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Choose five (5) of the following questions to answer.  Please answer each question in one or two complete sentences.  Each question/answer is worth 1 point.  You may answer one (1) additional question for extra credit.
(A) Explain the concept of resource partitioning.
(B) Some species are generalists while others are specialists.  What do these terms mean?
(C) What is the difference between intraspecific and interspecific competition?  Include examples in your explanation.
(D) What is coevolution and why does it happen?
(E) Sometimes predator and prey populations oscillate/cycle in synchrony with each other.  Explain why this happens.
(F) Explain the concept of ecological resilience.
(G) Explain the concept of climax community.

Individual species will continually evolve as a result of _______, with certain genetic combinations becoming more predominant.
Multiple Choice
· coevolution
· convergent evolution
· punctuated equilibrium
· natural selection
· gradualism
Sled dogs have a thick coat of hair that helps them withstand the cold temperatures of the Arctic. Compare that adaption to a single, unrelated dog that grows a thicker coat in the fall in response to colder temperatures. The adaptation of the sled dog best describes adaptation at the ____________ level while the dog exposed to seasonal colder temperatures has _____________.

Multiple Choice
· regional; natural selection at the individual level
· individual; physiological modifications at the population level
· population; physiological modifications at the individual level
· species; natural selection at the population level
· ecosystem; physiological modifications at the individual level
_________ is the development of a new species.
Multiple Choice
· Adaption
· Speciation
· Ecotone
· Evolution
· Mutation
Evolution occurs as a result of

Multiple Choice
· the discovery of a desirable characteristic in a population.
· an individual’s physiological modification.
· environmental change that forces modification in a resident species.
· better survival or reproduction rates by individuals with a particular characteristic.
· a population’s physiological modification.
Natural selection will ultimately make a species

Multiple Choice
· more intelligent.
· physically bigger.
· better adapted to its environment.
· more aggressive.
· less vulnerable to its predators.
___________ is the place or set of environmental conditions in which a particular organism lives.

Multiple Choice
· Adaptation
· Habitat
· Tolerance range
· Resource partition
· Niche
What would you label the range of temperature from 95°F to 96°F for this particular species?

Multiple Choice
· zone of intolerance
· tolerance limit range
· zone of physiological stress
· optimal range
· range of tolerance
All of the environmental factors which contribute to where a species lives and its role within the community is its

Multiple Choice
· distribution
· niche
· specialty
· resilience
· tolerance

New species can arise when

Multiple Choice
· a barrier separates a population into subpopulations.
· resource partitioning occurs for a long period of time.
· there is great competition within a species.
· two species compete with each other.
A titmouse and a chickadee are living in the same territory and are using some of the same resources. The best way to classify this interaction is as

Multiple Choice
· mutualism.
· intraspecific competition.
· interspecific competition.
· symbiosis.
· commensalism.

An especially effective strategy for reducing competition between members of the same species is

Multiple Choice
· different ecological niches for juveniles and adults.
· rapid reproduction.
· eating prey before they are “ready” (ripe) for other species.
· resource partitioning.
· None of these since the examples given are for reducing competition between species.

Symbiosis means

Multiple Choice
· a relationship in which both species benefit.
· a parasitic relationship.
· commensalism.
· living together, i.e. two species have a close relationship.
· a relationship in which one species benefits and the other does not benefit.
In the partnership of a lichen, the fungus provides _________ and the relationship is best described as _______.

Multiple Choice
· most of the photosynthesis; symbiosis
· poisons that deter predation; commensalism
· structure and moisture-holding ability; mutualism
· very little to the algal partner; parasitism
· some of the photosynthesis; commensalism
Two unpalatable or dangerous species which have warning patterns or colors and appear similar are an example of _________________.

Multiple Choice
· symbiosis
· competitive exclusion
· mutualism
· commensalism
· Mullerian mimicry

Beavers live in wetland communities they make through damming streams. A small number of beavers contribute to the entire community. The ponds they create support many types of birds and aquatic life. Beavers are an example of a ________________ species.

Multiple Choice
· commensalistic
· dominant
· keystone
· mutualistic
· predator

A tapeworm lives in the gut of an animal taking nutrients from the food the animal eats preventing the animal from receiving most of the nutrients. What type of symbiosis is this?

Multiple Choice
· parasitism
· commensalism
· mutualism
· keystone
· mimicry
Which of the following does NOT contribute to limits on population growth?
Multiple Choice
· amount of available food
· number of offspring produced at one time
· a disease-causing organism entering a population
· average annual temperature

Choose five (5) of the fo
llowing questions to answer.

Please answer each
question in one or two complete sentences.

Each question/answer is worth 1
point.

You may answer one (1) additional question for extra credit.

(A) Explain the concept of resource partitioning.

(B) Some spe
cies are generalists while others are specialists.

What do these
terms mean?

(C) What is the difference between intraspecific and interspecific
competition?

Include examples in your explanation.

(D) What is coevolution and why does it happen?

(E) Sometimes predator and prey populations oscillate/cycle in synchrony with
each other.

Explain why this happens.

(F) Explain the concept of ecological resilience.

(G) Explain the concept of climax community.

Individual species will continually evolve as a result of _______, with certain genetic
combinations becoming more predominant.

Multiple Choice

·

coevolution

·

convergent evolution

·

punctuated equilibrium

·

natural selection

·

gradualism

Sled dogs have a thick coat of hair that helps them withstand the cold temperatures of the Arctic.
Compare that adaption to a single, unrelated dog that grows a thicker coat in the fall in response
to colder temperatures. The adaptation of the sled dog bes
t describes adaptation at the
____________ level while the dog exposed to seasonal colder temperatures has _____________.

Multiple Choice

·

regional; natural selection at the individual level

·

individual; physiological modifications at the population level

·

population; physiological modifications at the individual level

·

species; natural selection at the population level

·

ecosystem; physiological modifications at the individual level

_________ is the development of a new species.

Multiple Choice

·

Adaption

·

Specia
tion

·

Ecotone

·

Evolution

·

Mutation

Choose five (5) of the following questions to answer. Please answer each
question in one or two complete sentences. Each question/answer is worth 1
point. You may answer one (1) additional question for extra credit.
(A) Explain the concept of resource partitioning.
(B) Some species are generalists while others are specialists. What do these
terms mean?
(C) What is the difference between intraspecific and interspecific
competition? Include examples in your explanation.
(D) What is coevolution and why does it happen?
(E) Sometimes predator and prey populations oscillate/cycle in synchrony with
each other. Explain why this happens.
(F) Explain the concept of ecological resilience.
(G) Explain the concept of climax community.

Individual species will continually evolve as a result of _______, with certain genetic
combinations becoming more predominant.
Multiple Choice
 coevolution
 convergent evolution
 punctuated equilibrium
 natural selection
 gradualism
Sled dogs have a thick coat of hair that helps them withstand the cold temperatures of the Arctic.
Compare that adaption to a single, unrelated dog that grows a thicker coat in the fall in response
to colder temperatures. The adaptation of the sled dog best describes adaptation at the
____________ level while the dog exposed to seasonal colder temperatures has _____________.

Multiple Choice
 regional; natural selection at the individual level
 individual; physiological modifications at the population level
 population; physiological modifications at the individual level
 species; natural selection at the population level
 ecosystem; physiological modifications at the individual level
_________ is the development of a new species.
Multiple Choice
 Adaption
 Speciation
 Ecotone
 Evolution
 Mutation

An organism’s biotic potential is the maximum number of offspring
Multiple Choice
· that it can produce.
· that survive to adulthood.
· its habitat can support.
· it produces at one time.
· it actually produces over its lifetime.
A dieback, or population crash, often occurs after a species ________ its environmental carrying capacity.

Multiple Choice
· meets
· overshoots
· undershoots
· oscillates around
· decreases

Which of the following is NOT generally true of k-selected species compared to r-selected species?

Multiple Choice
· they have shorter generation times
· they reach sexual maturity later
· they have fewer young
· they have longer life spans
· they have slower population growth rates

In the real world, many factors determine the numbers of organisms in any one population. Yet, a SUPERFLY with unlimited food and no mortality would show what type of growth?

Multiple Choice
· carrying capacity geometric increase
· disruptive growth
· exponential growth
· logistic growth
· Malthusian growth

Most populations don’t grow in size indefinitely. Instead population size hovers around its _______________ because the environment can only support so many individuals.

Multiple Choice
· biotic potential
· carrying capacity
· limit
· optimal size
· r-density

Ultimately, population size is controlled by

Multiple Choice
· average annual rainfall.
· climate
· light availability
· limited resources.

A biological community’s primary productivity is a measure of
Multiple Choice
· its number of species.
· the number of individuals in the community.
· available solar energy that can be converted to biomass.
· the amount of biomass produced in the community.
· number of species and biomass.

In a biological community where diversity is great, such as a tropical rainforest, the abundance of any one species is likely to be

Multiple Choice
· great.
· small.
· widely variable from year to year.
· unrelated to diversity.

Complexity in an ecological community has to do with the number of

Multiple Choice
· species in the population.
· species at each trophic level.
· genetic variations within a species.
· primary producers available.
· species that recover from a disturbance.

A community with hundreds of different types of primary producers, a few herbivores, and only one carnivore, has

Multiple Choice
· little complexity.
· little diversity.
· a great deal of complexity.
· low productivity.
· a great deal of productivity.

Which of these does NOT increase diversity?

Multiple Choice
· few niches
· habitat edges
· plenty of sunlight
· warm climate
· year-round moisture

If a community can support the same species even after a disturbance, we describe the community as

Multiple Choice
· being diverse.
· being stable.
· having a core habitat.
· successional.

Primary succession occurs when a community develops ____________ while secondary succession occurs when one ________.

Multiple Choice
· into a climax community; species replaces another
· and replaces another; ecosystem becomes stable
· on unoccupied ground; biological community replaces another
· and then fails; niche changes
· intraspecific competition; experiences interspecific competition

As ecological development proceeds, a biological community

Multiple Choice
· gradually stagnates.
· becomes more diverse.
· goes through repeated secondary succession stages.
· goes through repeated primary succession stages.
· becomes less complex.
A climax community is one that

Multiple Choice
· is relatively stable and long lasting.
· lasts forever.
· contains oaks or white spruce.
· is impervious to disruption.
· is adapted to periodic disruption.
Which of these is a characteristic of a pioneer species?

Multiple Choice
· cannot tolerate high light conditions
· grow slowly
· need little water
· require many nutrients

In which situation would primary succession occur?

Multiple Choice
· A volcanic eruption covers an area with a thick layer of lava that cools to hardened rock.
· A forest fire burns all of the trees and shrubs in a large area of forest.
· An area of farmland is left alone and no longer farmed.
· A forest is clear cut, removing all of the vegetation.
· A grassland is burned leaving nothing but ash on the soil.

Clear cutting and removing all of the vegetation is an example of

Multiple Choice
· a disturbance.
· climax.
· instability
· succession.
Which of these would NOT be a benefit of a forest fire?

Multiple Choice
· cones open and seed coats split
· competition from the dominant species is diminished
· light is brought into the understory of the forest
· nutrients are removed from the soil
An organism’s biotic potential is the maximum number of offspring
Multiple Choice
· that it can produce.
· that survive to adulthood.
· its habitat can support.
· it produces at one time.
· it actually produces over its lifetime.
A dieback, or population crash, often occurs after a species ________ its environmental carrying capacity.

Multiple Choice
· meets
· overshoots
· undershoots
· oscillates around
· decreases

Which of the following is NOT generally true of k-selected species compared to r-selected species?

Multiple Choice
· they have shorter generation times
· they reach sexual maturity later
· they have fewer young
· they have longer life spans
· they have slower population growth rates

In the real world, many factors determine the numbers of organisms in any one population. Yet, a SUPERFLY with unlimited food and no mortality would show what type of growth?

Multiple Choice
· carrying capacity geometric increase
· disruptive growth
· exponential growth
· logistic growth
· Malthusian growth

Most populations don’t grow in size indefinitely. Instead population size hovers around its _______________ because the environment can only support so many individuals.

Multiple Choice
· biotic potential
· carrying capacity
· limit
· optimal size
· r-density

Ultimately, population size is controlled by

Multiple Choice
· average annual rainfall.
· climate
· light availability
· limited resources.

A biological community’s primary productivity is a measure of
Multiple Choice
· its number of species.
· the number of individuals in the community.
· available solar energy that can be converted to biomass.
· the amount of biomass produced in the community.
· number of species and biomass.

In a biological community where diversity is great, such as a tropical rainforest, the abundance of any one species is likely to be

Multiple Choice
· great.
· small.
· widely variable from year to year.
· unrelated to diversity.

Complexity in an ecological community has to do with the number of

Multiple Choice
· species in the population.
· species at each trophic level.
· genetic variations within a species.
· primary producers available.
· species that recover from a disturbance.

A community with hundreds of different types of primary producers, a few herbivores, and only one carnivore, has

Multiple Choice
· little complexity.
· little diversity.
· a great deal of complexity.
· low productivity.
· a great deal of productivity.

Which of these does NOT increase diversity?

Multiple Choice
· few niches
· habitat edges
· plenty of sunlight
· warm climate
· year-round moisture

If a community can support the same species even after a disturbance, we describe the community as

Multiple Choice
· being diverse.
· being stable.
· having a core habitat.
· successional.

Primary succession occurs when a community develops ____________ while secondary succession occurs when one ________.

Multiple Choice
· into a climax community; species replaces another
· and replaces another; ecosystem becomes stable
· on unoccupied ground; biological community replaces another
· and then fails; niche changes
· intraspecific competition; experiences interspecific competition

As ecological development proceeds, a biological community

Multiple Choice
· gradually stagnates.
· becomes more diverse.
· goes through repeated secondary succession stages.
· goes through repeated primary succession stages.
· becomes less complex.
A climax community is one that

Multiple Choice
· is relatively stable and long lasting.
· lasts forever.
· contains oaks or white spruce.
· is impervious to disruption.
· is adapted to periodic disruption.
Which of these is a characteristic of a pioneer species?

Multiple Choice
· cannot tolerate high light conditions
· grow slowly
· need little water
· require many nutrients

In which situation would primary succession occur?

Multiple Choice
· A volcanic eruption covers an area with a thick layer of lava that cools to hardened rock.
· A forest fire burns all of the trees and shrubs in a large area of forest.
· An area of farmland is left alone and no longer farmed.
· A forest is clear cut, removing all of the vegetation.
· A grassland is burned leaving nothing but ash on the soil.

Clear cutting and removing all of the vegetation is an example of

Multiple Choice
· a disturbance.
· climax.
· instability
· succession.
Which of these would NOT be a benefit of a forest fire?

Multiple Choice
· cones open and seed coats split
· competition from the dominant species is diminished
· light is brought into the understory of the forest
· nutrients are removed from the soil

An organism’s biotic potential is the max
imum number of offspring

Multiple Choice

·

that it can produce.

·

that survive to adulthood.

·

its habitat can support.

·

it produces at one time.

·

it actually produces over its lifetime.

A dieback, or population crash, often occurs after a species ________ its env
ironmental
carrying capacity.

Multiple Choice

·

meets

·

overshoots

·

undershoots

·

oscillates around

·

decreases

Which of the following is NOT generally true of k

selected species compared to r

selected
species?

Multiple Choice

·

they have shorter generation times

·

they reach sexual maturity later

·

they have fewer young

·

they have longer life spans

·

they have slower popu
lation growth rates

In the real world, many factors determine the numbers of organisms in any one population.
Yet, a SUPERFLY with unlimited food and no mortality would show what type of growth?

Multiple Choice

·

carrying capacity geometric increase

·

disr
uptive growth

·

exponential growth

·

logistic growth

·

Malthusian growth

Most populations don’t grow in size indefinitely.

Instead population size hovers around its
_______________ because the environment can only support so many individuals.

An organism’s biotic potential is the maximum number of offspring
Multiple Choice
 that it can produce.
 that survive to adulthood.
 its habitat can support.
 it produces at one time.
 it actually produces over its lifetime.
A dieback, or population crash, often occurs after a species ________ its environmental
carrying capacity.

Multiple Choice
 meets
 overshoots
 undershoots
 oscillates around
 decreases

Which of the following is NOT generally true of k-selected species compared to r-selected
species?

Multiple Choice
 they have shorter generation times
 they reach sexual maturity later
 they have fewer young
 they have longer life spans
 they have slower population growth rates

In the real world, many factors determine the numbers of organisms in any one population.
Yet, a SUPERFLY with unlimited food and no mortality would show what type of growth?

Multiple Choice
 carrying capacity geometric increase
 disruptive growth
 exponential growth
 logistic growth
 Malthusian growth

Most populations don’t grow in size indefinitely. Instead population size hovers around its
_______________ because the environment can only support so many individuals.

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