profession as well as experienced staff.
I encourage you to review suggestions for making an effective PowerPoint presentation; such as including only a few words per slide, putting supplementary information in the notes section, etc.
For this assignment, please firstly set a timeline for team members as final due date is April 11. The example has uploaded. Then please build a PPT as part two.

The Framework for Intentional and Targeted Teaching®—or FIT
Teaching®—is a research-based, field-tested, and experience-
honed process that captures the essentials of the best educational
environments. In contrast to restrictive pedagogical prescriptions
or formulas, FIT Teaching empowers teachers to adapt the most
effective planning, instructional, and assessment practices to
their particular context in order to move their students’ learning
from where it is now to where it should be. To be a FIT Teacher is
to make a heroic commitment to learning—not just to the learning
of every student in the classroom, but to the professional learning
necessary to grow, inspire, and lead.

What is FIT Teaching?
What is a FIT Teacher?

This book introduces the powerful FIT Teaching Tool, which
harnesses the FIT Teaching approach and presents a
detailed continuum of growth and leadership. It’s a close-up
look at what intentional and targeting teaching is and what
successful teachers do to

• Plan with purpose
• Cultivate a learning climate
• Instruct with intention
• Assess with a system
• Impact student learning

Designed to foster discussion among educators about what
they are doing in the classroom, the FIT Teaching Tool can
be used by teachers for self-assessment; by peers for
collegial feedback in professional learning communities; by
instructional coaches to focus on the skills teachers need
both onstage and off; and by school leaders to highlight their
teachers’ strengths and value. Join authors Douglas Fisher,
Nancy Frey, and Stefani Arzonetti Hite for an examination of
what makes great teachers great, and see how educators
at all grade levels and all levels of experience are taking
intentional steps toward enhanced professional practice.

$29.95

STUDY
GUIDE
ONLINE

Browse excerpts from ASCD books: ww.ascd.org/books

Many ASCD members received this book as
a member benefit upon its initial release.

Learn more at: www.ascd.org/memberbooks

EDUCATION

Alexandria, VA USA

INTENTIONAL AND TARGETED
TEACHING

FISHER | FREY
| HITE

Targeted Teaching
A Framework for Teacher

Growth and Leadership

Intentional and

T H E F I T T E A C H I N G A P P R O A C H

Douglas FISHER | Nancy FREY | Stefani Arzonetti HITE

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Targeted Teaching
Intentional and

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www.ascd.org/memberbooks

Douglas FISHER | Nancy FREY | Stefani Arzonetti HITE

Targeted Teaching
A Framework for Teacher

Growth and Leadership

Intentional and

Alexandria, VA USA

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http://www.ascd.org

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Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Fisher, Douglas, 1965-, author. | Frey, Nancy, 1959- author. | Hite,
Stefani Arzonetti, author.
Title: Intentional and targeted teaching : a framework for teacher growth and
leadership / Douglas Fisher, Nancy Frey, Stefani Arzonetti Hite.
Description: Alexandria, VA : ASCD, 2016. | Includes bibliographical
references and index.
Identifi ers: LCCN 2015049292 (print) | LCCN 2016010993 (ebook) | ISBN
9781416621119 (pbk.) | ISBN 9781416621133 (ebook) | ISBN 9781416621133
(PDF)
Subjects: LCSH: Eff ective teaching. | Classroom environment. | Educational
leadership.
Classifi cation: LCC LB1025.3 .F575 2016 (print) | LCC LB1025.3 (ebook) | DDC
371.102–dc23
LC record available at http://lccn.loc.gov/2015049292

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Introduction: Becoming a FIT Teacher ……………………………………………… 1

1. Planning with Purpose …………………………………………………………………..15

2. Cultivating a Learning Climate ……………………………………………………..45

3. Instructing with Intention ……………………………………………………………..81

4. Assessing with a System ………………………………………………………………115

5. Impacting Student Learning ………………………………………………………..142

Conclusion: Taking Up the Challenge …………………………………………….165

Acknowledgments ……………………………………………………………………………166

Appendix: Th e FIT Teaching Growth and Leadership Tool ………….167

References ………………………………………………………………………………………..181

Index …………………………………………………………………………………………………185

About the Authors …………………………………………………………………………..190

Targeted Teaching
Intentional and
A Framework for Teacher

Growth and Leadership

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1

Introduction
Becoming a FIT Teacher

Recently we hosted a guest speaker for an evening gathering at a local hotel. It
was a great event, with stimulating conversations about teaching and learning
and hors d’oeuvres for the 160 or so people who attended. Th e speaker had used
Nancy’s computer and cables to share his stories, and one of the participants
helped pack up at the end of the evening so that we could thank our guest.
When we got to the car, Nancy realized that she did not have the connector that
allows her computer to communicate with the projector. We went back inside
the hotel to retrieve it.

When we entered the room, we saw the catering manager, the banquet
manager, and a person wearing a chef ’s hat standing at the food table. One was
literally counting tomatoes that had been left on a tray, while another counted
fruit sticks. Th ey stopped when they saw us, but Nancy had to ask what they
were doing.

Th e banquet manager responded fi rst, saying, “We always do a postmortem
after an event like yours. We have diff erent things we look for so that we can
make changes for future events. I’m looking at the places trash was left and the
number of remaining utensils. See right here, there’s a pile of trash. Th at tells
me that we need to put some sort of receptacle there, because that’s where
people are going to put their trash. We didn’t make it obvious enough where
they could dispose of things.”

Th e catering manager added, “We’re also counting leftover food. We look
for trends and then make decisions about how much of what to off er groups.
Your group didn’t eat much of the desserts, but they demolished the hummus

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2 | Intentional and Targeted Teaching

and fi nger sandwiches. Th ere are more than 20 tomatoes left. We used them
for decoration, but obviously there were too many, and we don’t need to waste
money on extra tomatoes in the future.”

Th e person in the chef ’s hat chimed in, “It’s all part of our self-evaluation
process. We learn from every group we host, and we make it better for the next
time. If people leave hungry, they tell other people, who then don’t want to
have their events here. When our boss comes around, he wants to see a clean
environment, so this little pile of trash is a problem, and we can address it the
next time we set up the room this way. And see the utensils? Th ere aren’t any
forks left, so some people probably had to use a spoon instead. Th at’s a problem.
Th e silverware plan wasn’t matched very well to the type of food served. We will
defi nitely fi x that for next time.”

We looked at one another, silently making the same connections. Although
not having a fork for one’s hors d’oeuvres isn’t too big a problem in the larger
scheme of things, not reaching students is. Not getting them to grasp algebra is.
Not engaging them in the subject matter you love is. Not preparing them to be
critical thinkers and strong citizens is. You get the point.

Th e three people in this hotel spent time collecting and analyzing data
because they wanted to improve the experience their guests had. Th e same
should be true for teachers, coaches, and administrators. We certainly care
as much about our students’ learning as the catering manager, the banquet
manager, and the chef care about the food they serve and the environment they
create. But do we routinely invest in the same kind of analysis of our practices,
situations, and outcomes? Are these based in the same kind of collaborative
and dialogic problem solving? Th e hotel team’s process wasn’t about fi lling out
forms; it was about communicating with one another to reach solutions. But, as
we saw, what made this possible was a conversation and a set of processes that
helped the hotel staff resolve missteps and identify successes.

In this spirit, we embarked on defi ning the centerpiece of this book: the
FIT Teaching Growth and Leadership Tool, which harnesses the FIT Teaching
process and presents a detailed continuum of teacher growth and leadership.
We off er it to teachers as guidance they can use to self-assess and chart a path
forward. We also share this with those who support and lead teachers as a way
to highlight the eff ectiveness of teachers’ work and ground conversations in
helping teachers achieve even greater success. After all, teachers are lifelong
learners, dedicated to continually improving their craft.

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Introduction | 3

What Is FIT Teaching?
Th e Framework for Intentional and Targeted Teaching®, or FIT Teaching®, is a
process that evolved over the past 15 years. It began as a way of identifying the
fundamental components that make up a productive educational environment
for facilitating literacy development. We wanted to know: What did the most
eff ective teachers do in order to promote successful learning? How did they
plan, how did they instruct, how did they assess? What specifi c practices could
we isolate as making the most diff erence?

Let’s start with the words we selected as the name for this approach.
Th e fi rst is framework. We do not believe that exceedingly scripted or highly
prescriptive approaches are the way to go, because they de-skill the teacher
and assume that a curriculum can teach. Th ey typically leave little room for
diff erentiation or adjustment to the learning environment as teachers march
through lessons one after another. We remember meeting a teacher who got
a red card from her principal for not being on the same page in the textbook
as the other 4th grade teachers. As she explained it, “We have fi delity checks
every few days, and if we’re behind, we’re in trouble. But I had to stop because
the lesson was confusing and my students didn’t get it. Th ere just isn’t much
wiggle room, and the district requires us to move on, even if some students
don’t get it.”

Having said that, we’re not advocating for an “anything goes” approach
to curriculum and instruction. We do believe that teachers should have
a framework for their lessons. As you will read in the chapters ahead, we
are interested in instructional approaches that shift the responsibility for
learning from teachers to students in an ongoing and iterative cycle. Th e
framework we propose includes clear learning intentions, teacher modeling,
guided instruction, collaborative learning, and independent learning tasks.
Importantly, teachers mix and match these components in an instructional
sequence designed to impact learning. Th ey may model several times in a given
lesson, or they may start a lesson with collaborative learning and then move on
to modeling. Th e order doesn’t matter, but the components of the framework
do. We see a diff erence between teachers internalizing a framework for their
lessons and them being told what to teach every minute of the day.

Intentional is the second word in this model, and we selected it because
teachers’ actions matter. Th e planning teachers do as well as the instructional

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4 | Intentional and Targeted Teaching

decisions they make should be purposeful. High-quality instruction starts with
knowing what students need to learn, then moves on to creating a wide range of
learning situations in which students can engage. Intentional says that teachers
are deliberate and that learning is expected.

Targeted, the third word, is there to stress that teachers must consider the
current performance of students as well as how these students respond to the
instruction. Th ere is no reason to teach things students already know. At the same
time, it’s important to monitor students’ learning to determine if the class needs
to accelerate or slow down. When teaching is targeted, that means teachers are
working to close the gap between what students already know and what they are
expected to learn.

Two of us (Doug and Nancy) are teachers and leaders, researchers and
practitioners, and we subjected the components of FIT Teaching to the best test
we know: teaching them in our own classrooms and collaborating with talented
colleagues in their classrooms. Th e framework developed further through trial
and revision. As we learned more about what worked and what didn’t, we
honed and improved the components until they defi ned a coherent process
that includes the essentials of eff ective teaching while avoiding a restrictive
prescription or formula. After all, a healthy organization must be free to adapt
processes to meet the needs of its particular context.

As FIT Teaching evolved, it became clear that these components can
have great value to both individual teachers and teams of teachers, particularly
in organizations that are inundated with multiple (and often competing)
initiatives. Th e overarching philosophy of FIT Teaching is that it is not “one
more thing” for teachers and leaders to do but a method for creating coherence
and improvements to the complex jobs that schools undertake. Together,
purposeful planning, a well-designed assessment system, and strong instruction
make a diff erence.

Overall, FIT Teaching is a process that organizes and refi nes the hard work
of professional growth that school leaders and dedicated teachers already seek.
We all know that we can get better, no matter how good our lessons already
are. As we have noted many times in our careers, there is no perfect lesson,
and there is no one “right way” to teach. (Th ere are wrong ways, but not one
right way.) Th e FIT Teaching model is designed to keep student learning central
while ensuring that teachers are empowered to make professional decisions in
the best interests of their students.

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Introduction | 5

The Five Interrelated Components of the FIT Teaching Tool
Th e FIT Teaching Growth and Leadership Tool—the FIT Teaching Tool, for
short—is based on decades of research and practice. It relies on a thoughtful
and intentional implementation of the work of teachers and of students, as well
as the collaborative work necessary for deep learning. Th e instructional process
it captures represents the tangible interactions of teachers and students in their
learning environment, whether it consists of brick-and-mortar classrooms, a
blend of virtual and face-to-face instruction, or instruction off ered completely
online. Irrespective of the instructional mode, teachers should plan lessons,
create a productive learning climate, provide learning opportunities, assess
student performance, and monitor student learning. Th ese fi ve components are
illustrated in Figure I.1.

Th e fi rst component, Planning with Purpose, highlights the work that
teachers do to prepare lessons as they analyze the standards for their grade level
or content area, identify learning targets and success criteria, and sequence
learning. Cultivating a Learning Climate involves creating a welcoming
classroom that also is effi cient and allows for students’ continuous growth and

Figure I.1 | Components of the FIT Teaching Tool

1. Planning
with Purpose

2. Cultivating
a Learning

Climate

3. Instructing
with Intention

4. Assessing
with a System

5. Impacting
Student Learning

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6 | Intentional and Targeted Teaching

development. Instructing with Intention highlights the experiences that students
have in the classroom as they learn. Th e fourth component, Assessing with a
System, targets the formative assessment work that teachers do as they collect
information about students’ understandings and then take action to close any
gaps that exist. And fi nally, the fi fth component, Impacting Student Learning,
focuses on the short- and long-term outcomes from the instruction—namely,
whether or not students learned anything.

We include evidence of student learning in the FIT Teaching Tool because
we think that it is important to recognize that teachers’ eff orts should have an
infl uence on students’ understanding. As we explain further in Chapter 5, with
our tool, “student performance” is not limited to results on standardized or
standards-based formal assessments. It includes evidence of student learning
in the short term—as might be the case when a group of kindergarten students
have mastered naming all of the letters in the alphabet or students in a chemistry
class can successfully balance molar equations—and evidence of student
learning in the long term, which could be measured on formal assessments,
including state exams or other end-of-course and end-of-semester measures.
Teachers can assess students’ long-term learning in a number of ways, so this
aspect needs to be negotiated, at either the state, district, or site level, depending
on where the FIT Teaching Tool is used. In other words, we should not be afraid
of considering student performance—the impact or outcomes of teaching—as
we learn and grow as teachers.

The Structure of the FIT Teaching Tool
Th e full FIT Teaching Tool is presented in this book’s Appendix and is also
available online at www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/books/FITTeachingTool.pdf. Each
of the tool’s fi ve components includes a number of factors (see Figure I.2), and
most of the factors include a number of ingredients. For components 1–4, we
provide ingredient-level rubrics for teachers and others to use to identify areas
of success and areas for growth. Component 5’s rubrics focus on its two factors.

Th e preceding paragraph makes a point so important that we need to say
it again. Th is tool is for identifying areas of success as well as areas for growth.
If we, as teachers, don’t highlight our successes, how will our administrators
and colleagues know we’re capable of providing mentoring support to our
colleagues? If we don’t seek frequent feedback, how will we know where to
focus our future learning?

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http://www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/books/FITTeachingTool.pdf

Introduction | 7

Using any tool for infrequent classroom observations and a once-a-year
summative conference is woefully inadequate and will not likely provide the
growth opportunities all teachers deserve. Imagine if we all ran our classrooms
in a similar fashion, with a single hour of testing serving as the only guide we
had to assess an entire year of learning. Yet, too often, the results of a single
observation are the only information school leaders rely on to evaluate teachers,
or worse, student performance on a summative test is the only thing used to
determine the success of the teacher.

The Purpose of the FIT Teaching Tool
Th e FIT Teaching Tool is designed to foster discussion among educators
about our practices and to strengthen those practices through collaborative
interactions. It is meant to be used by teachers for self-assessment, by teachers’
trusted peers for collegial feedback, and by instructional coaches and leaders to
develop the skills teachers need both onstage and off stage. Formative assessment
of teachers has a signifi cant eff ect on student learning at .90. It’s high on the
list of Hattie’s (2012) meta-analysis of eff ective practices, yet it is frequently
overlooked in favor of other classroom teaching practices and behaviors.

We have identifi ed key behaviors and practices that, collectively, are
manageable without being reductive. After all, no one is going to use these criteria
routinely if the instrument is too cumbersome. Many of the criteria require

Figure I.2 | Components and Factors of the FIT Teaching Tool

1. Planning with Purpose
1.1: Learning Intentions and Progressions
1.2: Evidence of Learning
1.3: Meaningful Learning

2. Cultivating a Learning Climate
2.1: Welcoming
2.2: Growth Producing
2.3: Effi cient

3. Instructing with Intention
3.1: Focused Instruction
3.2: Guided Instruction
3.3: Collaborative Learning

4. Assessing with a System
4.1: Assessment to Support Learners
4.2: Assessment to Monitor Learning
4.3: Assessment to Inform Learning

5. Impacting Student Learning
5.1: Short-Term Evidence of Learning
5.2: Long-Term Evidence of Learning

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8 | Intentional and Targeted Teaching

conversation and discussion. You won’t fi nd a checklist, as we have learned that
checking off boxes limits the focus to obvious items while overlooking those
that are better determined through discussion, such as what the teacher noticed
about a specifi c student or how the teacher planned to modify learning for
another student.

We think that the more often educators use and reference the tool—during
professional learning, for coaching conversations, and in professional learning
communities (PLCs)—the more likely it is that teachers will internalize the items
within the tool and continue to grow and develop as professional educators. For
example, a group of 4th grade teachers focused on one ingredient, checking for
understanding. Th ey read various articles and information on websites to fi nd
ideas, and they planned opportunities to integrate checking for understanding
in their classrooms. Th ey also observed one another and provided feedback
about the ways in which checks for understanding were used. Over time,
their repertoires of strategies and techniques for checking for understanding
expanded signifi cantly, and their principal noted that they had developed a level
of expertise in this area.

Assumptions Underlying the FIT Teaching Tool
Th e most important assumption we made in creating the FIT Teaching Tool
relates to the rating scale. Th e tool has four levels, with a Not Applicable option
for those rare situations in which an indicator (which we call an ingredient)
could not possibly be demonstrated by a given teacher. For example, one
ingredient focuses on the classroom environment. Teachers who travel from
room to room each period may not have an opportunity to infl uence the
physical aspects of the various rooms they use throughout the day. Having
said that, we realize that some traveling teachers have created amazing spaces
for their students’ learning. For example, a fi tness teacher we know brings her
own supplies, including mats, battery-operated candles, and lavender spray, to
create a conducive environment in any room she uses. We caution users of the
FIT Teaching Tool to reserve Not Applicable for very rare situations.

Th e four growth levels are as follows:
• Not Yet Apparent—Th is level is indicated only when there is a

complete lack of evidence that the teacher has considered a necessary
aspect of instruction and incorporated it into practice. Th is level should be

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Introduction | 9

diff erentiated from Not Applicable, which indicates the very rare situation
when the ingredient is not expected as part of the teacher’s practice.

• Developing—Most typical with teachers new to the profession or
new to a grade level, subject area, or curriculum implementation, this level
is marked by inconsistency of practice. It is selected when it is clear that a
teacher understands the criteria, but implementation is falling short of a
desired level of success.

• Teaching—Most typical with teachers experienced in implementing
criteria with fi delity, this level is selected when it is clear that the teacher’s
practice is intentional, solidly implemented, and resulting in success
for students.

• Leading—Most typical with seasoned teachers, this level is selected
for an individual who has embraced a particular aspect of the criterion
at its highest level and is providing support, guidance, and resources for
colleagues. Leading teachers develop learning opportunities for adults
that respect individual levels of personal practice and focus on extending
collective growth. Teachers at this level …
Dear Team B member,

Welcome to module 4, I am team leader and looking forward to working with everyone. Our project focuses on student self-assessment. Self-assessment is a crucial part of the process for students to become life-long learners. The following are dates and times for each step along. Please let me know if you have any concerns.

Here is the timeline for the team project:

Check- in: Due by Wednesday, March 10th @ 9 AM

Please check in with the timeline and the proposed progression of the project. To get a good start on this assignment, I suggest you look ahead at the readings. The article by Andrade, Students as the Definitive Force of Formative Assessment: Academic Self-Assessment and the Self-Regulation of Learning, page 18 figure 2, demonstrates an effective example of student self-assessment.

Step 1: Due by Friday, March 12th @ 9 AM

Do some research as soon as you can on student monitoring. Please find an article, template, example, tools, or anything similar that can be used by teachers and students to monitor learning. Post the title of your article and include a link.

(Make sure that your article is not focusing on student behavior.)

Step 2: Due by Sunday, March 14th @ 9 AM

Please share 4-5 key ideas about your resource specifically about its efficacy in student self-assessment. The focus the recourse needs to be on student monitoring of how their own learning is progressing forward. Also, keep in mind your ideas about your recourse needs to encompass the concepts of: “Where am I going”, “How am I doing?”, “Where to Next?”, “What are you learning?”, “Why are you learning this?”, and “How do you know when you’ve learned it?”

(I suggest you read each team members’ postings and familiarize yourself with each recourse.)

Step 3A: Due by Monday 15th @ 9 PM

The goal at this point to have discussion to create/modify/ adopt a from/ adopt a handout that teachers and students can use for self-assessment. For the first discussion, comment on the following questions as it relates to the recourse and concepts ideas:

“Where am I going?”

“How am I doing?”

“Where to Next?”

“What are you learning?”

“Why are you learning this?”

“How do you know when you’ve learned it?”

Step 3B: Due by Tuesday, March 16 @ 9 PM

Review each resource considering how a student can visually chart and map their progress; discuss and comment on each team members’ recourse accordingly.

Step 3C: Due by Wednesday, March 17th @ 9 PM (Happy Saint Patrick’s Day )

Have a discussion whether the recourses have place for teacher feedback based on student goals, progress, and student strategies.

Step 3D: Thursday, March 18th @ 9 PM

Have a discussion to design a well-formatted, professional, template handout. I will have a google doc available for everyone to input any information to required/needed to create the handout.

By Saturday, March 20th @ 9 PM

All writings in the discussion finishing up. Project finalizing

I am hoping to have the project ready for submission by Sunday, 21 March @ 9 PM

Again, please let me know if you have any concerns

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