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This should be a lively discussion around the research process and the use of evidence to answer clinical questions. Be sure to include what you learned from the presentation and how it impacts clinical practice. (approximately 200-250 words).
Please include this reference Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating evidence, 4th ed. Jones & Bartlett Learning. and please use another reference
Thank you.
This is the presentation:

Topic: Patient Safety in the Hospitalized Setting during a Pandemic

Clinical Problem: How does the shortage of PPE during the pandemic affect patient safety compared to before the pandemic.
· Ever since the February 2020, the US has been faced with a severe shortage of personal protective equipment (PPE) necessary for healthcare workers battling the COVID-19 pandemic. Without proper PPE, there is an increased risk of become ill which can subsequently reduce the quality and quantity of care provided to hospitalized patients (Cohen & Rodgers, 2020).
· According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention there has been a total number of 27,737,875 COVID-19 cases in the United States and 491,455 deaths within the last 30 days. The shortage of PPE has had a major effect on the nursing practice. One of the workarounds has been the reuse of single-use disposable masks or N95 respirators. It is reported that 27% of nurses have been in contact with positive COVID-19 patients without wearing appropriate PPE (Cohen & Rodgers, 2020).
The Research Process
· For this assignment, it was important to have a clear and relevant clinical problem that tremendously impacts nursing.
· Once we discussed different ideas, we arrived at a mutual agreement regarding our clinical problem and PICOT question that we will focus the group RUA on.
· Since we all completed previous research on the same clinical problem but had different PICOT questions, we peer reviewed articles that were relevant to the decided group PICOT question.
· We approved articles as a group that were published within the last 5 years.
· We all had assigned parts of the RUA to focus on but helped our team members as needed.
The Research Process, Cont’d.

What went well?

The group communicated efficiently and in a timely manner. We used different means of communication such as group chat, email and google docs, that allowed us to proficiently execute this assignment.

Barriers Encountered

When compiling references, there were duplicated articles that had to be eliminated. There were a few misunderstandings as far as the clarity of the assignment however, it was quickly resolved.

What is still needed?

Since the shortage of PPE is such a current clinical problem, research is still developing as the issue becomes resolved. Therefore, further evaluation and analysis is required to fully understand the magnitude of this issue.
Correlation to Identified Clinical Issue
Overall, our research findings as a group correlates to our clinical issue of PPE shortage. The correlation between our research findings provided evidence showing that a PPE shortage negatively impacts the hospital setting by increasing the transmission of the virus in various ways. As a result, patient safety is compromised. The groups chosen research articles that correlate to the clinical issue is broken down below:
· chose two cross-sectional studies. The first one was about the availability of PPE, diagnostic, and treatment facilities for healthcare workers involved with COVID-19 (Martin-Delgado et al., 2020). The second study focused on factors related to the access and use of PPE during the pandemic (Savoia et al., 2020).
· chose two studies that evaluated the effectiveness of PPE decontamination methods required during the PPE shortage, and these methods affected patient safety in the hospitalized setting.
· picked two studies related to PPE shortage in the hospital setting, the first study outlines contributing factors for the PPE shortages and the second study provides details on the decreased supply and the necessity of more ventilators and PPE.
· chose articles that elaborated on the negative effects that PPE shortages has on not only affected patients but healthcare workers as well. The drastic changes that included reusing PPE which were made for single use only was questioned. I discussed how the shortage of PPE may reduce the changes of containing the spread of the virus.
· chose two studies that analyzed the PPE shortage during the COVID-19 pandemic. These cases were compared to the PPE storage prior to the pandemic and during and saw the effects it made on patient safety.
· chose two articles that addresses the effect of COVID-19, including the challenges and solutions to the shortages of PPE
Validity of Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence
· The qualitative evidence in our presentation were the shortage of PPE equipment and how the healthcare workers were educated on the ways to use the supplies they had which in return as an intervention was educating the patients on ways to uses their masks and proper handwashing techniques.
· Within the articles there were clear explanations of PPE shortages in the United States while also outlining different statistics on the rapid increase of PPE shortage. For example, 33% of medical institutions were almost at depletion and 13% had run out of plastic face shields, with hospitals using numerous tactics to try to meet their demand, such as purchasing in the market and requesting donations.
Findings
· A study found that of a total of 516 physicians, only 13% had the appropriate PPE when they needed it (Savoia et al., 2020). Specifically, the N95 and N99 were most often reported as lacking.
· Out of 1,082 healthcare workers, 70% lacked sufficient PPE (Martin-Delgado et al., 2020).
· 27% of nurses reported they had been exposed to positive COVID-19 patients without wearing appropriate PPE (Cohen & Rodgers, 2020). This finding was very significant to the project because it outlined the increase of nurses reusing their masks due to the PPE shortage and how its very unsanitary and can cause healthcare workers and patients to become infected with COVID.
· To help maintain safety to both the patient and healthcare workers, many techniques have been implemented to decontaminate equipment. According to Rodriguez-Martinez, Sossa-Briceno, & Cortes (2020), the two best decontamination techniques are ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and vaporized hydrogen peroxide (p. 1528).
· Usage of PPE and how having a limited amount stored during the pandemic had a high-risk toll on patient, nurse/healthcare worker/visitor safety. Reports state that the morbidity rate falls between ages 40-49 at 0.4% and increased to 14.8% for those over 80 years old.
Validity of Qualitative and Quantitative Evidence
The quantitative evidence presented in our presentation described the reasoning behind the PPE shortage in the United States one being a dysfunctional budgeting model in hospital operating systems incentivizes hospitals to minimize costs rather than maintain adequate inventories of PPE (Cohen & Rodgers, 2020). Also, presented was statistics of 87% of nurses reported having to reuse a single-use disposable mask during their shifts.
Recommended
Practice Change
· Ensure only the proper methods for decontamination are being utilized
· Provide sufficient training and procedural guidelines to staff on how to decontaminate appropriately
· Studies have shown that not all decontamination methods currently used are effective at maintaining the integrity and filtration of that PPE, thus interfering with patient safety
· Most effective methods to date are ultraviolet germicidal irradiation and vaporized hydrogen peroxide (Rodriguez-Martinez, Sossa-Briceno, & Cortes, 2020)
· Effectiveness of these methods can be measured by quantitative data, including consistent testing, fit performance
· Measure the outcomes of this change through employee screening and audit to ensure compliance
· Provide healthcare workers in direct contact with COVID patients multiple sets of PPE
· Those with increased chances of infection should be considered.
· For example, the healthcare worker labels each set of PPE with a day of the week and only uses that set on the selected day.
· This allows the worker to switch between supplies, while letting the contaminants on the remaining supplies die off or become inactive.
· Possible PPE budget change
· Current budget focuses on minimizing costs in an effort to increase revenue
· New budgetary measures would consider interests of employers, employees, and patients in unison in order to be safer and more efficient
· Feasibility may be an issue, depending on the hospital
Suggestions for Implementation
In order to prevent shortages of PPE and increase inventory the following measures or approach should be implemented:
•Change the costing-model methods where hospitals use the profit motive when considering the purchase and maintenance of PPE inventories
•Enact laws that will enforce governmental agencies to maintain and distribute sufficient PPE to prevent future shortages and decrease costs. This would also help the government coordinate and supply states and hospitals with needed equipment.
•Add financial incentives so PPE producing manufacturers can be encouraged to develop, test and produce higher-quality, reusable PPE.
•Give OSHA authority to enforce protocols around PPE, such as requiring employers to get the correct equipment size for each health care worker
In Conclusion
· PPE is essential in promoting safety within the hospital environment.
· Aids in the preventing of the spread of infection in the hospital setting
· Provides a barrier for patients and employees and possible infections
· Covid- 19 Precautions (Mask, Gown, Googles, Gloves)
· OSHA enabling for enacting proper regulations
· Including management for cost effective savings

This should be a lively discussion around the research process and the use of evidence to
answer clinical questions. Be sure to include what you learned from the presentation and how it
impacts clinical practice. (approximately 200

250 words).

Please include this reference Houser, J. (2018).

Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating
evidence, 4th ed.

Jones & Bartlett Learning. and please use another reference

Thank you.

This is the presentation:

Topic:
Patient Safety in the Hospitalized Se
tting during a Pandemic

Clinical Problem:
How does the shortage of PPE during the pandemic affect patient safety compared to
before the pandemic
.

Ever since the February 2020, the US has been faced with a severe shortage of personal
protective
equipment (PPE) necessary for healthcare workers battling the COVID

19 pandemic.
Without proper PPE, there is an increased risk of become ill which can subsequently reduce the
quality and quantity of care provided to hospitalized patients (Cohen & Rodgers,

2020).

According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention there has been a total number
of 27,737,875 COVID

19 cases in the United States and 491,455 deaths within the last 30 days.
The shortage of PPE has had a major effect on the nursing p
ractice. One of the workarounds has
been the reuse of single

use disposable masks or N95 respirators. It is reported that 27% of
nurses have been in contact with positive COVID

19 patients without wearing appropriate PPE
(Cohen & Rodgers, 2020).

The Rese
arch Process

For this assignment, it was important to have a clear and relevant clinical problem that
tremendously impacts nursing.

Once we discussed different ideas, we arrived at a mutual agreement regarding our clinical
problem and PICOT question that

we will focus the group RUA on.

Since we all completed previous research on the same clinical problem but had different PICOT
questions, we peer reviewed articles that were relevant to the decided group PICOT question.

We approved articles as a group tha
t were published within the last 5 years.

We all had assigned parts of the RUA to focus on but helped our team members as needed.

The Research Process, Cont’d.

What went well?

The group communicated efficiently and in a timely manner. We used different
means of
communication such as group chat, email and google docs, that allowed us to proficiently execute this
assignment.

This should be a lively discussion around the research process and the use of evidence to
answer clinical questions. Be sure to include what you learned from the presentation and how it
impacts clinical practice. (approximately 200-250 words).
Please include this reference Houser, J. (2018). Nursing research: Reading, using, and creating
evidence, 4th ed. Jones & Bartlett Learning. and please use another reference
Thank you.
This is the presentation:
Topic: Patient Safety in the Hospitalized Setting during a Pandemic
Clinical Problem: How does the shortage of PPE during the pandemic affect patient safety compared to
before the pandemic.
• Ever since the February 2020, the US has been faced with a severe shortage of personal
protective equipment (PPE) necessary for healthcare workers battling the COVID-19 pandemic.
Without proper PPE, there is an increased risk of become ill which can subsequently reduce the
quality and quantity of care provided to hospitalized patients (Cohen & Rodgers, 2020).
• According to the Center for Disease Control (CDC) and Prevention there has been a total number
of 27,737,875 COVID-19 cases in the United States and 491,455 deaths within the last 30 days.
The shortage of PPE has had a major effect on the nursing practice. One of the workarounds has
been the reuse of single-use disposable masks or N95 respirators. It is reported that 27% of
nurses have been in contact with positive COVID-19 patients without wearing appropriate PPE
(Cohen & Rodgers, 2020).
The Research Process
• For this assignment, it was important to have a clear and relevant clinical problem that
tremendously impacts nursing.
• Once we discussed different ideas, we arrived at a mutual agreement regarding our clinical
problem and PICOT question that we will focus the group RUA on.
• Since we all completed previous research on the same clinical problem but had different PICOT
questions, we peer reviewed articles that were relevant to the decided group PICOT question.
• We approved articles as a group that were published within the last 5 years.
• We all had assigned parts of the RUA to focus on but helped our team members as needed.
The Research Process, Cont’d.
What went well?
The group communicated efficiently and in a timely manner. We used different means of
communication such as group chat, email and google docs, that allowed us to proficiently execute this
assignment.

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