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The review should be typed, double spaced, and in Times New Roman 12-point font. All citations and referencing will be done in APA style. See rubric for more details. YOU MUST earn a C or higher on the literature review to pass the class. If you do not earn a C or higher on the paper you will earn an F in the course regardless of the points you accumulated for class work. You must also earn a C or higher on the APA portion of your paper or you fail the paper regardless of your writing skills. You will then retake this class another semester and you are NOT GURANTEED to be in the class the following semester. You will be given a rubric and you must meet all of the basic standards for the paper before I will grade it. There is no redo on this paper.    The review must be 7 pages in length, typewritten, double-spaced, and must follow APA style. The 7-page length does not include your list of references or your cover page. Your paper must contain, on average, at least 2 references for each page in length (You will have a minimum of 10 references. Your references must be from scientific (i.e., refereed journals, scholarly books, or government or scholarly websites.) Your review must contain four sections: 1). Statement of the problem and research question: This is a short paragraph that states why your topic is an issue that needs to be studied and includes your research question. 2). Introduction: A general introduction to the topic you have chosen for your paper. (1 page). 3). Review of Literature: This section will be the major part of your paper. You will need  to organize your presentation into a cohesive theme. You will synthesize the research from  your literature search. You must also cite other studies conducted on your topic.(3-4 pages). 4). Methods: What would you do if you were to complete your research, how would you collect  Data? (1 page). 5). Summary: This is a paragraph or summarizing the most important information from your literature review. (1/2 – 1page). DO NOT just repeat all that you wrote. Literature Review Evaluation Criteria 1. Organization: Follow the organizational plan I give you. 2.Clarity – this will include grammar, spelling, sentence structure, and organization. You must use Grammarly and turn in a printout from Grammarly every time you turn in a rough draft of your papers. 3. Adequate summary of studies 4. Adequate number of references 5. Summary of your findings from the literature review
– I HAVE INCLUDED MY OUTLINE AND EXAMPLE OF HOW THIS PAPER SHOULD BE DONE 
-THIS PAPER SHOULD FOLLOW THE EXACT ORDER OF MY OUTLINE USING THR SAME SOURCES THAT ARE INCLUDED
-THERE SHOULD BE IN TEXT CITATIONS INCLUDED FROM THE SOURCES IN MY OUTLINE 
-10 SOURCES
-PLEASE READ THE OUTLINE
-ASLO MAKE SURE YOU FOLLOW THE CORRECT ORDER OF THE OUTLINE
Ja’Mya Wilburn
Misty Rhoads
PUBH 2800
31, January 2021

Outline
Topic: Teachers’ perception of mental health in the school system
I. Statement of the Problem

Students encounter stressors for instance cyber and physical bullying; conflicts with teachers, parents, and siblings; and peer pressure that negatively affects their mental health. Teachers are the first individuals to detect mental challenges in a student due to changes in behavior, academic performance, and social interactions that the students tend to develop when facing mental challenges. Many teachers have a positive perception towards mental health in the school system as they believe mental challenges are unavoidable challenges that student’s face ,and it is only having the issues professionally resolved that would help the students to attain academic goals.

II: teachers are the first mental conditions identifiers

a. Students –teacher relationship is strong which makes it possible for the teacher to detect mental conditions in the behavior and attitude of the student
b. There are a lot of stressors that makes students to suffer from mental conditions for instance conflicts within and outside the school and over 60% of students are victims

III. mental conditions professionals within a school

a. The presence of a counselor within a school setting makes referrals easy where the teacher is also involved and this makes intervention procedure interactive and effective
b. Counsellors who are normally a part of the school helps teachers to also understand behaviors to be on the lookout for and the necessary steps to make t

IV. teachers are highly skilled

a. Teachers are close and directly involved with students hence they can extend mental health using the school system in place
b. The teachers are trained how to handle students hence they stand a good position to help and they appreciate doing so since they are committed to help students realize their potentials

V. How to detect poor mental health amongst students

a. Change in behavior from good to bad
b. Drop in academic performance without a good explanation which means that it is likely the student is facing mentally challenging situations.

VI. How teachers handle mental health in their classrooms

a. Building good relationships with students to create trust that the student can use to share their challenges with the teachers
b. Referring the students to school counselors to have the issue professionally addressed.

VII. Upgrading of school system and teachers training

a. Having a school system that teaching socio-emotional skills, conflict management, and problem solving among others can help improve students’ mental health
b. Upgrading teacher training from a psychology perspective would place teachers in a better position to handle mental conditions affecting a majority of students.

References
DeKruyf, L., Auger, R. W., & Trice-Black, S. (2013). The role of school counselors in meeting students’ mental health needs: Examining issues of professional identity. Professional School Counseling, 16(5), 2156759X0001600502.
Fazel, M., Hoagwood, K., Stephan, S., & Ford, T. (2014). Mental health interventions in schools in high-income countries. The Lancet Psychiatry, 1(5), 377-387.
Franklin, C. G., Kim, J. S., Ryan, T. N., Kelly, M. S., & Montgomery, K. L. (2012). Teacher involvement in school mental health interventions: A systematic review. Children and Youth Services Review, 34(5), 973-982.
Guerra Jr, F. R., Tiwari, A., Razo, N. P., & Vela, L. J. C. (2020). Teachers’ Knowledge, Perception, Sense of Self-efficacy and Role in Mental Health for Middle School Students. A Commitment to Teaching: Toward More Efficacious Teacher Preparation, 113.
Harrap, C. (2016). Primary school teachers and child mental health: developing knowledge and understanding (Doctoral dissertation, Cardiff University).
Kerbih, H., Abera, M., Abrha, H., & Frank, R. (2014). Perception and attitude of primary school teachers towards child mental health and school based mental health programs in jimma towm, south west Ethiopia, 2013 (Doctoral dissertation).
Larson, H., & Caldwell, N. (2020). Teachers’ Perception of Mental Health in the School System. Journal of Counseling in Illinois, 8.
Whitley, J., Smith, J. D., & Vaillancourt, T. (2013). Promoting mental health literacy among educators: Critical in school-based prevention and intervention. Canadian Journal of School Psychology, 28(1), 56-70.

Running head: IMAGE OF POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 1

Image of the Police and Peoples’ Safety

Alex Love

Eastern Illinois University

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 2

Definition of Terms

For the purpose of this literature review, the terms referred to in this study are defined as follows:

Police: A group of people established to keep the law in check, follow procedure, and keep

communities safe. (“Police,” n.d.).

Police Brutality: Any unnecessary or extra power or force given by a police officer (“Police

Brutality,” n.d.).

Police Socialization: A process of how a police officer learns values, ethics, and their job titles

through schooling and the police academy.

Race: A group of people with similar genetic makeup and characteristics (“Race,” n.d.)

Ethnicity: A group of people who have a common belief system, way of speaking, religious

beliefs and customs (“Ethnicity,” n.d.)

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 3

CHAPTER 2

LITERATURE REVIEW

Statement of the Problem

Due to police brutality and the negative image of the police, people are less likely to trust

police officers and feel safe around police officers. This is a huge problem because the police are

put in place to make sure people are following the law and are keeping communities safe.

Without trust in the police, society is in jeopardy.

Introduction

In today’s society, millions of crimes are occurring every day. One of the first things

people do when crimes happen is call for help and the police arrive. Recently, many occurrences,

whether in the media or in the common neighborhood, are happening and are shaping the way

the police are being perceived on a daily basis. Research has shown two things; brutality and bias

in different race and ethnicities are changing people’s perception of the police and also reports of

crimes are changing people’s perception of the police. Studies have shown that trustworthiness in

police forces and the belief the justice system will prevail has fiercely shaped the public’s beliefs

(Sivasubramaniam & Goodman-Delahunty, 2008). Through social media, news media, print

media, and other forms of media, the police image is being reshaped in a negative way. With this

shift of police perception happening, there is a shift in how the media is handling the reporting of

crimes. Police officers are making efforts to change this perception, but unfortunately this

lacking of trust in the police is leading people to feel helpless and unsafe in communities around

the country and around the world. Due to negative images of the police, people are less likely to

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 4

trust police officers and feel safe around police officers, becoming a huge culture shift in today’s

society.

Perception of the Police

There are many factors as to why people do not feel safe around police officers, but

police brutality may be the biggest one. Police brutality is how police officers react to situations

in which a police force has to be used. Police brutality is dangerous, excessive and even deadly,

which instills a specific fear in the police, especially among different races and ethnicities.

According to McGregor (2015), police brutality creates uproars and feelings of unrest; leading to

long protests, similar to the civil rights protests in the 1960s.

One huge police brutality case recently in the media was the killing of Michael Brown

and Erin Garner. This previous autumn, through popular Internet media and protests, people held

police officers responsible because of feelings that the police committed wrongful deaths

(Charles, Himmelstein, Keenan, & Barcelo, 2015). These protests struck a flame across the

United States and are the beginning of the police brutality we know today, beginning the fear in

the police. Whether these deaths are wrongful or not, this is where the most recent distrust

among police officers in today’s society began. Different races and ethnicities feel differently

toward the police. Schuck, Rosenbaum, and Hawkins (2008), findings are that people of African

American and Hispanic descent have the worst perception of the police, over Caucasians who

have a positive perception of the police.

This negative image of the police doesn’t only happen in America, but across the world

as well. It is important to note that police brutality is not only prevalent in the United States, but

also in other countries. Sivasubramaniam and Goodman-Delahunty (2008), show how ethnic

minority groups in Australia are feeling toward law enforcement officials. “When asked to

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 5

indicate the percentage of time police are biased against their own ethnic group, 45 per cent of

respondents indicated that they believed the police were never biased against their own ethnic

group, and 0.3 percent of respondents indicated that they believed that police were always biased

against their own ethnic group” (Sivasubramaniam & Goodman-Delahunty, 2008, p. 394). These

feelings are occurring in Australia, and the same feelings are being experienced here in the

United States.

Police bias is strictly being monitored and reported to ensure bias is being recognized by

police officers of all ranges of hierarchy. By an act called the Hate Crime Statistics Act, police

officers are required to report any type of bias motivated arrests or stops, which are then reported

and sent to the state police (Cronin, McDevitt, Farrell & Nolan, 2007). By using this type of

monitoring system, people are able to see that police officers are indeed quick to be biased and

use that bias when dealing with citizens’ arrest. Police officers deal with thousands of people per

day who come from different walks of life and police officers are carrying out different

procedures, some of which proven to be bias motivated.

One of the most common duties of law enforcement is to perform routine traffic stops. A

study done by Fallik and Novak (2012), found routine traffic stops show how police officers

react to different ethnicities and races. It has been shown that people of minority status are most

likely to get stopped and searched, Blacks and Hispanics specifically, but Whites not nearly as

often (Fallik & Novak, 2012). The term bias is commonly being attached to how people perceive

the police and police brutality. A study done by A. Hall, Hall, and Perry (2016), found that a

person’s race is one of the biggest factors surrounding the police killings of people of African

American descent. A study done by Schuck et al. (2008), found African-Americans have the

most negative feelings toward the police. People of African American and Hispanic descent feel

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 6

as though police officers would be bothersome to their ethnicity, as opposed to White people

(Schuck et al., 2008). Police brutality instills fear and negative feelings toward the police.

Media and the Role of Police

In society today, all news and important information comes from the different forms of

media. There is social media, news media, and print media millions of people are reading every

second of the day. “Government organizations as diverse as the Federal Bureau of Investigations,

the Environment Protection Agency and a host of state and local governments are using

Facebook, Twitter, and YouTube to improve their communications with citizens” (van de Velde,

Meijer, & Homburg, 2015, p. 4). Social media creates a platform nearly everyone in society uses

to get the first-glimpse of what is happening across the world, including what is happening in

regards to the police and police brutality.

Law enforcement and negative news stories are nothing new in today’s society. These

stories have been occuring since the 1960s and officers are trying to maintain a positive image

ever since (Motschall & Cao, 2002). The problem with news stories in the media is that different

people have the ability to report anything, whether it is true or not. People in different are also

receiving information in different ways based on geographic location, access to news media, and

the culture in which the community resides. There is no question that police are being shown in

the news, but there is not a connection between the arrests and how police are following through

with police reports (Chermak, Scheer, & Wilson, 2014). Thus, a negative image of police

officers is being created in the news media. If the news media were willing to follow through

with the steps and procedures the police went through to make sure justice is served, people will

be able to understand better how much the police actually do.

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 7

To improve the communication between the news media and law enforcement, public

information officers are in place. This public information officer is in place to gain support from

communities and use public relations techniques. Public relations can be used to keep millions of

people more aware of a certain topic, or to promote positive messages if something bad has

happened. As more and more people are relying on the media and technology, having a liaison

between the police and the information the public is receiving is detrimental (Motschall & Cao,

2002).

This gap between the media and law enforcement has been around for years, and little

improvement is being made in the area. However, people are certainly trying to close that gap.

“Although police reform efforts and accreditation mandates have attempted to professionalize

the police, widespread media attention to local and national level events involving questionable

police tactics continue to have a negative effect on the overall image of law enforcement”

(Motschall & Cao, 2002, p. 154).

Improving the Image of the Police

The negative image of the police is not only affecting populations, it is affecting officers

themselves. Police officers have a negative stress level and have a problem with safety and

wellness. This can be detrimental for people in danger who needing the help of a law

enforcement officer. It is crucial a person has a good overall sense of well being within a

person’s established career (Kohan & O’Connor, 2002). With the negative image of the police

and people being so fearful of the police, it is not uncommon for a police officer to feel unworthy

and not satisfied in the law enforcement career path.

A study done by Mumford, Taylor and Kubu (2015), shows how a law enforcement

officer’s health is affected. The findings of how much stress and how much a police officer is at

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 8

risk for negative health effects are alarming (Mumford et al., 2015). Findings can be correlated to

how much negativity surrounds the police officer image. One study done by Wilkins and

Williams (2009) examined if having a specific minority group as police officers affects police

during routine traffic stops. The results show that having a person from a minority group as a

police officer, in this case Latino, is positive in regards to traffic stops by Latino drivers (Wilkins

& Williams, 2009). Having minority officers in the law enforcement field is beneficial to

everyone, including police officers themselves and the communities being served, based on the

study.

Another study by Conti and Doreian (2014) focuses on different races in a certain police

force and the positive and negative effects different races could have on the community the

police force is serving. This study ties together different ethnicities to create bonds among the

officers, as the hope is to make a positive affect on the police force. With so much segregation

among different ethnicities and races in society, people may think having different ethnicities

and races in a police force might be a negative thing. The study found that the term “we’re all

blue” is accurate; relationships among the officers, regardless of race and ethnicity, were created

and will have a positive affect on how police officers accomplish and experience their daily tasks

(Conti & Doreian, 2014).

Police officers are improving the image by exposing themselves to different minority

groups within police academies, making their police routine outside the academy positive.

According to a study by Cochran and Warren (2012), there is a connection between minority

police officers and a positive change in the way police officers and residents interact with each

other. It is found that people of minority status are more receptive to minority officers and are

more questionable if the officer is white (Cochran & Warren, 2012). Minority police officers

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 9

make people feel more comfortable, ultimately leading to a more positive image of law

enforcement. Law enforcement is constantly working on ways to improve their image, improve

their way of reacting to situations in a non-bias way, and making sure all people, especially

people of minority groups, feel safe in the presence of police officers.

Government officials are seeing the need for improving the image of the police.

McGregor (2015) found the government wants to put new laws in place to try to decrease the

fear of the police and try to clear up any confusion within bias crimes. These may be through

body armor, more cameras for each law enforcement unit to use, to have certain people put in

place for certain investigations, and to have people go through each crime to see what steps were

taken and why (McGregor, 2015). This will not only benefit the image of the police, but it will

clear up any problems with the media fabricating stories and police brutality in general, therefore

leading to a safer place for everyone to live.

Conclusion

Police brutality is any excessive and unnecessary amount of force given by a police

officer to a person who is dealing with the police. Police brutality is creating a negative image on

how people perceive law enforcement. With this being a major a problem in society, many

minority groups are retaliating against the police and protesting law enforcement for wrongful

deaths suits and occurrences of police brutality. Every minority group feels a different way

toward the police and studies show the amount of distrust in the police. Bias is feeling a certain

way toward a group of people and is another important topic in today’s society. Bias is an

important word to understand because police brutality stems from bias behaviors and thoughts by

the police. It is proven that law enforcement officers let bias get in the way of actions, leading to

the use excessive, unnecessary force. Through wrongful killings, wrongful traffic stops, and

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 10

performing everyday procedures with a bias motive, a negative police image follows. Media is a

huge factor affecting how people view the police because anyone has the ability writes about

police issues and police brutality, whether it be factual information or not. There is a need for a

positive media reform regarding law enforcement or people will continue to feel helpless about

police. Media stories may be fabricated and stretched leading to an outcry from minority groups

who may only know about certain police encounters from the media stories. Law enforcement

officers are well aware of this negative image and are trying to improve the police image.

Through combining minority groups within police forces, creating bonds within minority groups,

and improving relationships between citizens and officers, police officers are dedicating time and

are wanting to improve the image as quickly as possible. Starting in the police academy, police

officers are seeing a positive effect by instilling relations among officers of different minorities.

The image is slowly but surely returning to a more positive note, and will continue if changes are

made.

One gap in the literature is specifically how the everyday college student feels toward law

enforcement and what college students would do in a time of crisis. College is a time of growth,

change, and new experiences; some may even be dangerous, new experiences. It is important to

know if college students are willing to reach out and trust police for the sake of the safety of the

college students and the entire campus. College campuses have many procedures put in place for

students to carry out if an emergency was to occur. This could be through blue poles with

telephones connecting straight to the university police department, a hotline or text message alert

system to alert students of danger, or something as simple as police walking around making

students feel comfortable. It is important to study how receptive students are to use the unique

ways law enforcement is trying to connect with college students and keep college students safe.

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 11

Another gap in the literature is how college students of different ethnicities feel toward

the police and if those specific minority groups feel comfortable enough to reach out to law

enforcement when in trouble. Colleges and universities are full of cultural diversity and unique

backgrounds, making every group of people have different worldviews and beliefs. One minority

group’s belief in the police could stem from past experiences and the literature neglected to study

how police officers affect college student minority groups. It is essential to make minority

groups feel belonging on campus and feel comfortable asking for help, making this an important

gap to study.

Regardless of a person’s culture, ethnicity, or race, it is important to have people in place

to keep communities safe. Police brutality is a thing in society today, and will continue to be if

changes are not made and people continue to not feel safe. The everyday, common person needs

to be just as committed to making the positive change as much as the police officer to make a

turn around and make police brutality a piece of history.

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 12

References

Charles, D., Himmelstein, K., Keenan, W., & Barcelo, N., (2015). White coats for black lives:

Medical students responding to race and police brutality. Journal of Urban Health:

Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine, 92(6), 1007-1010.

Chermak, S., Scheer, C., &Wilson, J., (2014). Police consolidation in the news. Police

Quarterly, 17(2), 150-175.

Cochran, J., & Warren, P., (2012). Racial, ethnic, and gender differences in perceptions of the

police: the salience of officer race within the context of racial profiling. Journal of

Contemporary Criminal Justice, 28(2), 206-227.

Conti, N., & Doreian, P., (2014). From here on out, we’re all blue: Interaction order, social

infrastructure, and race in police socialization. Police Quarterly, 17(4). 414-447.

Cronin, S., McDevitt, J., & Nolan, J., (2007) Bias-crime reporting organizational responses to

ambiguity, uncertainty, and infrequency in eight police departments. American

Behavioral Scientist, 51(2), 213-231.

Ethnicity. (n.d.). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved from

http://www.dictionary.com/browse/ethnicity?s=t

Fallik, S., & Novak, K., (2012) The decision to search: is race or ethnicity important? Journal of

Contemporary Criminal Justice, 28(2), 146-165.

Hall, A., Hall, E., & Perry, J., (2016). Black and blue: Exploring racial bias and law enforcement

in the killings of unarmed black male civilians. American Psychologist. 71(3), 175-186.

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 13

Kohan, A., & O’Connor, B., (2002). Police officer job satisfaction in relation to mood, well-being,

and alcohol consumption. The Journal of Psychology, 136(3), 307-318.

McGregor, A., (2015). Politics, police accountability, and public health: Civilian review in

newark, new jersey. Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of

Medicine, 93(1), S141-S143.

Motschall, M., & Cao, L., (2002). An analysis of the public relations role of the police public

information officer. Police Quarterly, 5(2), 152-180.

Mumford, E., Taylor, B., & Kubu, B., (2015). Law enforcement officer safety and wellness.

Police Quarterly, 18(2), 111-133.

Police. (n.d.) In Dictionary.com. Retrieved from http://www.dictionary.com/browse/police?s=t

Police brutality. (n.d.). In Encyclopedia.com. Retrieved from

http://www.encyclopedia.com/history/dictionaries-thesauruses-pictures-and-press-

releases/police-brutality

Race. (n.d.). In Dictionary.com. Retrieved from http://www.dictionary.com/browse/race?s=t

Schuck, A., Rosenbaum, D., & Hawkins, D., (2008) The influence of race/ethnicity, social class,

and neighborhood context on residents’ attitudes toward the police. Police Quarterly,

11(4), 496-519.

Sivasubramaniam, D., & Goodman-Delahunty, J.,(2007) Ethnicity and trust: Perception of police

bias. International Journal of Police Science and Management, 10(4), 388-401.

van de Velde, B., Meijer, A., & Homburg, V., (2014). Police message diffusion on twitter:

analyzing the reach of social media communication. Behavior and Information

Technology, 34(1), 4-16.

IMAGE OF THE POLICE AND PEOPLES’ SAFETY 14

Wilkins, V., & Williams, B., (2009). Representing blue representing bureaucracy and racial

profiling in the latino community. Administration and Society, 40 (8), 775-798.

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