Prompt and PDF for the text provided below. Must write a five page essay about one period about college students invoking social change. For example, you could write about the social change that African-Americans invoked when being the first student of color on campus and use different times that happened to help construct the essay. (If you do choose to go that route please include the Memphis State 8) The seven C’s the prompt is referring to are listed as followed:
i. Citizenship – Seeing oneself as part of a greater whole, engaged in community and aware of issues that affect the entire group.
i. Collaboration – The intent to work together and thus multiply effort, while also gaining multiple perspectives.
ii. Common Purpose – Sharing one vision, though individual connections to it may differ.
iii. Controversy with Civility – Purposeful conflict that ultimately promotes the group’s development and ability to achieve positive social change for all.
i. Consciousness of Self – One’s self-awareness, as shaped in part by the influence of others.
ii. Congruence – Fostering trust through authenticity; acting in accordance to one’s values.
iii. Commitment – Sense of responsibility as determined by passion and investment.
You can find more information about them throughout the PDF of the text provided. Feel free to ask me any questions. Thanks!
N a t i o n a l
C l e a r i n g h o u s e
for Leader ship
Prog r ams
WENDY WAGNER, DANIEL T. OSTICK , SUSAN R. KOMIVES
U NDERSTANDI NG
THE SOCIAL CHANGE MODEL OF
INS TRUC TOR’S MANUAL
LEADERSHIP FOR A BETTER WORLD:
UNDERSTANDING THE SOCIAL CHANGE
MODEL OF LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT
AN INSTRUCTOR’S GUIDE
DANIEL T. OSTICK
SUSAN R. KOMIVES
TABLE OF CONTENTS
WHAT IS SOCIAL CHANGE? ……………………………………………………………………………………….. 9
AN OVERVIEW OF THE SOCIAL CHANGE MODEL OF LEADERSHIP DEVELOPMENT……………… 32
APPLYING THE SOCIAL CHANGE MODEL: A CASE STUDY APPROACH ………………………………. 51
CHANGE ………………………………………………………………………………………………………………. 56
CONTROVERSY WITH CIVILITY …………………………………………………………………………………118
CONSCIOUSNESS OF SELF ……………………………………………………………………………………….134
BECOMING A CHANGE AGENT …………………………………………………………………………………176
THE SOCIAL CHANGE MODEL APPROACH TO LEADERSHIP
This instructor’s guide for Leadership for a Better World: Understanding the Social Change
Model of Leadership Development is intended to assist instructors in finding additional resources
and approaches to teaching the social change model of leadership development. For over a
decade, the model has been used in courses and co-curricular leadership workshops to help foster
students’ awareness of leadership processes and learn to approach this work collaboratively with
others. The strength of the model lies in the conceptual simplicity of the individual, group and
community values, along with the complexity inherent in each individual value. Students can
quickly understand the model and yet spend a lifetime learning to be the person who creates
groups that function in the ways it describes.
Leadership for a Better World dedicates a chapter to each of the Cs. Before delving into each,
this introduction will explore a few important overall points. For leadership educators who are
not already familiar with the model, it is important to make note of some of the key aspects of
the model emphasized by the “Working Ensemble” who created it, including their way of
defining leadership and their approach student leadership development.
The Working Ensemble described the leadership educator’s role in this way, “The ultimate aim
of leadership development programs based on the proposed model would be to prepare a new
generation of leaders who understand that they can act as leaders to effect change without
necessarily being in traditional leadership positions of power and authority” (HERI, 1996, p. 12).
The Social Change Model promotes a particular approach to leadership and leadership
development. It is a nonhierarchical approach, meaning it is not necessary to have authority, an
elected position, or a title in order to participate in a group’s leadership processes. It emphasizes
mutually defined purposes and commitment to making a difference rather than pursuit of
position of power. Its major assumption is that leadership is ultimately about change, particularly
change that benefits others in our local and global communities.
The Working Ensemble felt strongly about the role of experiential learning, and service-learning
in particular for facilitating student learning of the social change model. The model was,
“designed to make maximum use of student peer groups to enhance leadership development in
the individual student” (HERI, 1996, p. 12). Leadership for a Better World makes consistent use
of the Kolb model (1981), particularly in the journal probes at the end of each chapter, which
encourage students to engage in all stages of the Kolb experiential learning cycle: concrete
experience, reflective observation, abstract conceptualization and active experimentation cycle.
Familiarity with the Kolb model will aid leadership educators in designing meaningful
experiences and reflections. For more on Kolb see:
• Kolb, D. A. (2005). The Kolb learning style inventory, version 3.1: self scoring and
interpretation booklet. Boston, MA: Hay Transforming Learning Direct
This inventory measures learning styles associated with the model and is a useful
supplement to the activities in this guide.
• Kolb, A. & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Learning styles and learning spaces: Enhancing
experiential learning in higher education. Academy of Management Learning and
Education, 4(2) 193-212.
• Kolb, D. A., Baker, A. C. & Jensen, P. J. (2002). Conversation as experiential learning.
In Baker, A. C., Jensen, P. J., Kolb, D. A. and Associates, Conversational learning: An
experiential approach to knowledge creation. Westport, CT: Quorum.
• Osland, J. S., Kolb, D. A. & Rubin, I. M. (2001). Organizational behavior: An
experiential approach. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
• Kolb, D. A. (1981). The Learning Style Inventory technical manual. Boston: McBer &
In this instructor’s guide, all suggested classroom activities are labeled to indicate which stage of
Kolb’s model the activity addresses. Leadership educators are strongly encouraged to engage
students in a variety of activities and assignments in order to address all stages of the experiential
learning. To that end, a semester-long service-learning project is highly recommended by the
Working Ensemble members and the chapter authors of Leadership for a Better World. As
students work in small groups to design and implement their own social change project, they are
able to use the language of the Cs to reflect both individually and as a group about the processes
that helped them create common purpose or be congruent with their own values while being
inclusive of other perspectives.
Another approach to experiential learning is to encourage students to use an existing campus or
community involvement (such as a student organization) as a learning lab for the semester. This
requires students to learn to be observant of themselves and others while also being engaged in
the group’s processes. Students can learn from each other by sharing their observations and
reflections in class, which has the added benefit of allowing them to examine how the model
operates in a variety of contexts.
To mark the tenth anniversary of the social change model, many members of the Working
Ensemble met at the University of Maryland to discuss and revisit the model. This group agreed
that one of the important concepts of the model that has not been emphasized enough is the
interaction among the eight values of the model. The “eight Cs”: consciousness of self,
congruence, commitment, collaboration, common purpose, controversy with civility, citizenship
and change are NOT to be viewed as a checklist, each value standing on its own as a learning
goal, with the implication that once a student has mastered each, their learning is complete. All
the chapter authors in Leadership for a Better World have emphasized that learning in one value
opens room for further learning in the other values. Leadership educators can help students
understand that leadership development is a continually evolving, lifelong learning process. By
promoting the habit of reflection on experience, educators can help students recognize when they
have developed new competencies and have awareness that their capacity to develop even more
has now increased as well.
Although the nature of the chapter structure in Leadership for a Better World lends itself to using
a class period to devote attention to each C individually, it is also hoped that the wholeness of the
model and the interconnections of the Cs will be explored in each class as well. One suggestion
to achieve this is to end each class with a general reflection on their leadership experiences
during that week, allowing discussion on whatever C was relevant for each student and making
connections back to the C that was explored through the course content that day. Discussion
questions might include:
• What C was most salient for you this week either in your small group project or in your
o What happened?
o How do you interpret your observations using the values of the social change
model (the Cs)?
o What would you do differently next time OR how might you be able to achieve
the same success in another context?
• How does that C relate to the C discussed in today’s class? How does your experience in
one of them influence your experiences in the other?
IN THIS GUIDE
Each chapter in this instructor’s guide includes the following sections:
Chapter Overview includes learning objectives and a summary of the chapter
reports relevant findings from a large national study of college student
leadership. Student survey data was gathered in 2006 from over 50
institutions of various types, using a revised version of the Socially
Responsible Leadership Scale, which was developed to measure the
eight Cs of the social change model. Additional survey items included
demographics, aspects of the college environment such as mentoring
and discussion of socio-cultural issues and leadership self-efficacy,
along with many others.
notes issues or questions that may come up as students discuss the
Key Concepts a list of terms from the chapter that students should know
Activities descriptions of a variety of classroom activities for facilitating learning
on the topic of each chapter. Each activity description includes an
outline, discussion questions, and contextual information such as the
space and time requirements and optimal number of participants. Also
included is a list of keywords related to the activity and the stages of
the Kolb cycle the activity addresses. The keywords and Kolb stages
are included in order to facilitate word searching of this document so
readers can quickly find an activity that is a fit for their goals.
Resources a list of other useful resources related to the chapter topic. These may
include books, articles, professional organizations, websites, and
Essay Prompts suggested questions for essay examinations or paper assignments
including the elements that would be included in a strong response.
Most leadership educators, particularly those in student affairs, design learning experiences that
start with the self first. This approach is supported by sound pedagogical research. In the
development of the approach used in Leadership for a Better World, the writing team sought the
advice of leadership educators though the National Clearinghouse for Leadership Programs
(NCLP) listserv along with other associations. We were compelled by some comments that many
students do not “get” social change or the purposeful use of the model to engage in being a
change agent. Some educators noted that students resonated with learning about themselves as
leaders but lost the “what for?” dimension of the Social Change Model. We intentionally then
ordered the chapters of this book to start with social change to engage students in dimensions of
their world that need their active engagement. After other introductory chapters on the use of
case studies and the Social Change Model itself, we then move to the Societal/Community C of
Citizenship to engage students in thinking about their responsibilities within communities of
practice and how those communities join to make a better world. This then leads to the Group Cs
since communities are comprised of smaller groups working together and the student can
examine what this group work requires. This is then followed by the Individual Cs leading to the
examination of what do “I need to be like or be able to do” to be effective in working in groups
to support community work for change. This may lead the student to new insights about the
capacities needed to do social change leadership. The Individual C of Commitment is presented
last in this section providing an opportunity to examine one’s own passions and commitments
that then flow to the last chapter on becoming a change agent. Although the sections could be
taught in any order, we hope instructors will experiment with this conceptual flow to see if
students experience more focused outcomes. [Note: if used in another order, the case studies that
are embedded in the chapters may need to be presented differently because they build throughout
our flow in the book and add case elements as the chapters build.]
THE SOCIALLY RESPONSIBLE LEADERSHIP SCALE
NCLP and the Center for Student Studies have created an on-line version of the Socially
Responsible Leadership Scale (SRLS) as a useful tool for your teaching. The SRLS was
designed in 1998 as Tracy Tyree’s doctoral dissertation and has been revised several times to
reduce the number of items to make it more usable in research and training (Dugan, Komives, &
Associates, 2006). Instructors can purchase a site license for a specific number of administrations
of the instrument. This scale is the same version used in the Multi-Institutional Study of
Leadership. Normative data from the MSL are used in the individual reports students receive
when they complete the measure. If used in a course, the fee for this may be built into the course
fees. See http://www.srlsonline.org/
We are eager to hear about your experiences teaching the model to students and learn about how
they experience social change. Please be in touch with us to share your experiences.
George Mason University
Daniel T. Ostick
University of Maryland
Susan R. Komives
University of Maryland
Dugan, J. P., Komives, S. R., & Associates. (2006). Multi-Institutional Study of Leadership: A
guidebook for participating campuses. College Park, MD: National Clearinghouse for
Higher Education Research Institute. (1996). A social change model of leadership development
(Version III). Los Angeles: University of California Los Angeles, Higher Education
Kolb, D. A. (1981). Learning styles and disciplinary differences. In A. W. Chickering, &
Associates (Eds.), The modern American college (pp. 232-255). San Francisco: Jossey-
Kolb, D. (1983). Experiential learning: Experience as the source of learning and development.
Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.
Kolb, D. A. (1999). Learning Style Inventory, Version 3. Boston, MA: Hay Group, Hay
Resources Direct. 116 Huntington Avenue, Boston, MA 02116, [email protected]
Kolb, A. Y., & Kolb, D. A. (2005). Bibliography of research on experiential learning theory and
the Learning Style Inventory. Department of Organizational Behavior, Weatherhead
School of Management. Cleveland, OH: Case Western Reserve University,
Osland, J.S., Kolb, D. A., & Rubin, I. M. (2001). Organizational behavior: An experiential
approach (7th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall.
WHAT IS SOCIAL CHANGE?
1. Understand the meaning of social change and how it has been applied in various
2. Understand the complex nature of social change and that many elements and people need
to come together in order to create change.
3. Identify an issue of importance and how to be a part of a social change movement.
Leadership educators consulted by the authors of the Leadership for a Better World book noted
that when teaching the social change model many students who had not personally experienced
social issues (e.g. privileged students) struggled with the concept so the authors decided to begin
the book with this chapter to allow the whole academic term to wrestle with the concept. The
concepts can be adapted to the context and the students as necessary. We have provided ample
resources to help support those varied contexts.
I. What is Meant By Social Change?
a. Social Change Addresses the Root Causes of Problems – in order to understand
how to create social change, students must first identify the root cause of the
problem in order to move forward with changing it.
b. Social Change is Collaborative – One person cannot fix a major societal problem.
Therefore, this section identifies that change comes through collaboration.
c. Social Change is Not Simple – Social change involves many people and many
elements in order for change to happen, this section addresses the complexity of
the process and helps students gain a greater understanding of that process
II. Why Get Involved in Social Change? – There are various reasons for being involved in
social change and how that relates to the student’s own experience.
a. A Personal Connection to the Problem – Several of the reasons people engage in
social change is because they are either directly affected by the problem or
b. A Connection to Others – Others engage in social change because they see their
connection to others through acts of selflessness.
c. Interconnectedness of Community Problems – Many see the problems they face
as connected to the problems of other people and choose to engage in social
change for this reason.
d. Satisfaction Derived From Making a Difference – Last, many people find
satisfaction and enjoyment out of making a difference in the world and seek to be
involved in social change for that reason.
III. But I’m Not a Hero, I’m Just A Regular Person – The people who are most prominently
attached to social change often seem to have super-human qualities with which the
average person does not typically identify. However, an “average person” can truly be
involved in extraordinary activities related to social change.
IV. Possible Pitfalls In Social Change – Social change at times might create unintended
outcomes for both the individuals involved and the communities affected. Without the
proper planning and knowledge going into the process, more harm may be done than
good. This section highlights some of those pitfalls such as paternalism, assimilation, a
deficit-based perspective of the community, seeking the magic bullet, and ignoring
cultural differences. Most importantly, the chapter discusses how to avoid potential
V. Socially Responsible Leadership – Socially responsible leadership embodies the values of
serving the public good even if an organization’s mission does not directly serve the
public good. It is an approach to leadership that is collaborative and inclusive. Socially
responsible leadership involves the awareness of how a “group’s actions and decisions
effect others.” (Leadership for a Better World, p. 33)
VI. Social Change and Leadership – Social change happens by addressing issues through
active engagement with stakeholders as well as having a deep understanding of the root
causes and needs of the community. Working as a leader in social change, one must
understand the effective approach to working in a group to create change.
TOPICS EMERGING FROM DISCUSSION QUESTIONS
• The term “social change” may seem too abstract and grandiose of a notion to envision
being involved in it. The topic of social change should, therefore, begin with a discussion
of “what is social change?” by addressing emerging issues, common misconceptions, and
who can be involved in the social change process. This can be done by helping students
identify how social change is happening in their daily lives. It is useful to begin with
large, national social change movements as they are more apparent as social change,
however, it would be more of an impact for students to see social change at a personal
level through local community social movements by reading the school and/or local
news. Additionally, alternative news sources can be very helpful in expanding the
students’ knowledge about social issues that are not often depicted in the mainstream
media. Please see the resources section for a detailed list of resources about specific
social change movements as well as suggestions for alternative media sources. (Activity
1 may be a good activity to explore this issue)
• Although individual accomplishment is highly stressed in Western culture, social change
can only happen when a collective of motivated people are working together. One person
might act as a motivator for major social change but it inevitably took collective effort to
accomplish the goals. (Chapter 7 can provide useful activities that focus on
• A common question about social movements is if they really work. To many people,
activities that are trying to elicit some change seem like futile efforts to have their voices
heard without much change coming of it given the state of the world and the people that
hold power. However, it is the case that no grand societal change has ever happened
without the voices of people being heard. It is the foundation of democracy and although
change seems like it can only be made through political means, it is possible to work for
change and average people to have their voices heard and actual change being made of it.
(Refer to the social movement resources to find specific examples of actual change being
made. Also, for additional activities to link Citizenship to social change, see Chapter 5)
• This chapter can lead well into a discussion about the importance of focusing on
community-identified needs rather than the “we can fix you” mentality that outsiders to a
community can sometimes have. The discussion might want to help guide them to
understand this distinction.
Social Change – A broad definition of social change according to Leadership for a Better World
is as follows: “Social change addresses each person’s sense of responsibility to others and the
realization that making things better for one pocket of society makes things better for the society
as a whole” (p. 10).
Root Cause – the actual cause of a problem as opposed to the symptoms that are usually seen on
Collaboration – working together with all stakeholders to make change
Marginality – A definition of marginality is described in Leadership for a Better World as “ a
term used to describe the sense that one’s presence in a group or community is not valued or that
one’s experiences or perspectives are not normal” (p. 18).
Ubuntu – a South African concept that describes how one person’s life is intricately connected
to that of others (a more detailed description can be found in Leadership for a Better World on
Sphere of Influence – the network of people that one can work within to begin to create change.
While many social problems are complex and systemic, there is a grassroots level at which
anyone can be influential. Individuals can start by addressing the issue in their own context, by
talking about it to family members and friends, by recruiting classmates, etc.
Paternalism – the “father knows best” attitude that implies an unequal relationship between two
parties (in this context it refers to the unequal relationship between the person coming in to “fix”
Asset-based view – the perspective that identifies the assets of the community as opposed to the
deficits which is much more effective to create change by highlighting the positive aspects and
focusing on those for change
Social Change Project
This activity is intended to last an entire semester or term, but can also be used for individual
classes. It requires students to work independently to find real-life examples of social change in
their community and the world.
• To become informed and aware of the social issues in the world and their communities.
• To understand how social change relates to their lives and communities and that it is not
just something seen on a global scale and acted upon by famous and charismatic people.
• To increase understanding of the complexity of social change as they progresses through
• To become inspired to be a part of social change around issues that are important to them.
Active Experimentation, Reflective Observation
Number of Participants
Any size is appropriate
Throughout course of semester or term
First week: 30-40 minutes
Second week: 30-40 minutes
10-15 minute weekly discussion (optional)
For students: Media source and “social change journal”
First day of class (30-40 minutes)
1. Discuss social change and well-known movements (see processing questions below as
well as resources)
2. Bring discussion from the large social change movements to more community-oriented
social change. Instructor may want to bring in examples from the community that could
help students understand the topic of discussion.
3. Introduce the semester-long assignment (see description below) where students will bring
examples of social change with them to class each week. Suggest students read their
local and campus paper to identify social change. Also suggest alternative media sources
for social change examples outside of the mainstream media. (See resource section for
good examples of alternative media sources).
Second week of class (30-40 minutes)
1. Processing first week assignment: As students come in, instructor asks students to display
their example around the room.
2. Ask students to move around the room quietly, looking at each example, taking note of 3
examples (besides their own) that stick out to them.
3. Discussion of examples: Have students – as they feel comfortable – discuss the examples
that appealed to them. Also, have students discuss why they chose their example. See
processing questions below to help guide the discussion.
* Instructor may want to repeat activity or variation of activity for week 2 once more in
order to familiarize students with social change at a deeper level.
Weekly social change discussion (10-15 minutes)
In first few minutes of class each week, ask students to discuss the example they found that
might add something extra from what was discussed the weeks previously. Instructor may
choose to bring in elements of the 7Cs as the class progresses through those topics.
Final discussion and processing of semester-long activity:
1. Ask questions that help students explore their growth of understanding of social change.
Make sure to include elements of the 7Cs.
2. Assign final essay about social change: See essay prompts at the end of the section. This
should be a culmination not just of the activity, but of the entire course. The activity
itself merely facilitates the real-life understanding of the topic.
Description of Assignment
*Instructor should adapt to context and students …