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RESEARCH TOPIC: Physical Development from Childhood Through Adolescence   
        Physical change is among the most freely visible of all the children growth domains. Parents detect weight and height and the progress of both gross and motor skills. It is thus critical to remember that it is possible that what we see physically parallels to the things we cannot see such as brain development. In every development situation, the brain support movement and exploration yet when movement and exploration happen it stimulates the development of brain including synaptogenesis and neurogenesis (Papalia, Diane E., Sally Wendkos Olds, & Ruth Duskin Feldman. 1990). Indeed, the brain of a child produces numerous connections that are more than an adult’s brain has in the end. Later, synaptic connections used by children get eliminated through a process called pruning.
            The role played by parents is quite essential during developmental domains and all physical developments are very critical. When parents bond with their kids, they establish a sense of being safe to explore and when children are given positive feedback, they are motivated to push harder and reach out even more. It is also important to guide children and support them when they are developing. On top of assisting children to develop specific skills, parents and all the involved parties need to support a healthy type of lifestyle for the children. Some of the best practices include ample sleep, having balanced diet, and exercising regularly (Simpkin, Andrew J., et al. 549-558).  Also teaching children on how to live a well and safe life at home is important. They also need regular medical checkups in order to maintain a healthy life.
            The importance of managing a child’s development to adolescent is to ensure that the kid is fit to enter the next stage of development in good condition and health. By doing this, a child will manage to stay healthy and live a happy and healthy life.  This topic is interesting as it supports healthy development of a child into adolescent.
               REFERENCES:
Papalia, Diane E., Sally Wendkos Olds, & Ruth Duskin Feldman. A Child’s World: Infancy Through Adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.
Simpkin, Andrew J., et al. “The Epigenetic Clock and Physical Development During Childhood and Adolescence: Longitudinal Analysis from a UK Birth Cohort.” International Journal of Epidemiology (2017) 549-558.

You should have an introduction that includes your thesis statement and is about 1-2 page long. Next you will analyze three articles that contain research/empirical data and is about 3-4 pages long. You will then have a conclusion that should be about 1 page long. You will then copy/paste your Annotated Bibliography and Literature Review from week 5 and add a reference page.

PSY 322: Rough Draft Rubric

Consider the suggestions made on your previous assignments and any other research you have done. Write the first draft of your entire paper including the
annotated bibliography. The draft should include most of the criteria necessary for the final Research Paper.

Guidelines for Submission: Written components of projects must follow these formatting guidelines when applicable: double spacing, 12-point Times New
Roman font, one-inch margins, and discipline-appropriate citations. The rough draft should be 12–14 pages in length.

Critical Elements Exemplary (100%) Proficient (85%) Needs Improvement (55%) Not Evident (0%) Value

Thesis Thesis is well developed and is
clearly related to aspects of
human behavior studied by
psychologists in the field of
adolescent development

Thesis is developed and is
clearly related to aspects of
human behavior studied by
psychologists in the field of
adolescent development

Thesis is somewhat developed
and is clearly related to aspects
of human behavior studied by
psychologists in the field of
adolescent development

Thesis is not developed and is
not clearly related to aspects of
human behavior studied by
psychologists in the field of
adolescent development

25

Body

Explores multiple issues
through in-depth analysis and
provides a unique perspective
on a particular aspect of
adolescent development

Explores some issues through
in-depth analysis and provides a
unique perspective on a
particular aspect of adolescent
development

Explores minimal issues through
analysis and provides a
perspective on a particular
aspect of adolescent
development

Does not explore issues or
provide a perspective

25

Research Incorporates more than two
scholarly resources effectively
that reflect depth and breadth
of research

Incorporates at least two
scholarly resources effectively
that reflect depth and breadth
of research

Incorporates one scholarly
resource that reflects depth and
breadth of research

Does not incorporate scholarly
resources that reflect depth and
breadth of research

25

Writing
(Mechanics/

Citations)

No errors related to
organization, grammar and
style, and citations

Minor errors related to
organization, grammar and
style, and citations

Some errors related to
organization, grammar and
style, and citations

Major errors related to
organization, grammar and
style, and citations

25

Total 100%

Running Head: PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT 1

Surname 3

Student Name
Professor’s Name
Course
Date

Physical development

During early childhood development parents can monitor the weight, height, and motor skills of the child. I agree that the growth that we see physically relates to what people cannot see, such as cognitive and brain development. As a child develops, the brain promotes exploration and movement that result in new brain cells’ growth (Simpkin, et al., 20). Children develop many new connections between brain cells as compared to adults. Parents play a vital role in the development of a child. When the parents bond with the child, they feel safe, push harder, and reach out more. Parents help the children develop physically by encouraging them to grasp and reach, teaching them to ride the bike, and holding their hand when they take the first step.
I agree that parents should promote a healthy lifestyle for their kids. This includes providing a balanced diet, get adequate sleep and stay active physically. Between the age of two to three, the children stop using wide-legged robot-like stances. They can hop, jump and run. During this age, children can be able to play throwing and catching games with larger balls. A child should climb the stairs between three to four years by putting both legs together on every staircase before moving to the next stairs. Toddlers may still require some support to avert them from falling while climbing the stairs.
Between the age of four and five, children can climb up and down the stairs first in the grown-up fashion. As children grow, their speed increases (Papalia, et al. 30). Children between five and six years old can move quickly and ride bikes with training rolls for extra support. In addition, kids who are around this age start to develop new kinds of physical games like a sliding, swinging, see-saw, and jungle gyms. They can even start jumping ropes as well as skating. Most of the kids of this age enjoy playing games organized, such as basketball and swimming.
Children between the ages of five and six often like to participate in physical extra curriculum activities such as dance, karate, and gymnastics. Adolescence begins between the age of ten to eleven for ladies and eleven to twelve for men. Between the five and seven years, old children show the necessary skills for starting and excelling in schools, such as creating shapes such as squares and triangles, writing letters and numbers. During the adolescence stage, cognitive, physical, and social-relational changes occur. Moreover, during puberty, women, and men experience a rapid increase in height.

References

Papalia, Diane E., Sally Wendkos Olds, and Ruth Duskin Feldman. A child’s world: Infancy through adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.
Simpkin, Andrew J., et al. “The epigenetic clock and physical development during childhood and adolescence: longitudinal analysis from a UK birth cohort.” International journal of epidemiology 46.2 (2017): 549-558.

ANNOTATED BIBLOGRAPHY 1

3-3 FINAL PROJECT MILESTONE TWO: ANNOTATED BIBLIOGRAPHY
T’Erica Huff
Southern New Hampshire University

1. Hernández-Alava, M., & Popli, G. (2017). Children’s Development and Parental Input: Evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. Demography, 485–511.
Parents play a crucial role in developing cognitive skills, which later is seen in how a child becomes physically active. According to Hernandez-Alava and Popli (2017), the parent’s role should be regarded with high esteem because it is through what they do in the early stages of a child’s development that a child gets to understand some of the key elements of early survival. Some of these early physical elements that children learn from the parents include communicating with others and virtues such as good relational behavior. When children have a good foundation in terms of their cognitive skill development, they are likely to emerge physically active and want to partake in almost all aspects of growth and development that are likely to impact their personal growth positively. The authors believe that physical skill development is dependent on genetics and the experience that a child gets exposed to with an adult they are closer with.
2. Maccoby, E. (2000). Parenting and its Effects on Children: On Reading and Misreading Behavior Genetics. Annual Review of Psychology Vol. 51:1-27.
According to Eleanor Maccoby, parents are the building blocks for their children’s physical wellness. In the article, she believes that while all children need that parental guidance and care in all manners and aspects, the parents need to initiate physical development at a younger age of their children. This aspect is because the children imitate what they see or what they are told to do. When a parent chooses to initiate good physical practices to these children at a younger age, they promote good practices that will lead to the children’s better physical growth in the future. Every parent should know when to be involved in the children’s physical change. This aspect leads to a parent creating a positive rapport with the children to be free to express all aspects of their developments. She further highlights that for a parent to fully be in control of their affairs of the physical development of their children, and parents need to act as peers of their children so that the children can be at ease into highlighting all aspect of challenges that they may have experienced within their growth and development.

References
REFERENCES

Alava Hernandez, G. P. (2017). Children’s Development and Parental Input: Evidence from the UK Millennium Cohort Study. 485-511. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1007/s13524-017-0554-6
MacCoby, E. (2000). Parenting and its Effects on Children: On Reading and Misreading Behavior Genetics. Annual Review of Psychology Vol 5, 1-27.

Surname 1

NAME:
TUTOR:
COURSE:
DATE:
Physical change is among the most freely visible of all the children growth domains. Parents detect weight and height and the progress of both gross and motor skills. It is thus critical to remember that it is possible that what we see physically parallels to the things we cannot see such as brain development. In every development situation, the brain support movement and exploration yet when movement and exploration happens it stimulates the development of brain including synaptogenesis and neurogenesis (Papalia, Diane E., Sally Wendkos Olds, and Ruth Duskin Feldman. 1990). Indeed, the brain of a child produces numerous connections that are more than an adult’s brain has in the end. Later, synaptic connections used by children get eliminated through a process called pruning.
The role played by parents is quite essential during developmental domains and all physical developments are very critical. When parents bond with their kids, they establish a sense of being safe to explore and when children are given positive feedback, they are motivated to push harder and reach out even more. It is also important to guide children and support them when they are developing. On top of assisting children to develop specific skills, parents and all the involved parties need to support a healthy type of life style for the children. Some of the best practices include ample sleep, having balanced diet, and exercising regularly (Simpkin, Andrew J., et al. 549-558). Also teaching children on how to live a well and safe life at home is important. They also need regular medical checkups in order to maintain a healthy life.
The importance of managing a child’s development to adolescent is to ensure that the kid is fit to enter the next stage of development in good condition and health. By doing this, a child will manage to stay healthy and live a happy and healthy life. This topic is interesting as it supports healthy development of a child into adolescent.

Work cited
Papalia, Diane E., Sally Wendkos Olds, and Ruth Duskin Feldman. A child’s world: Infancy through adolescence. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1990.
Simpkin, Andrew J., et al. “The epigenetic clock and physical development during childhood and adolescence: longitudinal analysis from a UK birth cohort.” International journal of epidemiology 46.2 (2017): 549-558.

Running head: Rough Draft 1
Rough Draft 15

Rough Draft
Southern New Hampshire University
Brianne Bennett

Introduction

The creation of inclusion programs to integrate mainstream and special education environments promotes not only academic success for special need’s students and their peers, it is suggested to develop stronger peer relationships, improve overall academic performance and reduce social stigmatization for the next generation. Emphasizing on research designed to pin point a richer social academic environment for both classes of students, is on the rise and continues to lay an encouraging foundation which advocates for inclusive and adaptive education.
By evaluating research from six different studies, Johnson & Johnson (1980), laid an early foundation of evidence-based research to show the importance how inclusion classrooms created closer peer developed relationships that often lead to friendships. Their article (1980) also concluded the desire for non-handicapped students to help their handicapped peers and the desire for all to remain in the same classroom and negate the idea of leaving for outside instruction. In this article (1980), sample studies were collected from two different schools, a public school and a Catholic school between two sets of students: 6 non-handicapped students and 4 handicapped students to record the number of positive and negative interactions while participating in a social gathering at a bowling alley (Johnson & Johnson, 1980). The interactions were positive and created a healthy environment for the students to get to know each other and calm anxieties related to social stereotypes of retarded population (Johnson, et al., 1980). Appreciating this early work showcases the beginning ideas about the beginning ideas of inclusion, integration, advocation and the development of an integrated mainstream classroom setting for all children.
Similar research suggests that by incorporating special needs students in with non-disabled students’ greater academic success is seen in handicapped students because they are being held to a higher academic standard than they would in a special education class (Lawrence, 2018). Creating an inclusive academic environment in which both groups of children can learn, provides higher cognitive and motor skills by continuous interaction between the two groups (Lawrence, 2018). The exposure non-disabled children gain by being able to lead peer tutoring is rewarding to their social and cognitive development and also provides additional exposure to the learning material (Lawrence, 2018). Non-disabled children oftentimes have an enhanced self-esteem because they are able to be an advocate to their disabled peer, which in turn strengths peer relationships and promotes the understanding and importance of diversity at such a young age (Lawrence, 2018).
“A 2012 study by Dr Hehir (p. 13), examined the performance of 68,000 students with disabilities in Massachusetts and found that on average the greater the proportion of the school day spent with non-disabled students, the higher the mathematic and language outcomes for students with disabilities. Another study gathered evidence from a meta-analysis covering a total sample of almost 4,800,000 students has also confirmed the finding that inclusive learning environments have also been shown to have no detrimental impact, and some positive impact, on the academic performance of non-disabled students” (Hehir, p. 12, 2017). Dr. Hehir (2017), presented in an international report entitled, “A Summary of the Evidence on Inclusive Education,” that recognizes the importance in promoting inclusive education environments for disabled students and suggests evidence of remarkable growth from the exposure to same academic environment as their non-disabled peers. The key findings in his report (2017), suggest that, “included students with disabilities develop stronger skills in reading and mathematics, have higher rates of attendance, are less likely to have behavioral problems, and are more likely to complete secondary school than students who have not been included” (Hehir, 2017). His continued research indicates that disabled children learning in inclusive environments achieved higher academic success than those of their peers who had been educated in a segregated environment (Hehir, 2017).
A recent article by Wang (2019) collected the data of 20 special education students from 5 different secondary schools in Shanghai. Interviews samples from special needs students collected their perceptions on the limitations to their special education programs within physical education (Wang, 2019). Their responses showcased the lack of adequate resources which promote improper inclusion learning environments within the physical education program of the school (Wang, 2019). The article also addresses the psychosocial affects these limitations currently have on these student’s ability to thrive and learn in their academic environments (Wang, 2019). The authors findings from their evidence-based research, indicated a negative attitude from special need’s students due to the the school’s lack of proper equipment, architectural barriers and finances within their physical education environment (Wang, 2019). The interviews also concluded that these special needs students suffered from emotional instability, lower self-esteem and social isolation during their physical education class (Wang, 2019). Understanding these children’s viewpoints is a great way to understand their opinions of the negative effect the lack of inclusion-based equipment and programs in physical education has on their well-being and academic success (Wang, 2019).
In another study, “Inclusion in Education: Comparing Pupils’ Development in Special and Regular Education. Educational Review,” (2001), focuses on determining a stronger prevalence of academic success between two classroom environments and how that relates to both special needs children and their peer’s psychological development (Peetsma, Vergeer, Roeleveld, & Karsten, 2001). The author used a 2-year large-scale longitudinal study used both qualitative and quantitative examples and evidence to determine if pupils were advancing equally in both educational environments despite being inclusive or not (Peetsma et al., 2001).
The instruments used in this article were standardized achievement tests on language and math, questionnaires on students’ psychosocial behaviors, questionnaires on general education characteristics and interviews from students and teachers questioning them on their perceptions, self-image, family life, identity and overall health (Peetsma et al., 2001). The validity of these tests provides a clear lack of academic learning potential through test scores seen between two sets of classroom environments: mainstream and inclusion-based classrooms (Peetsma et al., 2001). The hypothesis suggested that the level quality and effective care provided by paraprofessionals couldn’t be confirmed (Peetsma et al., 2001). However, the degree in which the students were affected socially was reported greatly and therefor had higher positive effects on pupils’ testing scores and overall academics (Peetsma et al., 2001). Some special needs students perform better within mainstream environments and other do better in special education courses and the relevance is typically determined on level of that individuals cognitive, behavioral or intellectual impairments (Peetsma et al., 2001).
There is also evidence to show that the teachers provide a variable in the determination of best form practices for special needs students and suggests that the ways in which teachers are educated and preform their jobs determines overall successful outcomes (Peetsma et al., 2001). The authors conclusions emphasized the correlation certain variables had on the outcomes of their findings and suggested that some of which should continue to be researched (Peetsma et al., 2001). The variables that they mentioned throughout their article were the lack of proper teacher education and preparedness, the scale of what disability played a part in each individual student and the rate at which both of these variables were seen to affect the academic environment through mainstream and special education (Peetsma et al., 2001).
In conclusion, we remember the fascinating words of Franklin D. Roosevelt (n.d.), “We know that equality of individual ability has never existed and never will, but we do insist that equality of opportunity still must be sought.” As the research has been presented and evaluated there is a direct correlation to higher academic achievement for special needs children that are given the opportunity to learn in an inclusion-based learning environment alongside their non-disabled peers (Lawrence, 2018). Continuous research has also proven that the greatest impact both disabled and non-disabled students have is in their strengthened social skills, especially as it pertains to inter-personal skills and empathy (Lawrence, 2018). As researchers gather future data through multiple forms of testing and assessments, more light is shed on the successfulness of inclusion-based programs, therefore igniting advocacy efforts to further demand more inclusive based academic settings.

Annotated Bibliography

Huang, A. X., & Wheeler, J. J. (2006). Effective Interventions for Individuals with High-Functional Autism. International Journal of Special Education, 21(3), 165–175. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ843628&site=eds-live&scope=site
Annotation:
Huang & Wheeler (2006) refer to the importance educators and professionals have in creating interventions for autistic students. Their approach is to advocate the importance of creating inclusion based academic environments for autistic children through a specific design. They do a great job of applying the evidence-based research to advocate for the need for specialized programs to be set in place for autistic children. Their mentioning of structured teaching approaches, importance of routine and schedules, adapted instructional strategies, peer mediated interventions and modification learning environments helps to provide the importance of the need they are addressing. The authors do a great job in addressing the accumulation of these accommodations, interventions and adjustments which they suggest are imperative to the continued academic success each student. The studies and advocation groups presented within this article to provide these ideas will further promote the standards in which to keep raising the bar for the needs of autistic children.
The paper clearly showcases effective approaches used over decades and how those approaches have adapted and how they are still needing to be adapted. This article would benefit my topic of Cognitive Development from Childhood through Adolescence because as I am to focus on the importance of implementing adaptive learning.
Abstract from Author:
The diagnosis of high functioning autism (HFA) is not the end of comprehensive assessments. Since the 1970s, although a great deal of research has focused on developing effective educational approaches and interventions for children with autism, there is an increasing need to develop differentially effective educational approaches or interventions that are specifically for children with HFA. This paper reviews several effective, evidence based interventions that are widely used by special educators and professionals as best practices in the United States, including structured teaching approaches, peer-medicated interventions, self-monitoring or self-management strategies, video modeling, and social stories, with a hope that people in other places of the world can also find these interventions beneficial in teaching children with HFA.
Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1980). Integrating Handicapped Students into the Mainstream. Exceptional Children, 47(2), 90. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb&AN=21516416&site=eds-live&scope=site
Annotation:

Although this article is a tad old, it sets the foundation for what researchers were beginning to understand about the importance of including handicapped students in with their non-handicapped peers in a mainstream educational environment. The authors demonstrate their ideas through research comparing cooperative, competitive and individualist instruction for both sets of peers (Johnson & Johnson, 1980). By evaluating research from six different studies, Johnson & Johnson (1980), saw an increase in developed peer relationships, often leading to friendships, the desire for non-handicapped students to help their handicapped peers and the desire for all to remain in the same classroom and negate the idea of leaving for outside instruction.
Appreciating this early work showcases the beginning ideas about inclusion, integration, advocation and the development of an integrated mainstream classroom setting for all children. Applying this article to my topic and research will gain me the ground work on the early ideas researchers and educators sought to produce.
Abstract from Author:
The article reports on the integration of handicapped students into the mainstream. It establishes the importance of constructive interaction as the primary objective of mainstreaming. It discusses a theoretical model regarding how handicapped students can be successfully integrated into constructive peer relationships. It also outlines a set of practical strategies for educators based on the supporting evidence and theoretical model. The ways in which peer relationships contribute to the cognitive and social development of children and adolescents are enumerated.

Literature Review

Wang, L., (2019). Perspectives of Students with Special Needs on Inclusion in General Physical Education: A Social-Relational Model of Disability. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 36(2), 242–263. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=135690518&site=eds-live&scope=site
Perspectives of Students with Special Needs on Inclusion in General Physical Education: A Social-Relational Model of Disability (2019), was found on the SNHU Shapiro Library site, which I obtained by completing a search with specific results to include peer reviewed articles. This site is a credible university library database that contains reliable and valid documents for academic purposes. This article is a collection of data collected by interviews and studies of special needs students, on the specific lack of adequate resources which promote improper inclusion learning environments within the physical education program of the school. The article also addresses the psychosocial affects these limitations currently have on these student’s ability to thrive and learn in their academic environments. Understanding these children’s viewpoints is a great direct approach to their lack of inclusion which is important in their psychological development, which is the basis of this course.
The author used credible references throughout the article (providing in text citations as well as a complete reference list) that collected evidence-based research studies and data that included longitudinal studies, cross-sectional studies, peer-interviewed case studies and etiology of terminology. A semi-structured interview instrument was gathered from 20 students with various special needs in a secondary school in Shanghai. Their findings indicated a negative attitude from special need’s student on their perception of the school’s lack of proper equipment, architectural barriers and lack of financial support as it related to their academic achievements within their physical education course. The interviews concluded that the special needs students also suffered from emotional instability during their physical education class due to embarrassment of not being able to participate because of the lack of support tools, funding and architectural barriers. These students often deal with social isolation and low self-esteem due to their inability to properly participate with in their physical education class.
The validity and reliability of this article is seen through the direct quoted answers provided by the participants of the interviews as well as the data collected by responding teachers and peers. The insightfulness of this article demonstrates a thoughtful and reflective tone as it introduces the problem, researches through credible evidence-based interviews and delivers credible data in an easy to read format. Additions that would play an even greater relevance to the necessities to enrich physical education inclusion for special needs students would be to include other countries in a cross-sectional review. The limitations of this article only suggest findings from one school within one country and does not attest to how these same factors could be found throughout the world. The variables used were not specific enough and could narrow down the problematic areas more thoroughly. Using specific language to explain the ways in which architectural barriers were lacking and how these issues could be addressed would even provide greater understanding to a reader.
Peetsma, T., Vergeer, M., Roeleveld, J., & Karsten, S. (2001). Inclusion in Education: comparing pupils’ development in special and regular education. Educational Review, 53(2), 125–135. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1080/00131910120055552

Inclusion in Education: Comparing Pupils’ Development in Special and Regular Education. Educational Review (2001), was found on the SNHU Shapiro Library site in which I obtained by completing a search with specific results to include peer reviewed articles. This site is a credible academic source provided by a credible university that contains reliable and valid documents. The authors also note the cognitive and psychosocial development of these pupils in both mainstream and special education environments which also leads to connected understandings of this course’s description.
This article focuses on determining a stronger prevalence of academic success between two classroom environments and how that relates to both special needs children and their peer’s psychological development, which is the basis of this course. The author used a large-scale longitudinal study that include evidence-based research to back their thesis and support their argument. This study used both quantitative and a qualitative examples and research evidence including a large-scale 2-year longitudinal study that determined if pupils were advancing equally in both educational environments despite being inclusive or not.
The instruments used in this article were standardized achievement tests on language and math, questionnaires on students’ psychosocial behaviors, questionnaires on general education characteristics and interviews from students and teachers questioning them on their perceptions, self-image, family life, identity and overall health. The validity of these tests provides a clear lack of academic learning potential through test scores seen between two sets of classroom environments, mainstream and inclusion-based classrooms. Their hypothesis suggested that the level quality and effective care provided by paraprofessionals couldn’t be confirmed. However, the degree in which the students were affected socially was reported greatly and therefor had higher positive effects on pupils’ testing scores and overall academics. Some special needs students perform better within mainstream environments and other do better in special education courses and the relevance is typically determined on level of that individuals cognitive, behavioral or intellectual impairments.
There is also evidence to show that the teachers provide a variable in the determination of best form practices for special needs students and suggests that the ways in which teachers are educated and preform their jobs determines overall successful outcomes. The validity and reliability of this article because the length the evidence was collected by various types of reliable instruments provided rich and valid results. The measurement of success in conjunction to the goal of the instruments set to collect produced evidence-based findings that were helpful to back the authors thesis. The data analyzed through multiple instruments provided an in-depth collection of rich evidence-based research findings which was presented in a very clear manner.
The headlines and subtitles used helped to provide the data in a clear cut easy to ready format which enhanced the precision of their article. The authors also provided their conclusions where variables were seen to alter certain outcomes and added additional questions to their original theory. They emphasized the correlation these variables had on the outcomes of their findings and suggested that some of which should continue to be researched. The variables that they mentioned throughout their article were the lack of proper teacher education and preparedness, the scale of what disability played a part in each individual student and the rate at which both of these variables were seen to affect the academic environment through mainstream and special education. This article would provide a great collection of data for all public or special education professional; student and teacher, because it provides a broad knowledge pulled from a variety of reliable instruments.

References

Goodreads (2019). October 10, 2019. Franklin D. Roosevelt Quotes. Retrieved from https://www.goodreads.com/quotes/892493-we-know-that-equality-of-individual-ability-has-never-existed

Hehir, T. Dr., (2017). A Summary of the Evidence on Inclusion Education. Allmeansall.org. Retrieved from http://allmeansall.org.au/research/
Huang, A. X., & Wheeler, J. J. (2006). Effective Interventions for Individuals with High-Functional Autism. International Journal of Special Education, 21(3), 165–175. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=eric&AN=EJ843628&site=eds-live&scope=site

Johnson, D. W., & Johnson, R. T. (1980). Integrating Handicapped Students into the Mainstream. Exceptional Children, 47(2), 90. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=edb&AN=21516416&site=eds-live&scope=site
Lawrence, C., (2018). Advantages & disadvantages to mainstreaming special education children. Retrieved from: https://www.theclassroom.com/advantages-disadvantages-mainstreaming-special-education-children-25659.html

Peetsma, T., Vergeer, M., Roeleveld, J., & Karsten, S. (2001). Inclusion in Education: comparing pupils’ development in special and regular education. Educational Review, 53(2), 125–135. https://doi-org.ezproxy.snhu.edu/10.1080/00131910120055552

Wang, L., (2019). Perspectives of Students with Special Needs on Inclusion in General Physical Education: A Social-Relational Model of Disability. Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly, 36(2), 242–263. Retrieved from https://search-ebscohost-com.ezproxy.snhu.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=s3h&AN=135690518&site=eds-live&scope=site

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