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Formulate the Conclusion section of your selected topic.  
This section should contain conclusive statements and recommendations for future research.

Topic: Ways to prevent the development of cancer.

 
Conclusion for the Research Paper
When writing your Conclusion section, please keep in mind the following elements:
·         Conclusion: short and general; length: 5-7% of the paper
·         Broad statement that sum up the most important insights/findings of the research:
–          Do not introduce new data/interpretation
·         Answer your Research Question
·         Synthesize Results into a one, final takeaway
·         Summarize & reflect on the research
–          Why you took that specific approach
–          What you expected to find
–          How well the Results matched expectations
·         Provide recommendation for future research:
–          Do not undermine your own work
·         Emphasize your contributions:
–          Problem Statement: how your research helps solve the problem
–          Literature Review: how you addressed a gap in knowledge

Ways to Prevent the Development of Cancer

“Hook: Over 1.5 million new cases are diagnosed and over half a million individuals die from cancer yearly (LoConte et al., 2018). Therefore, there is a need to stop the prevalence of this dreaded ailment.

Background Information: Cancer is a medical condition characterized by the limitless multiplication of abnormal cells in any body part. There are over two hundred types of cancerous growths that can affect human beings. However, the most common tumors affect the breasts, prostate glands, lungs, or cervix. Studies indicate that the ailment has several causes, including exposure to substances with high toxicity levels, radioactive materials, or pathogens (LoConte et al., 2018). The genetic condition of individuals is also a significant determinant of whether they contract the disease. Many researchers have carried out investigative studies and compiled information that indicates that individuals can protect themselves from developing tumors through lifestyle transformation (LoConte et al., 2018). The studies suggest that many actions and omissions of humanity increase their susceptibility to cancerous growth (LoConte et al., 2018). Avoiding the risky factors can aid in preventing vulnerability to the condition.

Problem Statement: Cancer is a very deadly disease that attacks various parts of the human body. Over the decades, the disease seems to be spreading at a very alerting rate. Recent statistics show that more than five hundred thousand individuals succumb to the deadly disease yearly. The cause of the spread could be mainly the change of lifestyle due to civilization and capitalism witnessed in Africa and the western world respectively.

Research Questions: How does eating a balanced diet reduce the risk of developing cancerous growth?

Thesis Statement: Proper nutrition and regular screening are the best methods of preventing the spread of cancer. Proper nutrition is the most natural way of developing immunity against the disease. Research scientists have been working on the methods of preventing the spread of cancer and finding immunity against the disease and the above have been found applicable. Furthermore, cancer can be treatable if it is discovered at its early stages.

Hypothesis: It is believed that good nutrition and other factors can prevent the growth of cancer cells

Literature Review: This section provides a review of different sources relating to the topic of study with the aim of determining the gaps that have not been researched on by other scholars. In determining the relevance of the sources to the prevention of cancer, the relationship between nutrition and cancer either in causal perspectives and in protective perspectives will be assessed. Through a thorough analysis of the sources, a research gap will be determined through which this study aims at focusing on.
There is a high correlation between nutrition practices and colorectal cancer where nutrition plays a big part in both the protective role and in causal role. There are various nutrients that are associated with causing colon cancer which includes fat from red and processed meats. In preventing the development of the cancer, dietary rich in fruits and vegetables are recommended (Thanikachalam, 2019).
Nutrition practices have a great role in the development of breast cancer where dietary patterns featured with high intake of unrefined vegetables, cereals, nuts improve survival after diagnosis of breast cancer. Also, low consumption of red meat and saturated fatty acids increases chances of survival after diagnosis of the cancer (De, 2019).
Selenium can be used in preventing the development of cancer in the first place but when supplemented with other nutrients such as Vitamin E. Selenium is a mineral which plays an important role in the protection of the body against damages resulted from oxidative stress. It is also important in metabolism and thyroid function. Selenium is found in foods such as seafoods, Brazil nuts and organ meats in large quantities or other foods such as cereals and muscle meats though in smaller quantities (Vinceti, 2018).
Based in an assessment conducted by the use of the Scored-Generated Subjective Global Assessment (PG-SGA), nutritional practice of an individual has a direct relationship to their risk of developing a given type of cancer. Diets which cause nutritional conditions such as obesity increases the risk of the obese individuals in developing many types of cancer (Jager-Wittenaar, 2017).
Nutritional practices such as the use of the traditional Mediterranean diet is linked with improvement of life quality and longevity through reduction of the risk of most common pathologies such as cancer (Battino, 2019).
Based on the literature review of the existing research work on the relationship between nutrition and the development of cancer, it is evident that there is a need to establish the role of a complete balanced diet on the development of cancer. The study will determine the link between the two variables in the process of supporting ways in which cancer can be prevented through a nutrition practice of using a balanced diet.

Method: For this study, a meta-analysis method was used to synthesize different results found among several studies. The researcher accessed the virtual library through the MRU home page. Then, the researcher accessed the EBSCOhost databases. Once there, the researcher selected both MEDLINE Complete and CINAHL Complete. An advanced search was performed, for which the following keywords were entered in the Boolean search: “cancer”, “prevent”, and “development” The search was limited to references providing full text, peer reviewed, and abstract available. A limitation was set for research published within the last five years, from 2016 to 2021. Additionally, researcher consulted only articles published in English. The search provided access to a total of 605 articles, of which only five (5) studies were selected based on their relevance with the topic; the other 600 were discarded. 

Results: The identified criterion for preventing breast cancer included early diagnosis, Chemoprevention, and Biological prevention.
 Chemoprevention includes chemotherapy, use of drugs, vitamins.
Biological intervention includes the use of monoclonal antibodies
The research shows the five articles suggest that the different ways of preventing the development of cancer differ in their effectiveness. The three ways of preventing cancer that has been compared against each other are early diagnosis, Chemoprevention, and biological prevention. The research shows that the article by Sun et al. suggests that early diagnosis and biological prevention are highly effective in preventing the development of cancer while Chemoprevention is partially effective. Di Gregorio et al. research shows that early diagnosis and Chemoprevention are both highly effective while the biological prevention method is partially effective. The third article by Pradella suggests that early diagnosis and biological prevention are highly effective while Chemoprevention is partially effective. Abu-Naser and Bastami’s research shows that Early diagnosis and Chemoprevention are highly effective in preventing the development of cancer while biological prevention is partially effective. Finally, the article by Lukong also suggested that early diagnosis and Chemoprevention are highly effective while biological prevention is partially effective. The graph shows that most of the researchers suggest that early diagnosis is the best way to prevent the development of cancer, followed by Chemoprevention then biological intervention. Chemoprevention methods include the use of drugs, chemotherapy, and vitamins, while biological intervention includes the use of monoclonal antibodies.
 
                                                                        References
Abu-Naser, S. S., & Bastami, B. G. (2016). A proposed rule-based system for breasts cancer diagnosis.
Di Gregorio, A., Bowling, S., & Rodriguez, T. A. (2016). Cell competition and its role in the regulation of cell fitness from development to cancer. Developmental Cell, 38(6), 621-634.
Lukong, K. E. (2017). Understanding breast cancer–The long and winding road. BBA clinical, 7, 64-77.
Pradella, D., Naro, C., Sette, C., & Ghigna, C. (2017). EMT and stemness: flexible processes tuned by alternative splicing in development and cancer progression. Molecular cancer, 16(1), 1-19.
Sun, Y. S., Zhao, Z., Yang, Z. N., Xu, F., Lu, H. J., Zhu, Z. Y., … & Zhu, H. P. (2017). Risk factors and preventions of breast cancer. International journal of biological sciences, 13(11), 1387.

Ways to Prevent the Development of Cancer

Resource

Criterion 1: Early diagnosis

Criterion 2:Chemoprevention

Criterion 3: Biological prevention

Sun et al. (2019)

Highly effective

Partially effective

Highly effective

Di Gregorio et al (2016)

Highly effective

Highly effective

Partially effective

Pradella (2017)

Highly effective

Partially effective

Highly effective

Abu-Naser & Bastami (2016)

Highly effective

Highly effective

Partially effective

Lukong (2017)

Highly effective

Highly effective

Partially effective

Discussion: The criteria of preventing the development of cancer under review include; early diagnosis, chemoprevention and biological prevention. In all the articles, early diagnosis was found to be highly effective in preventing the development of cancer. Chemoprevention was found to be highly effective in all the articles except the one written by sun and Pradella, where the criterion was found to be partially effective. The criterion of biological prevention in preventing the development of cancer was found to be partially effective in all the articles except the one written by Sun, and Pradella. The initially stated hypothesis of the study is, “it is believed that good nutrition and other factors can prevent the growth of cancer cells”. However from this research, it was found that the most effective way of preventing cancer development is early diagnosis, chemoprevention to a lower extent and biological prevention to the lowest extent.
Of the criteria to prevent breast cancer, early diagnosis was found to be the most effective, followed by chemoprevention and the least effective was biological interventions. This seems to counter the initially stated hypothesis, which states that good nutrition and other factors can prevent the growth of cancer cells. Therefore, early diagnosis seems to be the best criteria of preventing cancer because it improves the outcomes of cancer by providing of care at the earliest stage and hence it is the most important strategy in fighting and preventing cancer.

Limitations and Implications: The research for ways to prevent the development of cancer had a lot of challenges. According to the study reports, the methods that were used for data collection were meta-analysis, the virtual library through the Homepage of MRU, and others. The researcher was limited to accessing complete information since the most effective ways of preventing cancer, like being vaccinated, do not appear in the research work. This shows a limitation where the data was either unreliable or did not access the complete information. According to (Battino 2019), the Mediterranean diet is linked with life quality and longevity. This statement seems to be invalid since the researcher doesn’t provide any objective evidence that supports the validity of his argument. He or she should have met any person who has already used the Mediterranean diet. It is a challenge for everybody in society to have access to the Mediterranean diet.
According to the research report, chemoprevention is said to be the most effective method of preventing cancer. It is genuine chemoprevention is the most expensive way of preventing cancer. The vulnerable people in society can’t access such prevention methods since it the best sure way. The most significant limitation is the standards of living amongst the people in the community. This has led to many women losing their lives and others losing their breasts due to cancer. This prevention method should be availed for free to help everybody I the community. Due to the inferior technology in the medical fields, some patients discover cancer at the last stage. This is because there is no continued cross-checking or screen checking due to poverty.

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