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Public Policy

Sixth Edition


Debbie, Kyle, and Darcy


Public Policy

Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives

Sixth Edition

Michael E. Kraft
University of Wisconsin–Green Bay

Scott R. Furlong
University of Wisconsin–Green Bay



CQ Press

An Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc.

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Copyright © 2018 by CQ Press, an Imprint of SAGE Publications, Inc. CQ Press is a
registered trademark of Congressional Quarterly Inc.

All rights reserved. No part of this book may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by
any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, or by any
information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher.

Printed in the United States of America

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Kraft, Michael E. | Furlong, Scott R., author.

Title: Public policy : politics, analysis, and alternatives / Michael E. Kraft, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay, Scott R.


Furlong, University of Wisconsin, Green Bay.

Description: Sixth edition. | Thousand Oaks, California: CQ Press, [2018] | Includes index.

Identifiers: LCCN 2017000975 | ISBN 9781506358154 (pbk. : alk. paper)

Subjects: LCSH: Policy sciences—Evaluation. | Political planning—Citizen participation. | Political planning—United
States—Evaluation. | Public administration—United States—Evaluation.

Classification: LCC H97.K73 2018 | DDC 320.60973—dc23 LC record available at

This book is printed on acid-free paper.

Acquisitions Editor: Carrie Brandon

Content Development Editors: Anna Villarruel, John Scappini

Editorial Assistant: Duncan Marchbank

Production Editor: Tracy Buyan

Copy Editor: Melinda Masson

Typesetter: C&M Digitals (P) Ltd.

Proofreader: Ellen Howard

Indexer: Diggs Publication Services

Cover Designer: Michael Dubowe

Marketing Manager: Amy Whitaker


Brief Contents

1. Boxes, Figures, and Tables
2. Preface
3. About the Authors
4. Part I The Study of Public Policy

1. 1 Public Policy and Politics
2. 2 Government Institutions and Policy Actors
3. 3 Understanding Public Policymaking

5. Part II Analyzing Public Policy
1. 4 Policy Analysis: An Introduction
2. 5 Public Problems and Policy Alternatives
3. 6 Assessing Policy Alternatives

6. Part III Issues and Controversies in Public Policy
1. 7 Economic and Budgetary Policy
2. 8 Health Care Policy
3. 9 Welfare and Social Security Policy
4. 10 Education Policy
5. 11 Environmental and Energy Policy
6. 12 Foreign Policy and Homeland Security

7. Part IV Conclusions
1. 13 Politics, Analysis, and Policy Choice

8. Glossary
9. References

10. Index


Detailed Contents

Boxes, Figures, and Tables
About the Authors

1 Public Policy and Politics
What Is Public Policy?
Defining Basic Concepts

Policy Analysis

Why Study Public Policy?
Citizens’ Ability to Participate and Make Choices
Citizens’ Ability to Influence Policy Decisions

The Contexts of Public Policy
Social Context
Economic Context
Political Context
Governing Context
Cultural Context

The Reasons for Government Involvement
Political Reasons
Moral or Ethical Reasons
Economics and Market Failures

The Practice of Policy Analysis
The Many Uses of Policy Analysis
Citizens’ Use of Policy Analysis
How to Decide Which Policy Is Best: Using Multiple Criteria

Discussion Questions
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites

2 Government Institutions and Policy Actors
Growth of Government
Government Institutions and Policy Capacity

The Evolution of Federal-State Relations
State Variation in Policy Capacity


Separation of Powers
Legislative Branch
Executive Branch
Judicial Branch

Informal Policy Actors and Policy Capacity
Public Opinion and Policymaking
Interest Groups, Nonprofits, and Public Policy
Policy Subgovernments and Issue Networks

Improving Policy Capacity
Discussion Questions
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites

3 Understanding Public Policymaking
Theories of Politics and Public Policy

Elite Theory
Group Theory
Institutional Theory
Rational Choice Theory
Political Systems Theory

The Policy Process Model
Problem Definition and Agenda Setting
Policy Formulation
Policy Legitimation
Policy Implementation
Policy Evaluation
Policy Change

Instruments of Public Policy
Government Management
Taxing and Spending
Market Mechanisms
Education, Information, and Persuasion

Policy Typologies
Discussion Questions
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites



4 Policy Analysis: An Introduction
The Nature of Policy Analysis
Steps in the Policy Analysis Process

Define and Analyze the Problem
Construct Policy Alternatives
Choose Evaluative Criteria
Assess the Alternatives
Draw Conclusions

Types of Policy Analysis
Scientific Approaches
Professional Approaches
Political Approaches

What Kind of Analysis Is Needed?
Deal with Root Causes or Make Pragmatic Adjustments?
Comprehensive Analysis or Short-Term Policy Relevance?
Consensual or Contentious Analysis?
Reliance on Rational Analysis or Democratic Politics?
Other Aspects of Policy Analysis

Discussion Questions
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites
Leading General Journals of Public Policy
Major Professional Newsweeklies with Policy Coverage

5 Public Problems and Policy Alternatives
Problem Analysis

The Nature of the Problem
Thinking about Causes and Solutions

How to Find Information
Constructing Alternatives

What Governments Can Do
Policy Typologies as Analytic Tools

Thinking Creatively about Policy Action
Discussion Questions
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites


6 Assessing Policy Alternatives

Evaluative Criteria for Judging Policy Proposals
Ethics and Political Values

Using the Methods of Policy Analysis
Economic Approaches

Cost-Benefit Analysis
Cost-Effectiveness Analysis
Risk Assessment

Decision Making and Impacts
Impact Assessment

Political and Institutional Approaches
Political Feasibility Analysis
Implementation Analysis and Program Evaluation

Ethical Analysis
Discussion Questions
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites

7 Economic and Budgetary Policy

Goals of Economic Policy

Economic Growth
Low Levels of Unemployment
Low Levels of Inflation
Positive Balance of Trade
Managing Deficits and Debt
Interrelationships of Economic Goals

Tools of Economic Policy
Fiscal Policy
Monetary Policy
Incentives, Subsidies, and Support
Tax Policy

The Budget Process and Its Effect on Economic Policy


Assumptions and Planning
Agency Budget Development
OMB Budget Review
Congressional Review
Budget Execution and Control

Economic Policy: Successes and Failures
Significant Income Tax Cuts
Responses to the Deficit
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009

Economic Issues and Challenges
Maintaining Economic Growth
Growth of Entitlements
Income Inequality

Focused Discussion: How to Address the Budgetary Shortfall
Economic Issues
Political Issues
Equity and Other Ethical Issues

Discussion Questions
Major Legislation
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites

8 Health Care Policy

Evolution of Health Care Policy
A Hybrid System of Public and Private Health Care
The Perils of Being Uninsured
Strengths and Weaknesses of the U.S. Health Care System
A Pluralistic Health Care System

Major Government Health Care Programs
Veterans’ Health Care

Other Health Care Policy Issues
Patients’ Rights

Rising Health Care Costs
State Policy Innovations
Regulation of Prescription Drugs

Managed Care Organizations


Reducing Health Care Costs
Quality of Care

Medical Errors
Focused Discussion: Should There Be Greater Emphasis on Preventive
Health Care?

Economic Efficiency Issues
Equity and Other Ethical Issues

Discussion Questions
Major Legislation
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites

9 Welfare and Social Security Policy

Social Security

Social Security’s Changing Demographics
Problems with Social Security
Financing Social Security

The Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program
Aid to Families with Dependent Children
The Earned Income Tax Credit
Welfare Reform Options
Welfare Reform Law
Analysis of the Welfare Reform Law

Focused Discussion: Can We Do Better? Addressing Poverty
Economic and Effectiveness Issues
Political Issues
Ethics and Equity Issues

Discussion Questions
Major Legislation
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites

10 Education Policy


Problems Facing Education
Separation of Church and State

Education Policy Reforms
Merit Pay
Teacher Standards, Certification, and Salaries
School Vouchers, School Choice, and Charter Schools
School Testing

Higher Education Issues
Affirmative Action
Costs of Higher Education

Focused Discussion: Higher Education Affordability, Cost, and Value
Economic Issues
Political Issues
Equity and Ethical Issues

Discussion Questions
Major Legislation
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites

11 Environmental and Energy Policy
The Evolution of Environmental and Energy Policy

Early Environmental and Energy Policies
The Modern Environmental Movement and Policy Developments

From Consensus to Conflict in Environmental Policy
Major Federal Environmental Policies

The National Environmental Policy Act
Environmental Protection Statutes and the EPA
Natural Resource Policies

Energy Policy
Focused Discussion: Climate Change and Energy Policy Alternatives

Economic Issues
Political Feasibility
Ethical Issues

Discussion Questions
Major Legislation


Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites

12 Foreign Policy and Homeland Security
Background and Policy Evolution

The Marshall Plan, NATO, and the Cold War
The United Nations and Globalization
Military Buildup and Nuclear Weapons
The Intelligence Agencies and the War in Iraq
Economic and Military Assistance: Foreign Aid

Selected Issues in Homeland Security
Comparing Homeland Security Threats: How Vulnerable Are We?
The Case of Transportation Security

Focused Discussion: Civil Liberties in an Age of Terrorism
Effectiveness and Efficiency
Legal and Ethical Concerns

Discussion Questions
Major Legislation
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites

13 Politics, Analysis, and Policy Choice

Policy Analysis, Citizen Participation, and Policy Change
Public Policies and Their Impacts

Policy Conflicts and Incremental Decision Making
Policy Strategies with No Crystal Ball

Policy Analysis and Policy Choices
Evaluating Public Policy
Improving Policy Capacity

Citizen Participation in Decision Making
Citizen Capacity and Policy Engagement
New Forms of Citizen Participation

Discussion Questions
Major Legislation
Suggested Readings
Suggested Websites




Boxes, Figures, and Tables

Chapter 1
Working with Sources: Interest Groups on the Web (box) 12
Working with Sources: The Public’s Political Knowledge (box) 13
Private Goods and Public Goods (figure) 26
Steps to Analysis: How to Interpret Policy Studies (box) 29

Chapter 2
Federal, State, and Local Agents of Policymaking and Avenues of Policy
Formation (figure) 46
Working with Sources: State Public Policies (box) 50
Working with Sources: Congress (box) 53
Working with Sources: Executive Departments and Agencies (box) 57
Federal Cabinet Departments and Major Agencies (table) 59
Working with Sources: The Federal Judiciary (box) 61
Steps to Analysis: Public Opinion (box) 63
How Much Americans Worry about Global Warming (figure) 63
Working with Sources: Interest Group Policy Strategies (box) 66

Chapter 3
The Policy Process Model (table) 90
Steps to Analysis: What’s on the Agenda? (box) 95
Steps to Analysis: Appraising Policy Formulation (box) 99
Steps to Analysis: Judging Policy Legitimation (box) 101
Instruments of Public Policy (figure) 107

Chapter 4
Steps in the Policy Analysis Process (figure) 124
Orientations to Policy Analysis (figure) 132
Steps to Analysis: Think Tank Positions on Policy Issues (box) 133
Working with Sources: Comparing Think Tanks (box) 135

Chapter 5
National Health Expenditure and Revenue by Category, 2015 (figure) 153
Working with Sources: Sustainable Development Indicators (box) 155
Steps to Analysis: Major Components of Problem Analysis (box) 160
What Governments Can Do (figure) 165
Steps to Analysis: Policy Design Tools (box) 167

Chapter 6
Selected Criteria for Evaluating Public Policy Proposals (figure) 183
Steps to Analysis: Conducting a Cost-Benefit Analysis (box) 196
Steps to Analysis: Ethical Analysis: The Case of Organ Donation (box) 213

Chapter 7
Steps to Analysis: Employment and Unemployment Statistics (box) 231


Working with Sources: The Consumer Price Index (box) 233
Tools of Monetary Policy (figure) 239
Steps to Analysis: Variables in Making Tax Policy (box) 243
The Federal Budgetary Process (figure) 244
Working with Sources: Views on Economics and Budgeting (box) 253
Fiscal 2017 Proposed Federal Budget by Category (in billions of dollars)
(figure) 255

Chapter 8
Working with Sources: Health Care Policy Information (box) 275
Major Features of the Affordable Care Act (box) 278
Major Government Health-Related Programs (table) 284
National Health Expenditures, 1980–2025 (in current dollars) (table) 293
Steps to Analysis: Regulation of New Drug Approval (box) 297
State Obesity Rates, 2015 (figure) 304
Working with Sources: Ethical Issues in Health Care (box) 307

Chapter 9
Characteristics of Individuals Living below Poverty, 2014 (figure) 320
U.S. Poverty Rates by Age, 1959–2015 (figure) 320
Gini Coefficient for U.S. Income Distribution, 2015 (figure) 321
Income Distribution in the United States, 2015 (table) 322
Shares of Aggregate Income of Elderly by Source, 2014 (figure) 325
Steps to Analysis: AARP as an Advocacy Group (box) 327
Fewer Workers per Retiree, 1955–2090 (figure) 328
Working with Sources: Welfare and the Weakening Economy (box) 338
Number of Families Receiving AFDC/TANF Benefits for Every 100
Families with Children in Poverty (figure) 341

Chapter 10
Steps to Analysis: What Successful Education Programs Require (box) 360
Steps to Analysis: State Education Funding (box) 361
Steps to Analysis: Civic Knowledge (box) 364
Median Salaries of Selected Occupations, 2015 (table) 370
Teachers’ Salaries Relative to Earning for Similarly Educated Workers,
2013 (figure) 370
Inflation-Adjusted Tuition and Fees, 1986–1987 and 2016–2017 (figure)
Steps to Analysis: “I’m a Student Debt Slave” (box) 379
Federal Loans and Pell Grants Awards by Type of Institution, 2013–2014
(table) 379
Educational Appropriations per Pupil, Percent Change by State, 2010–
2015 (figure) 381
2015 Mean Salaries of Males and Females over Age Twenty-five, by
Educational Attainment (table) 383


Number of Loans and Loan Amounts for First-Time, Full-Time
Undergraduate Students for Their First Year in College (in constant 2013
dollars) (table) 387

Chapter 11
Steps to Analysis: Sustainable Development (box) 401
Major U.S. Environmental Laws, 1964–2016 (table) 407
Steps to Analysis: Voting Records on the Environment (box) 410
League of Conservation Voters’ Environmental Voting Scores: U.S.
Congress—by Chamber and Party, 1970–2015 (figure) 410
Working with Sources: Executive Agencies with Environmental
Responsibilities (box) 412
Working with Sources: Environmental Policy Advocacy (box) 417
Working with Sources: Evaluating Environmental and Energy Policy (box)
Comparison of Growth Areas and Emissions, 1980–2015 (figure) 421

Chapter 12
Steps to Analysis: The National Security Agency and Domestic Surveillance
(box) 447
Steps to Analysis: What Is the Cost of the Global War on Terrorism? (box)
Foreign Aid Given by OECD Countries, Total (in billions of dollars) and as
Percent of Gross National Income, 2015 (figure) 462
Top Foreign Aid Recipients, 2016, Including Military Assistance,
Estimated (figure) 463
Steps to Analysis: Should Passenger Aircraft Be Equipped with Antimissile
Defense Systems? (box) 470

Chapter 13
Steps to Analysis: Money in Politics (box) 506
Steps to Analysis: Using Websites to Influence Public Opinion and Policy
Debate (box) 509



Forecasts about likely future conditions often are hard to make. But we can be sure of one
thing. Health care costs are going to soar in the coming decades as the baby boom
generation continues to age and demands an array of increasingly expensive medical
services. From 2008 through 2013, U.S. health care spending grew by less than 4 percent
annually, one of the lowest rates in more than fifty years, providing some modest relief
from what had been an unrelenting upward spiral in costs. In 2014, the rate increased
somewhat from these levels, rising to 5.3 percent, following a 2.9 percent rise in 2013,
largely because of expanded coverage under the Affordable Care Act; and in 2015, the rate
increased again, to 5.8 percent. Total health care spending rose to a record high of $3.2
trillion in 2015, or almost 18 percent of the nation’s gross domestic product (GDP). The
United States spent $9,900 per person for health care in 2015, a figure certain to grow
substantially over the next decade. Indeed, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services
projects that per capita spending on health care by 2025 will be an astonishing $16,032
and that overall health care spending will rise to $5.6 trillion, or nearly 20.1 percent of

The new spending figures were released in late 2016, more than six years after President
Barack Obama succeeded in gaining approval from Congress for his sweeping changes in
health care policy, the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act of 2010, also known as
Obamacare. One purpose of the act was to slow the rate of increase in the nation’s health
care spending. Whatever effects the complex and far-reaching act may have, assuming that
it survives continuing legal challenges and opposition by Republicans in Congress as well as
the administration of President Donald Trump, we are still likely to see an ongoing rise in
national health care costs. What is the best way to deal with these ballooning costs,
particularly in light of other trends—for example, continuing high levels of obesity—that
could drive up costs even further? How should we protect the solvency of the Medicare
trust fund as demands from baby boomers threaten to bankrupt it and jeopardize benefits
for future generations? Indeed, what forms of health care and Social Security will be
available to the generation of citizens now in their teens and twenties? What are the
alternatives from which we must choose, and on what basis should we decide?

Such public policy decisions touch nearly every aspect of daily life in the United States,
although many people fail to recognize or fully understand their impacts. Social Security
reform, for example, may not seem terribly urgent to most young people today, but it
undoubtedly will shape the quality of their lives decades down the road. This is why
citizens need to understand not only how governments make policy choices but also how to
evaluate those choices in what is often a sea of conflicting and misleading information and
arguments. We believe the reason to be politically aware is simple: policymakers are more


responsive to the public’s preferences and needs and, in some cases, are more effective when
citizens take a greater interest in public affairs and play a more active role in the
policymaking process. We hope this text stimulates readers’ interest and concern while
equipping them with the skills they need to think critically and creatively about policy

The subtitle of this book—Politics, Analysis, and Alternatives—explicitly expresses what we
are trying to accomplish, which differs from conventional books on public policy. This text
integrates three aspects of public policy study: government institutions and the
policymaking process, the concepts and methods of policy analysis, and the choices that we
make collectively about substantive public policies at all levels of government. Throughout,
we focus on the interrelationship of government institutions, the interests and motivations
of policy actors both inside and outside of government, and the role of policy analysis in
clarifying public problems and helping citizens and policymakers choose among policy
alternatives. These central themes are reinforced by providing students with the tools they
need—how to find key and reliable information, how to use specific evaluative criteria,
how to apply policy analysis methods and critical thinking, and how to assess the role of
politics in policymaking—to investigate issues and carry out policy analysis on their own.
We believe that this hands-on approach is the best way to teach the skills of analysis and
give students not only an understanding of the conduct of public policy but also a way into
the process.


A Focus on Policy Analysis

By emphasizing the pervasiveness of public policy, we try to make its study a vital activity
for students. They can better appreciate the power they wield to effect change in the system
once they are armed with the tools of policy analysis. However, the logic of public policy
and its study must be addressed before students encounter these powerful tools of the trade.
In Part I, we demonstrate that public policy choices are not made in a vacuum. Social,
economic, political, and cultural contexts matter, as do the distinguishing characteristics of
the U.S. government and the rationales behind government intervention. An
understanding of the structure of institutions, the motivation of policy actors (both formal
and informal), and the unique nature of the U.S. political system will allow students to
comprehend the complexity of government while discovering opportunities for engagement
with the process. We present multiple perspectives on the policymaking process, from elite
theory to rational choice theory, but concentrate on the policy process model—a portrayal
of policymaking as a sequence of key activities from agenda setting to policy
implementation—that is used in the rest of the book. We hope these chapters encourage
students to ask how decisions are made as well as why they are made in one way and not

Part II gets to the heart of the book and explains the approaches and methods of policy
analysis, laying a foundation for dissecting and understanding public problems and policy
choices. With careful application of the tools and perspectives of policy analysis, students
can interpret complex and conflicting data and arguments, evaluate alternative courses of
action, and anticipate the consequences of policy choices. Specific cases—from tax cuts and
cell phone use by drivers to immigration reform and energy policy—illustrate both the
difficulty of policy analysis and its value in policymaking. Students learn how to find and
interpret policy-relevant information and to acquire an understanding of the limitations to
what government can do about public problems. The evaluative criteria at the book’s core
—a focus on effectiveness, efficiency, and equity—train students to think clearly about
policy alternatives. Ethical considerations necessarily receive considerable attention as do
the more common concerns over effectiveness and efficiency. Brief case studies, such as
those involving organ donation, personal privacy in relation to homeland security goals,
national energy policy and climate change, and the morality of contraceptive coverage
under the Affordable Care Act, give students the opportunity to grapple with controversial
issues for which no policymaker has the answer.

Part III consists of six substantive policy chapters designed to illustrate and apply the
concepts and methods introduced in the first two sections of the book. The six core policy
areas—economics and budgeting, health care, welfare and Social Security, education,
energy and the environment, and foreign policy and homeland security—represent a
substantial part of contemporary U.S. policymaking and also present a diversity of


economic, political, and ethical issues for analysis. This part of the text offers a clear picture
of the issues that beginning analysts would encounter in policymaking or in the evaluation
of all areas of public policy. For readers who want to probe more deeply into those policy
areas that we discuss peripherally—for instance, criminal justice and civil rights and
liberties—we strongly recommend Issues for Debate in American Public Policy (2017), which
offers selections from the CQ Researcher and abundant references to current policy debates.

Consistent with the text’s emphasis on analysis, we begin each policy area chapter with a
brief illustration of a policy scenario, such as the rising costs of health care and the gap
between spending and results, the persistence of poverty in the United States, conflicts over
energy policy and climate change, and the balance between domestic surveillance by the
National Security Agency (NSA) and civil liberties, to spark student interest. A background
section describes the public problems faced and the solutions chosen to date. We briefly
summarize major policies and programs, discuss when and how they came into effect,
review available policy evaluations, and suggest how students can investigate policy
alternatives. At the end of each chapter, we offer a focused discussion of policy reform in
terms of several of the key evaluative criteria used throughout the text, particularly
effectiveness, efficiency, equity, and ethics. These discussions link closely to the kinds of
questions that can be asked about any proposal for policy change and how it might be
addressed. In Part IV, a concluding chapter brings together the arguments of the text,
evaluates opportunities for citizen involvement in policymaking, and looks to future
challenges in public policy.


New to This Edition

We made a great many changes throughout the text while preparing this sixth edition. We
updated material in every chapter, particularly those that focus on substantive policy topics,
and streamlined content to present the most essential information. In all chapters, we
incorporated new studies and interpretations and made use of new illustrations and case
studies of policy controversies and actions. In addition, we sought throughout the text to
improve the clarity of presentation and to update all references to websites and
recommended readings. We continue to use learning objectives that begin each chapter;
they help to guide students on key chapter content and takeaways. Graphics in Parts I and
II of the book provide illustrations of processes and functions essential to policymaking,
enlivening the text and providing more material for visual learners. Throughout, the
content benefits from a new interior layout that we began in the last edition to refresh the
book’s look and bring a splash of color.


Special Features

To underscore the importance we place on active learning and critical engagement, we
include two unique text boxes to guide students as they research policy problems:
“Working with Sources” and “Steps to Analysis.” The Working with Sources feature
identifies important sources of information and how to utilize them, providing step-by-step
suggestions on how to make good (and critical) use of the information found on Internet
sites—among other resources—that offer important data sources and policy perspectives.
The Steps to Analysis feature invites critical thinking about specific policy problems. It
demonstrates how to ask the urgent questions that drive policy analysis, and then presents
ways to narrow and refine these questions into feasible projects. To further direct students
to the information they need, discussion questions at the end of each chapter get at, for
instance, the “best” way to deal with health care concerns, environmental problems,
education issues, or homeland security. These questions are followed by annotated suggested
readings, suggested websites, a list of major legislation where appropriate, a list of keywords,
and chapter notes. Students will find a list of references and a glossary at the end of the book
as well. All have been updated for this edition of the text.


SAGE edge for CQ Press

This edition comes with a full range of high-quality, class-tested instructor and student
ancillaries prepared by Chris Borick. Each ancillary is specifically tailored to Public Policy.

SAGE edge offers a robust online forum featuring an impressive array of tools and resources
for review, study, and further exploration, keeping both instructors and students on the
cutting edge of teaching and learning. SAGE edge content is open access and available on
demand at

SAGE edge for students helps enhance learning and offers a personalized approach to
coursework in an easy-to-use environment.

Mobile-friendly eFlashcards strengthen understanding of key terms and concepts.
Mobile-friendly …

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