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Writing a Sociology research paper
Dr. Lynette Osborne
Keiser University

What is a Research Paper?
What is IS
A five paragraph paper explaining a topic
Based on research papers and scholarly sources

What it is NOT
A personal opinion paper
A paper based on blogs, non-research-based information (e.g., web sites that are not from the government, education, or non-partisan research organizations)

Writing Tips
Phrases to AVOID
“I think…”
“I agree…”
“I saw…

Phrases to USE
“According to Schaefer (2015)…”
“Data collected by the FBI (https://www.fbi.gov/about-us/investigate/white_collar) indicate that …”
“Research indicates that…(citation)”

Remember that a research paper means everything you include should come from the sources you read rather than personal opinion or experience.

Overview

Title page

Introduction
Three Content Paragraphs
Conclusion

Reference page

Where to Start?
Topic: White Collar Crimes

Find out what white collar crimes are

Schaefer Textbook

FBI web page

These sources will be the basis for your paper!

Think about what you’d like to write about
What two types of White Collar crime are of interest to you?
Which seem most interesting to explain?

Outline
Why an outline?
Outlines help keep your writing focused
They also help your readers know what the paper is about

Example
Introduction
Identity Theft
Bank Fraud
Health Care Fraud
Conclusion

Introduction
What is an Introduction?
It’s a preview of your paper; a summary of your main ideas from the sources you’ve read
It should be 4-5 sentences
First sentence: statement of main topic (white collar crime)
Sentences 2-3: main concepts/types to discuss
Final sentence: thesis statement (concise summary of the main point of your paper)
It should be clear, concise, written in professional tone, and contain no errors
It should contain in text citations to the research sources where appropriate

Content Paragraph 1
Content paragraphs are the “meat” of your paper
Based on research sources (provided by your professor: textbook and FBI web links)
Content paragraph 1:
Define white collar crime and identify one type of white collar crime
Discuss what white collar crimes are and who they affect
Identify, define, and discuss one type of white collar crime
It should be clear, concise, written in professional tone, and contain no errors
It should contain in text citations to the research sources

Content Paragraphs 2 & 3
Select two additional types of white collar crimes to discuss
For each type of white collar crime, include information like:
What it is
Who it affects
How many are committed each year
Anything else you find from the FBI web links!
They should be clear, concise, written in professional tone, and contain no errors
They should contain in text citations to the research sources

Conclusion
A concluding paragraph should be
3-5 sentences that summarizes your main points (do not add new information in this paragraph)
clear, concise, written in professional tone, and contain no errors
formatted with APA in text citations to the research sources where appropriate

Reference Page

Following APA guidelines, provide a final page in your essay that has a list of the sources you used to write your paper
Review APA guidelines at the Purdue OWL so that you correctly format the
Heading
Reference for the textbook
References for the FBI web links
Order of the references and other basic formatting rules

Proof Reading and Editing
When you’re happy with your content, go back through your paper and proof read/edit for
College level language
Correct sentence structure, grammar, spelling, capitalization, punctuation, etc
Citations and references
Are all instructions followed? If not, correct them!

Save and Upload
When you’ve finished proof reading and editing your paper, save your document and upload it to the Week 4 Essay portal by Thursday of Week 4, 11:59pEST
Late papers are accepted until the final day of the class, with a 5 point penalty for each day late

Page iii

sociology
a brief introduction

13th edition

Richard T. Schaefer
DePaul University

Page iv

SOCIOLOGY: A BRIEF INTRODUCTION, THIRTEENTH EDITION
Published by McGraw-Hill Education, 2 Penn Plaza, New York, NY 10121.
Copyright © 2019 by McGraw-Hill Education. All rights reserved. Printed in
the United States of America. Previous editions © 2017, 2015, and 2013. No
part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by
any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior
written consent of McGraw-Hill Education, including, but not limited to, in
any network or other electronic storage or transmission, or broadcast for
distance learning.
Some ancillaries, including electronic and print components, may not be
available to customers outside the United States.
This book is printed on acid-free paper.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 LWI 21 20 19 18

ISBN 978-1-259-91243-6 (bound edition)
MHID 1-259-91243-4 (bound edition)
ISBN 978-1-260-15379-8 (loose-leaf edition)
MHID 1-260-15379-7 (loose-leaf edition)

Executive Portfolio Manager: Claire Brantley
Lead Product Developer: Dawn Groundwater
Marketing Manager: Will Walter
Lead Content Project Manager, Core: Susan Trentacosti
Content Project Manager, Assessment: George Theofanopoulos
Content Project Manager: Sandra Schnee
Senior Buyer: Laura M. Fuller
Design: Jessica Cuevas
Senior Content Licensing Specialist: Ann Marie Jannette
Cover Image: ©Tassii/Getty Images

Compositor: Aptara®, Inc.

All credits appearing on page or at the end of the book are considered to be
an extension of the copyright page.

   Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

Names: Schaefer, Richard T., author.
Title: Sociology : a brief introduction / Richard T. Schaefer, DePaul
University.
Description: 13th Edition. | Dubuque : McGraw-Hill Education, [2019] |
Revised edition of the author’s Sociology : a brief introduction, [2016]
Identifiers: LCCN 2018039145| ISBN 9781259912436 (alk. paper) | ISBN
1259912434 (alk. paper)
Subjects: LCSH: Sociology.
Classification: LCC HM585 .S324 2019 | DDC 301—dc23 LC record
available at https://lccn.loc.gov/2018039145

The Internet addresses listed in the text were accurate at the time of
publication. The inclusion of a website does not indicate an endorsement by
the authors or McGraw-Hill Education, and McGraw-Hill Education does not
guarantee the accuracy of the information presented at these sites.

mheducation.com/highered

Page v

dedication
To my grandchildren, Matilda and Reuben. May they enjoy

exploring life’s possibilities.

Page vii

about the author
Richard T. Schaefer: Professor Emeritus, DePaul

University
BA, Northwestern University,
MA, PhD, University of Chicago

Growing up in Chicago at a time when neighborhoods were going
through transitions in ethnic and racial composition, Richard T.
Schaefer found himself increasingly intrigued by what was happening,
how people were reacting, and how these changes were affecting
neighborhoods and people’s jobs. His interest in social issues caused
him to gravitate to sociology courses at Northwestern University,
where he eventually received a BA in sociology.

“Originally as an undergraduate I thought I would go on to law
school and become a lawyer. But after taking a few sociology courses,
I found myself wanting to learn more about what sociologists studied,
and fascinated by the kinds of questions they raised.” This fascination
led him to obtain his MA and PhD in sociology from the University of
Chicago. Dr. Schaefer’s continuing interest in race relations led him to
write his master’s thesis on the membership of the Ku Klux Klan and
his doctoral thesis on racial prejudice and race relations in Great
Britain.

Dr. Schaefer went on to become a professor of sociology at DePaul
University in Chicago. In 2004 he was named to the Vincent DePaul
professorship in recognition of his undergraduate teaching and
scholarship. He has taught introductory sociology for over 35 years to
students in colleges, adult education programs, nursing programs, and
even a maximum-security prison. Dr. Schaefer’s love of teaching is
apparent in his interaction with his students. “I find myself constantly
learning from the students who are in my classes and from reading
what they write. Their insights into the material we read or current
events that we discuss often become part of future course material
and sometimes even find their way into my writing.”

Dr. Schaefer is the author of the thirteenth edition of Sociology
(McGraw-Hill, 2012), Sociology in Modules, fourth edition (McGraw-
Hill, 2018), the seventh edition of Sociology Matters (McGraw-Hill,
2018), and, with Robert Feldman, Sociology and Your Life with
P.O.W.E.R. Learning (2016). He is also the author of Racial and
Ethnic Groups, now in its fifteenth edition (2019), Racial and Ethnic
Diversity in the USA (first edition, 2014), and Race and Ethnicity in the
United States, (ninth edition, 2019), all published by Pearson.
Together with William Zellner, he coauthored the ninth edition of
Extraordinary Groups, published by Waveland Press in 2015. Dr.
Schaefer served as the general editor of the three-volume
Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity, and Society, published by Sage in
2008. These books have been translated into Chinese, Japanese,
Portuguese, and Spanish, as well as adapted for use in Canadian
colleges.

Dr. Schaefer’s articles and book reviews have appeared in many
journals, including American Journal of Sociology; Phylon: A Review
of Race and Culture; Contemporary Sociology; Sociology and Social
Research; Sociological Quarterly; Patterns of Prejudice; and Teaching
Sociology. He served as president of the Midwest Sociological Society
in 1994–1995.

Dr. Schaefer’s advice to students is to “look at the material and
make connections to your own life and experiences. Sociology will
make you a more attentive observer of how people in groups interact
and function. It will also make you more aware of people’s different

needs and interests—and perhaps more ready to work for the
common good, while still recognizing the individuality of each person.”

1
2
3
4
5

6
7
8

9
10
11
12
13
14

Page viii

brief contents
Chapter Opening Excerpts xiv
Boxed Features xv
Social Policy Sections xvii
Maps xvii
Tracking Sociological Perspectives Tables xviii
Summing Up Tables xviii

Understanding Sociology . . . 1
Sociological Research . . . 25
Culture . . . 48
Socialization and the Life Course . . . 69
Social Interaction, Groups, and Social

Structure . . . 90
Mass Media and Social Media . . . 117
Deviance, Crime, and Social Control . . . 138
Stratification and Social Mobility in the United

States . . . 163
Global Inequality . . . 190
Racial and Ethnic Inequality . . . 208
Stratification by Gender and Sexuality . . . 239
The Family and Household Diversity . . . 261
Education and Religion . . . 284
Government and the Economy . . . 313

15

16

Health, Population, and the Environment . . .
339

Social Change in the Global Community . . .
370

Glossary 395
References 403
Name Index 441
Subject Index 450
Applications of Sociology’s Major Theoretical Approaches 469
Coverage of Race and Ethnicity, Gender, and Social Class 470

Page ix

contents
Chapter Opening Excerpts xiv
Boxed Features xv
Social Policy Sections xvii
Maps xvii
Tracking Sociological Perspectives Tables xviii
Summing Up Tables xviii

1 Understanding Sociology 1

©Cathy Yeulet/123RF

What Is Sociology? 3
The Sociological Imagination 3
Sociology and the Social Sciences 3
Sociology and Common Sense 5

What Is Sociological Theory? 6
The Development of Sociology 7
Early Thinkers 7
Émile Durkheim 8
Max Weber 8
Karl Marx 9

W. E. B. DuBois 10
Twentieth-Century Developments 10

Major Theoretical Perspectives 12
Functionalist Perspective 12
Conflict Perspective 13
Interactionist Perspective 14
The Sociological Approach 15
 Research Today: Looking at Sports from Five Sociological Perspectives 16

Taking Sociology with You 17
Applied and Clinical Sociology 17
Developing a Sociological Imagination 18
 Sociology in the Global Community: Your Morning Cup of Coffee 19

Appendix: Careers in Sociology 20

2 Sociological Research 25

©Jim West/PhotoEdit

What Is the Scientific Method? 27
Defining the Problem 27
Reviewing the Literature 28
Formulating the Hypothesis 28
Collecting and Analyzing Data 29
Developing the Conclusion 30

In Summary: The Scientific Method 31

Major Research Designs 32
Surveys 32
 Our Wired World: Surveying Cell Phone Users 33
Ethnography 34
Experiments 34
 Research Today: Visual Sociology 35
Use of Existing Sources 36

Ethics of Research 37
Confidentiality 37
Conflict of Interest 37
 Taking Sociology to Work: Dave Eberbach, Associate Director, Iowa
Institute for Community Alliances 38
Value Neutrality 39

Feminist Methodology 39
Queer Theory and Methodology 40
The Data-Rich Future 40
SOCIAL POLICY AND SOCIOLOGICAL
RESEARCH: STUDYING HUMAN SEXUALITY 41
Appendix I: Using Statistics and Graphs 42
Appendix II: Writing a Research Report 44

3 Culture 48

©Nick Fox/Alamy Stock Photo

What Is Culture? 50
Cultural Universals 50
Ethnocentrism 51
Cultural Relativism 51
Sociobiology and Culture 51

Role of Language 52
Language: Written and Spoken 52
Nonverbal Communication 53

Norms and Values 54
Norms 54
 Sociology in the Global Community: Symbolizing 9/11 55
Values 56

Global Culture War 57
 Sociology on Campus: A Culture of Cheating? 58

Sociological Perspectives on Culture 58
Cultural Variation 59
Subcultures 59
Countercultures 60
 Research Today: How Millennials View The Nation: Racial and Ethnic
Vantage Points 61
Culture Shock 61

Page x

Development of Culture around the World 62
Innovation 62
Globalization, Diffusion, and Technology 62
 Sociology in the Global Community: Life in the Global Village 63
 Sociology in the Global Community: Cultural Survival in Brazil 64

SOCIAL POLICY AND CULTURE: BILINGUALISM
64

4 Socialization and the Life Course 69

©Mike Kemp/Getty Images.

The Role of Socialization 71
Social Environment: The Impact of Isolation 71
The Influence of Heredity 72

The Self and Socialization 74
Sociological Approaches to the Self 74
 Sociology on Campus: Impression Management by Students 76
Psychological Approaches to the Self 76

Agents of Socialization 77
Family 77
 Research Today: Rum Springa: Raising Children Amish Style 78
 Taking Sociology to Work: Rakefet Avramovitz, Program Administrator,
Child Care Law Center 79

School 79
Peer Group 79
Mass Media and Technology 80
 Research Today: Parental Monitoring of the Digital World 81
Workplace 81
Religion and the State 82

Socialization throughout the Life Course 82
The Life Course 82
Anticipatory Socialization and Resocialization 83

Role Transitions throughout the Life Course 84
The Sandwich Generation 84
Adjusting to Retirement 84

SOCIAL POLICY AND SOCIOLOGICAL
RESEARCH: CHILD CARE AROUND THE WORLD
86

5 Social Interaction, Groups, and Social Structure 90

©Caia Image/Glow Images

Social Interaction and Reality 92
Elements of Social Structure 93
Statuses 93
 Research Today: Disability as a Master Status 94

Social Roles 95
Groups 96
 Taking Sociology to Work: Sarah Levy, Owner, S. Levy Foods 98
Social Networks 99
Social Institutions 99
 Research Today: Twitter Networks: From Wildfires to Hurricanes 100

Understanding Organizations 102
Formal Organizations and Bureaucracies 102
Characteristics of a Bureaucracy 102
 Sociology in the Global Community: McDonald’s and the Worldwide
Bureaucratization of Society 105
Bureaucracy and Organizational Culture 106

Social Structure in Global Perspective 107
Durkheim’s Mechanical and Organic Solidarity 107
Tönnies’s Gemeinschaft and Gesellschaft
Lenski’s Sociocultural Evolution Approach 107
 Our Wired World: Becoming Social in a Gesellschaft 108
 Sociology in the Global Community: Disney World: A Postmodern Theme
Park 111

SOCIAL POLICY AND ORGANIZATIONS: THE
STATE OF THE UNIONS WORLDWIDE 112

6 Mass Media and Social Media 117

©Franziska Krug/German Select/Getty Images

Sociological Perspectives on the Media 119
Functionalist Perspective 119
Conflict Perspective 120
 Our Wired World: Inside the Bubble: Internet Search Filters 123
 Taking Sociology to Work: Lindsey Wallem, Social Media Consultant 125
 Sociology in the Global Community: The Global Disconnect 126
Feminist Perspective 127
Interactionist Perspective 127
 Our Wired World: Apps for Global Refugees 129

The Audience 129
Who Is in the Audience? 129
The Segmented Audience 130
Audience Behavior 131

The Media’s Global Reach 131
SOCIAL POLICY AND THE MEDIA: CENSORSHIP
133

7 Deviance, Crime, and Social Control 138

©Frederic J. Brown/AFP/Getty Images

What Is Deviance? 140
Deviance and Social Stigma 141

Page xi

Deviance and Technology 141

Social Control 141
Conformity and Obedience 142
Informal and Formal Social Control 143
 Sociology on Campus: Binge Drinking 144

Law and Society 145
Sociological Perspectives on Deviance
146
Functionalist Perspective 146
 Research Today: Debtors’ Jails in the Twenty-First Century 147
Interactionist Perspective 148
 Research Today: Does Crime Pay? 149
Labeling Perspective 150
Conflict Perspective 151
Feminist Perspective 152

Crime: A Sociological Approach 152
 Sociology on Campus: Packing Firearms on Campus 153
Victimless Crimes 153
Professional Crime 154
Organized Crime 154
White-Collar and Technology-Based Crime 154
Hate Crimes 155
Transnational Crime 155

Crime Statistics 156
Index Crimes and Victimization Surveys 156
Crime Trends 157
International Crime Rates 157
 Taking Sociology to Work: Stephanie Vezzani, Special Agent, U.S. Secret

Service 158

SOCIAL POLICY AND SOCIAL CONTROL: GUN
CONTROL 158

8 Stratification and Social Mobility in the United
States 163

©PeerPoint/Alamy Stock Photo

Systems of Stratification 165
Slavery 165
Castes 167
Estates 167
Social Classes 168
 Research Today: The Shrinking Middle Class 169

Sociological Perspectives on Stratification 170
Karl Marx’s View of Class Differentiation 170
Max Weber’s View of Stratification 171
Interactionist Perspective 171

Is Stratification Universal? 172
Functionalist Perspective 172
Conflict Perspective 172
Lenski’s Viewpoint 174
 Research Today: Taxes as Opportunity 174

Stratification by Social Class 175
Objective Method of Measuring Social Class 175
Gender and Occupational Prestige 176
Multiple Measures 176

Income and Wealth 176
Poverty 177
 Research Today: Calculating Your Risk of Poverty 178
Studying Poverty 179
Who Are the Poor? 180
Feminization of Poverty 180
The Underclass 181
Explaining Poverty 181

Life Chances 181
 Sociology on Campus: Student Debt 182

Social Mobility 183
Open versus Closed Stratification Systems 183
Types of Social Mobility 183
Social Mobility in the United States 184

SOCIAL POLICY AND STRATIFICATION:
EXECUTIVE COMPENSATION 186

9 Global Inequality 190

©Stockbyte/Getty Images

The Global Divide 192
 Sociology in the Global Community: It’s All Relative: Appalachian
Poverty and Congolese Affluence 193

Stratification in the World System 193
The Legacy of Colonialism 193
Poverty Worldwide 196
Millennium Development Goals 196
 Sociology in the Global Community: Walking the Last Mile in Uganda:
The Avon Approach 197
Multinational Corporations 198
Modernization 200

Stratification within Nations: A Comparative
Perspective 201
Distribution of Wealth and Income 201
Social Mobility 201
 Sociology in the Global Community: Getting Ahead Globally 203

SOCIAL POLICY AND GLOBAL INEQUALITY:
RETHINKING WELFARE IN EUROPE AND NORTH
AMERICA 204

10 Racial and Ethnic Inequality 208

©Diego G Diaz/Shutterstock

Page xii

Minority, Racial, and Ethnic Groups 210
Minority Groups 210
Race 211
Ethnicity 212

Prejudice and Discrimination 213
Prejudice 213
Color-Blind Racism 213
 Sociology on Campus: Bias in Awarding Scholarship Money 214
Discriminatory Behavior 214
The Privileges of the Dominant 216
 Taking Sociology to Work: Jennifer Michals, Program Assistant, Center
for Native American and Indigenous Research, Northwestern University 217
Institutional Discrimination 217

Sociological Perspectives on Race and Ethnicity
218
Functionalist Perspective 219
Conflict Perspective 219
Labeling Perspective 219
Interactionist Perspective 220

Spectrum of Intergroup Relations 221
Genocide 221
Segregation 222
Amalgamation 222
Assimilation 222
Pluralism 222

Race and Ethnicity in the United States 223
African Americans 223
Native Americans 224

 Sociology in the Global Community: The Aboriginal People of Australia
225
Asian Pacific Americans 225
Arab Americans 228
Latinos 229
 Research Today: Hurricane Maria and the Puerto Rican Community 230
Jewish Americans 231
White Ethnics 232

Immigration and Continuing Diversity 233
SOCIAL POLICY AND RACIAL AND ETHNIC
INEQUALITY: GLOBAL REFUGEE CRISIS 234

11 Stratification by Gender and Sexuality 239

©Jupiterimages/Getty Images

Social Construction of Gender 241
Gender Roles in the United States 241
Cross-Cultural Perspective 243
 Sociology in the Global Community: Women in Combat Worldwide 244

Labeling and Human Sexuality 245
Gender and Human Sexuality 245
 Sociology in the Global Community: No Gender, Please: It’s Preschool!
246
Labeling and Identity 246

Sociological Perspectives on Gender 247
Functionalist Perspective 247
 Research Today: Measuring Discrimination Based on Sexual Identity 248
Conflict Perspective 248
Feminist Perspective 249
Intersections with Race, Class, and Other Social Factors 249
Interactionist Perspective 250

Women: The Oppressed Majority 251
Sexism and Sex Discrimination 251
The Status of Women Worldwide 251
 Sociology in the Global Community: The Head Scarf and the Veil:
Complex Symbols 252

The Workforce of the United States 253
Labor Force Participation 253
Compensation 253
Social Consequences of Women’s Employment 255

Emergence of a Collective Consciousness 256
SOCIAL POLICY AND GENDER STRATIFICATION:
WORKPLACE SEXUAL HARASSMENT 256

12 The Family and Household Diversity 261

©Eyecandy Images/AGE Fotostock

Global View of the Family 263
Composition: What Is the Family? 263
Kinship Patterns: To Whom Are We Related? 264
Authority Patterns: Who Rules? 265
 Research Today: An Extraordinary Patriarchy: The Oneida Community
265

Sociological Perspectives on the Family 266
Functionalist Perspective 266
Conflict Perspective 266
Interactionist Perspective 267
Feminist Perspective 267

Marriage and Family 268
Courtship and Mate Selection 268
 Our Wired World: Love Is in the Air and on the Web 269
Variations in Family Life and Intimate Relationships 270
Child-Rearing Patterns 271
 Research Today: Transracial Adoption: The Experience of Children from
Korea 273

Divorce 275
Statistical Trends in Divorce 275
Factors Associated with Divorce 276
Impact of Divorce on Children 276

Lesbian and Gay Relationships 276
Diverse Lifestyles 277
Cohabitation 277
Remaining Single 277
Marriage without Children 278

SOCIAL POLICY AND THE FAMILY: FAMILY

Page xiii

LEAVE WORLDWIDE 279

13 Education and Religion 284

©Martin Shields/Alamy Stock Photo

Sociological Perspectives on Education 286
Functionalist Perspective 286
Conflict Perspective 289
Feminist Perspective 291
 Sociology on Campus: The Debate over Title IX 292
Interactionist Perspective 292

Schools as Formal Organizations 293
Bureaucratization of Schools 293
 Taking Sociology to Work: Diane Belcher Gray, Assistant Director of
Volunteer Services, New River Community College 294
Teachers: Employees and Instructors 294
Student Subcultures 296
Homeschooling 297

Durkheim and the Sociological
Approach to Religion 297
World Religions 298
Sociological Perspectives on Religion 299
The Integrative Function of Religion 300

Religion and Social Support 300
Religion and Social Change 301
Religion and Social Control: A Conflict Perspective 302
Feminist Perspective 302

Components of Religion 303
Belief 303
Ritual 304
Experience 304

Religious Organization 305
Ecclesiae 305
Denominations 305
Sects 306
New Religious Movements or Cults 306
Comparing Forms of Religious Organization 306
 Research Today: The Church of Scientology: Religion or Quasi-Religion?
307

SOCIAL POLICY AND EDUCATION: CHARTER
SCHOOLS 308

14 Government and the Economy 313

©Jim West/The Image Works

Economic Systems 315
Capitalism 315
Socialism 317
The Informal Economy 318

Power and Authority 318
Power 318
Types of Authority 319

Types of Government 320
Monarchy 320
Oligarchy 320
Dictatorship and Totalitarianism 320
Democracy 320

Political Behavior in the United States 321
Participation and Apathy 321
Race and Gender in Politics 322
 Research Today: The Latino Political Voice 323

Models of Power Structure in the United States
324
Power Elite Models 324
Pluralist Model 325

War and Peace 326
War 326
 Our Wired World: Politicking Online 327
Peace 327
Terrorism 328
 Taking Sociology to Work: Joseph W. Drummond, Management Analyst,
U.S. Army Space and Missile Defense Command 329

Changing Economies 330

The Changing Face of the Workforce 330
 Research Today: Affirmative Action 331
Deindustrialization 331
The Sharing Economy 332
The Temporary Workforce 333
Offshoring 333

SOCIAL POLICY AND THE ECONOMY:
MICROFINANCING 334

15 Health, Population, and the Environment 339

©Hung_Chung_Chih/Getty Images

Sociological Perspectives on Health and Illness
341
Functionalist Perspective 341
Conflict Perspective 342
Interactionist Perspective 343
Labeling Perspective 344

Social Epidemiology and Health 345
Social Class 345
Race and Ethnicity 346
Gender 346
Age 347
Gender Identity 347

Health Care in the United States 347
A Historical View 348
Physicians and Patients 348
 Research Today: Health Care, Retail Style 349
Alternatives to Traditional Health Care 349
The Role of Government 350

What Is Mental Illness? 351
Theoretical Models of Mental Disorders 351
Patterns of Care 352

Population 353
Demography: The Study of Population 353
World Population Patterns 355
 Sociology in the Global Community: Population Policy in China 356
Fertility Patterns in the United States 357

Migration 358
International Migration 358
Internal Migration 359

Sociological Perspectives on the Environment 359
Human Ecology 359
Conflict Perspective on the Environment 359
Ecological Modernization 360
Environmental Justice 360

Environmental Issues 361
Air Pollution 361
 Sociology in the Global Community: Environmental Refugees 362
Water Pollution 362
Climate Change 363

Page xiv
SOCIAL POLICY AND THE ENVIRONMENT:
ENVIRONMENTALISM 364

16 Social Change in the Global
Community 370

©Caro/Alamy Stock Photo

Social Movements 372
Relative Deprivation Approach 373
Resource Mobilization Approach 374
Gender and Social Movements 374
New Social Movements 374
 Sociology in the Global Community: Women’s Social Movements in South
Korea, India, and Bangladesh 375

Communications and the Globalization of Social
Movements 376
 Our Wired World: Organizing for Controversy via Computer-Mediated
Communication 377

Theories of Social Change 377
Evolutionary Theory 377
Functionalist Perspective 379
Conflict Perspective 379

Resistance to Social Change 380

Economic and Cultural Factors 380
Resistance to Technology 381

Global Social Change 382
Anticipating Change 382
Social Change in Dubai 382

Technology and the Future 383
Computer Technology 384
 Our Wired World: The Internet’s Global
 Profile 385
Artificial Intelligence 386
Privacy and Censorship in a Global Village 386
Biotechnology and the Gene Pool 387

SOCIAL POLICY AND GLOBALIZATION:
TRANSNATIONALS 388

Glossary 395
References 403
Name Index 441
Subject Index 450
Applications of Sociology’s Major Theoretical Approaches 469
Coverage of Race and Ethnicity, Gender, and Social Class 470

chapter opening excerpts
Every chapter in this textbook begins with an excerpt from one of the works listed
here. These excerpts convey the excitement and relevance of sociological inquiry
and draw readers into the subject matter of each chapter.

Chapter 1
Outcasts United by Warren T. St. John 2

Chapter 2
The Tender Cut: Inside the Hidden World of Self-Injury by Patricia A. Adler and
Peter Adler 26

Chapter 3
“Body Ritual among the Nacirema” by Horace Miner 49

Chapter 4
The Wolfpack by Crystal Moselle 70

Chapter 5
“The Psychology of Imprisonment” by Philip Zimbardo 91

Chapter 6
Reclaiming Conversation: The Power of Talk in a Digital Age by Sherry Turkle 118

Chapter 7
Cop in the Hood: My Year Policing Baltimore’s Eastern District by Peter Moskos
139

Chapter 8
Speech at the Federal Reserve Bank of Boston by Janet Yellen 164

Chapter 9
Portfolios of the Poor: How the World’s Poor Live on $2 a Day by Daryl Collins,
Jonathan Morduch, Stuart Rutherford, and Orlanda Ruthven 191

Chapter 10
Asian American Dreams: The Emergence of an American People by Helen Zia 209

Chapter 11
Everyday Sexism: The Project That Inspired a Worldwide Movement by Laura
Bates 240

Chapter 12
The Accordion Family: Boomerang Kids, Anxious Parents, and the Private Toll of
Global Competition by Katherine S. Newman 262

Chapter 13
The Death and Life of the Great American School System by Diane Ravitch 285

Chapter 14
Who Rules America? The Triumph of the Corporate Rich, 7th edition, by G.
William Domhoff 314

Chapter 15
Shopping Our Way to Safety: How We Changed from Protecting the Environment
to Protecting Ourselves by Andrew Szasz 340

Chapter 16
Social Movements and New Technology by Victoria Carty 371

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Page xv

boxed features

RESEARCH TODAY
Looking at Sports from Five Sociological Perspectives 16

Visual Sociology 35
How Millennials View the Nation: Racial and Ethnic Vantage Points

61
Rum Springa: Raising Children Amish Style 78
Parental Monitoring of the Digital World 81
Disability as a Master Status 94
Twitter Networks: From Wildfires to Hurricanes 100
Debtors’ Jails in the Twenty-First Century 147
Does Crime Pay? 149
The Shrinking Middle Class 169
Taxes as Opportunity 174
Calculating Your Risk of Poverty 178
Hurricane Maria and the Puerto Rican Community 230
Measuring Discrimination Based on Sexual Identity 248
An Extraordinary Patriarchy: The Oneida Community 265
Transracial Adoption: The Experience of Children from Korea 273
The Church of Scientology: Religion or Quasi-Religion? 307
The Latino Political Voice 323
Affirmative Action 331
Health Care, Retail Style 349

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SOCIOLOGY IN THE GLOBAL
COMMUNITY

Your Morning Cup of Coffee 19
Symbolizing 9/11 55
Life in the Global Village 63
Cultural Survival in Brazil 64
McDonald’s and the Worldwide Bureaucratization of Society 105
Disney World: A Postmodern Theme Park 111
The Global Disconnect 126
It’s All Relative: Appalachian Poverty and Congolese Affluence 193
Walking the Last Mile in Uganda: The Avon Approach 197
Getting Ahead Globally 203
The Aboriginal People of Australia 225

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Women in Combat Worldwide 244
No Gender, Please: It’s Preschool! 245
The Head Scarf and the Veil: Complex Symbols 252
Population Policy in China 356
Environmental Refugees 362
Women’s Social Movements in South Korea, India, and Bangladesh

375

OUR WIRED WORLD
Surveying Cell Phone Users 33

Becoming Social in a Gesellschaft 108
Inside the Bubble: Internet Search Filters 123
Apps for Global Refugees 129
Love Is in the Air and on the Web 269

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Politicking Online 327
Organizing for Controversy via Computer-Mediated Communication

377
The Internet’s Global Profile 385

SOCIOLOGY ON CAMPUS
A Culture of Cheating? 58

Impression Management by Students 76
Binge Drinking 144
Packing Firearms on Campus 153
Student Debt 182
Bias in Awarding Scholarship Money 214
The Debate over Title IX 292

©Andersen Ross/Blend Images

TAKING SOCIOLOGY TO WORK
Dave Eberbach, Associate Director, Iowa Institute for Community Alliances 38
Rakefet Avramovitz, Program Administrator, Child Care Law Center 79
Sarah Levy, Owner, S. Levy Foods 98
Lindsey Wallem, Social Media Consultant 125
Stephanie Vezzani, Special Agent, U.S. Secret Service 158
Jennifer Michals, Program Assistant, Center for Native American and Indigenous
Research, Northwestern University 217
Diane Belcher Gray, Assistant Director of Volunteer Services, New River
Community College 294
Joseph W. Drummond, Management Analyst, U.S. Army Space and Missile
Defense Command 329

©Ingram Publishing

Page xvii

social policy sections

Chapter 2
Social Policy and Sociological Research: Studying Human Sexuality
41

Chapter 3
Social Policy and Culture: Bilingualism 64

Chapter 4
Social Policy and Sociological Research: Child Care around the World
86

Chapter 5
Social Policy and Organizations: The State of the Unions Worldwide
112

Chapter 6
Social Policy and the Media: Censorship 133

Chapter 7
Social Policy and Social Control: Gun Control 158

Chapter 8
Social Policy and Stratification: Executive Compensation 186

Chapter 9
Social Policy and Global Inequality: Rethinking Welfare in Europe and
North America 204

Chapter 10
Social Policy and Racial and Ethnic Inequality: Global Refugee Crisis
234

Chapter 11
Social Policy and Gender Stratification: Workplace Sexual
Harassment 256

Chapter 12
Social Policy and the Family: Family Leave Worldwide 278

Chapter 13
Social Policy and Education: Charter Schools 308

Chapter 14
Social Policy and the Economy: Microfinancing 334

Chapter 15
Social Policy and the Environment: Environmentalism 364

Chapter 16
Social Policy and Globalization: Transnationals 388

©Last Resort/Getty Images

maps
Mapping Life Nationwide

Educational Level and Household Income in …
PART 1
White collar crimes are the illegal acts committed by respectable people in business activities. They are likened to organized crime. Some examples of white-collar crimes are embezzlement, bribery, consumer fraud and stock manipulation (Schaefer et al, 2011, p.147). Other examples are tax evasion and cybercrime. Cybercrime is conducted by the us of computer software and hardware.
According to Schaefer & Haaland (2011), “cybercrime is a global pattern, but the United States is victim to 80 percent of the data breaches” (p.140). Data breaches have been costly to most of the companies. These breaches occur in countries that have had technological advancements. The citizens understand how to use information technology and how to access various sites unlawfully.
White-collar crimes are committed by government and business professionals. The professionals do no use violence of physical force. They often use concealment, deceit and violating the trust of a person. Money laundering enables criminals to accumulate wealth while evading taxes and avoiding prosecution (White-Collar Crime, para.6). It undermines the stability and integrity of the institutions that have been involved.

PART 2
The three white-collar crimes topics are:
a. Corporate fraud
b. Mortgage fraud
c. Money laundering

REFERENCES
White-Collar Crime (n.d). What we Investigate. Retrieved from https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/white-collar-crime
Schaefer, R. T., & Haaland, B. (2011). Sociology: A brief introduction (p. 512). New York: McGraw-Hill.

Preparation

Review the section in Chapter 7 of the textbook on White Collar Crimes 
Review the 
FBI web site
 on White Collar crimes
https://www.fbi.gov/investigate/white-collar-crime
Read the following sections on content paragraphs to prepare for your writing assignment this week
You may also want to review the APA guidelines for 
citations 
and 
references

https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/in_text_citations_the_basics.html

https://owl.purdue.edu/owl/research_and_citation/apa_style/apa_formatting_and_style_guide/reference_list_basic_rules.html
Read about the following components that are present in all good research papers:
References

To the textbook

To the 
FBI web pages
 you use

What is a Content Paragraph?

Content paragraphs are the “meat” of your paper.  They are approximately 5 sentences, are based on research, and contain citations to your sources. Following your outline, each paragraph has a different but related topic to discuss.  In a research paper, content paragraphs are based on material from other scholarly sources; they are not based on personal opinion or experience.  Content paragraphs must contain citations to show where the information is from.

Time to Start Writing!

This week you should have the following in your Essay Prep document:
First Content Paragraph Paragraph
define white collar crimes (from the textbook)
identify, define, and describe one white collar crime (from the FBI web site)
include APA formatted citations
Second Content Paragraph
identify, define, and describe second white collar crime (from the FBI web site)
include APA formatted citations 
Third Content Paragraph
identify, define, and describe a third white collar crime (from the FBI web site)
include APA formatted citations
APA Reference Page
list your references to the textbook and the FBI web site(s) that you used to provide content for your paper
Since this is a research paper, please do not include any personal opinion.  Rather, summarize what you learn in the textbook and the 
FBI web site
. Next week you’ll add your introduction and conclusion so be thinking about how you want to summarize your main points!

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