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Instructions:

Respond to at least 2 of your peers.
Each response should be a minimum of 150 words.

Use scholarly supporting evidence.

Please be considerate of your peers.
Please be sure to validate your opinions and ideas with citations and references in APA format.
Discussion Files

Hermann, D. H. J. (2001). Lessons taught by Miss Evers’ boys: The inadequacy of benevolence and the need for legal protection of human subjects in medical research. Journal of Law and Health, 15, 147-163. [PDF]
Response one: Aviva
Was this study unethical in 1932?
The Tuksegee study done in 1932 was unethical. The patients were not given proper education on the entire process, and were deceived many times throughout the experiment. The patients were also led to belevie that they would be treated for their disease, when in fact they never were, even when the treatment was proven to be effective and readily available. 
How could this study have been done differently?
The patients should have been given all the information about their disease and what medications they were given throughout the time. The patients should also have been given proper compensation for participating in the experiment Additionally once Penicillin was found to be an effective drug all the patients who had tested positive for the disease should have been informed of the new discovery and offered the drug.
How do you think the subjects felt about their participation?
I assume the patients felt it was necessary for them to participate in this just to be able to survive the disease that they had tested positive for. They put their trust into the nurses and doctors involved and had no reason to question them because they were given no information. 
What was the impact of recruiting at churches and schools on test subjects?
By recruiting people in these safe places, it gave them a false sense of security and made them trust more. 
What was Nurse Rivers’ role in the project?
Nurse Rivers was somewhat of a liaison between the patients and the doctor. She was put in a very difficult situation putting her in between the people she cared about, and the study she thought was for the greater good. 
Was Nurse Rivers negligent or did she commit malpractice?
I believe that by not giving the patients the proper information and acting as an advocate for them to the doctor she was very negligent. 
Think of a research question or study pertinent to a specific race, ethnicity, or culture.
How would you ensure the ethical recruitment of subjects?
I would review the study and my plan for it with ethics committee before proceeding at all. I would also try hard not to expose any of the people funding the experiment so that no bias would be involved. 
Part 2.
I believe there is a lack of diversity in the clinical trials these days because there is such a stigma against clinical trials and the outcomes that can occur. It is a dangerous thing to be a part of and because people are generally compensated for participating, it usually means they are of low economic standing. 
References:
Burke. 2019. The Importance of Diversity in Clinical Trials (because right now it is lacking)
https://www.biospace.com/article/the-importance-of-diversity-in-clinical-trials-because-right-now-it-s-lacking-/ (Links to an external site.)
 (Links to an external site.)

Sargent.1997. Movie: Miss Ever’s Boys.
  https://www.imdb.com/title/tt0119679/ (Links to an external site.)

Respond Two: IK
The study was not ethical. It defiled everything ethics stands for. The chance to decide if they want to take part in the study was taken away from these men. They were not told the truth about the study. No one will take part in any study that will harm them. The principle of autonomy was not respected in this study. The study harmed the men. The nonmaleficence ethical principles state we should not harm our patients. Studying people with illnesses as gravely as syphilis and not treating them was very dangerous. All the men started dying and breaking down mentally. The study was unethical from the beginning, where they agreed to study these men without treatments. They were so inhumane to watch them go through pains and not do anything to save them. (Hermann, 2001).
The men should have been informed about the study. They should be given the right to choose if they want to be in the study or not. Treatment should be given to the men who start showing complications from the disease. They should use animals or grow a culture In the lab. No human should be used as lab right. The subject did not trust the study because the government runs it. Even in 2021, the minorities do not trust the government. For example, people are skeptical about coronavirus vaccines. These men are uneducated. They feel their health providers know what is best for them. They were given phoebe for them to think it is the cure. (Hermann, 2001).
Nurse River is a black nurse who went to the same school and grew up in the neighborhood. She is the nurse chosen to take care of the men in the study. She was also used to gain the trust of the men. She was a middle man between the government and the men in the study. The nurse commits malpractice. She should not have allowed herself to be used by the government. She knows the men trusted her and believe whatever she says concerning their health. But she deceived them and kept deceiving them. She owed them the truth.
Do black people die more from high blood pressure? I will choose by subject from black communities. I will explain to them the purpose of the study, the duration, and the outcome. I will inform them they have the right to decline to be in the study. I will also tell them we will make sure they do not get harm in the study. (Hermann, 2001).
The national institute of health is a part of the US Department of Health and Human service. It is a primary agency that supports medical research. They investigate ways to prevent disease and the cause, treatments, and cures for common and rare diseases. They provide leadership and financial support to researchers in every state and around the world. (National Institutes of Health)
One reason why there is a lack of diversity in clinical trials is the lack of trust. For example, African Americans do not trust the government in the United States. They believe the government will do anything to keep them under control. Hence they will not be willing to partake in clinical trials for fear of being harm.
References
National Institutes of Health (NIH). https://www.nih.gov/ (Links to an external site.)

Hermann, D. H. J. (2001). Lessons taught by Miss Evers’ boys: The inadequacy of benevolence and the need for legal protection of human subjects in medical research. Journal of Law and Health, 15, 147-163. [PDF]
 

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