Read EA, 778-794, and then review the “Research Tips” handout in Week 4. List 5 pieces of information that you found particularly helpful regarding evaluating and integrating sources.
WHAT IS RESEARCH?
Research is something that you do every day. It’s asking your grandmother a question
about her childhood; it’s reading the manual for your new iPhone; it’s searching on
Amazon for a new Camelback bottle; and it’s YouTubing the latest viral video.
WHAT IS IT NOT?
• Telling your own story
• Creating false information
• Responding with only opinions, beliefs, or assumptions
WHY DO RESEARCH?
We research to learn, but we also research to back up our own beliefs, ideas, opinions, and assumptions.
EFFECTIVE RESEARCH IN WRITING FOR BEGINNERS
• In writing, evidence and research are incorporated to better illustrate our ideas to the reader (to “show not tell”).
• In writing, research is incorporated to prove that we understand the “conversation” around the topic on which we
• In writing, research is incorporated to prove that smart people agree with you; it makes you look good!
• In a paper that incorporates research or evidence, you should think of it as a 2:3 ratio; 2/3 of the information in the
essay should be your own ideas, words, and analysis. 1/3 of the essay should be information from other sources
that helps you to prove your main point (see how “The Oreo Cookie Method” below supports this ratio within a
• Remember that if you are writing the paper, then, you ARE the expert. You shouldn’t choose a topic in which you’ll
have to do research to even know where to begin. Choose topics about which you have something to say!
• Notecards are not an essential part of the research process. See “Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism” to learn more about
strategies for organizing and cataloging your research.
• The “I can’t find anything” excuse is not valid. Research is not just books in a library; it’s interview, observation,
attention to media, and active learning.
EFFECTIVE RESEARCH IN WRITING FOR UNIVERSITY-LEVEL STUDENTS
• Research questions: every “researched” essay should answer a question that you have posed. Most often, the
thesis is the answer to the question.
• If there is no article, website, or book that discusses your exact essay topic/research question, that’s a good thing!
There is less of a reason for you to complete the project if there is already an article or book that poses and
definitively answers your research question.
• A research question may not have a definitive “answer.” You may attempt to “draw multiple conclusions” rather
than “answer the question.”
• If you are well-read and constantly strive to stay informed beyond your classroom assignments, research becomes
a much less daunting task. You will better know where to look to support your arguments.
Quoting (using a source’s words and structure exactly as it appears) is the most obvious way to use a source for
support, but quotes are not the only way you can integrate your research into your paper. Other methods include
paraphrasing and summarizing, which are putting a source’s information into your own words.
When you reference someone else’s idea, either through paraphrasing, summarizing or quoting, you are required to
follow TWO steps:
• Give the author’s name (or the title of the work) and the page number of the work in a parenthetical citation.
• Provide full citation information, in the appropriate format, for the source in your Works Cited.
The Oreo Cookie Method
It is important to “lead in” or introduce your quote and “follow up” or conclude your
quote with your own writing, what many call The Oreo Cookie Method. Think of your
words as the cookie and the quote as the cream filling. Your words should always
surround quotes to provide proper contextualization and explanation or analysis of the
research you are incorporating. Just “plopping” quotes into your essay will confuse
readers; you must show them how the research connects to your argument.
• Binge drinking is still a problem among teenagers. The U.S. Department of Health and Human Services reports that
“[t]eenagers and young adults drink alcoholic beverages at about the same rates they did 5 years ago,” which, in
turn creates many of the same problems and dangers that all substance abuse causes.
Correctly incorporating research will prevent you from misleading your reader and provide the necessary context your
reader needs to follow your argument with ease.
The CRAAP Test1
• Currency: How timely is the information?
Information that you include as sources in your essay should be current to your topic. When was the information
published or posted? Has something been written more recently that might have more value to your audience?
Check to see if your resources have been updated (i.e. new editions of the book) or if the website address (URL)
• Relevance: Is this information important to your topic?
Resources should address your topic and your audience as specifically as possible. Information should be directed
to the appropriate level of your topic and should be compared to other information of the same type to determine
its weight. Some very specific or current topics may seem to exclude traditional sources; however, with web
resources, most everything can be researched for contemporary information that is relevant to the topic.
• Authority: Who has published/posted this information?
This credential is most often the true test of a valid source. Is the author, editor, webmaster qualified to present
the information you’ve found? What are his or her qualifications? Complete a web search for the author’s name to
see whether or not he/she is a valuable asset to your writing. Remember that the word “former” before a job title
can be a red flag!
The source of the information can also lend authority. Look at the publisher’s information for books, pamphlets, or
journals. Also, internet websites that end in .gov or .org can typically be trusted. Double-check information found
on .edu, .com, or .net sites.
• Accuracy: Is this information correct, reliable, and truthful?
Look for other evidence to support your resources. Has the information been confirmed in other trustworthy
sources? Tone and language can also indicate whether or source is free of bias or tinged with emotion. Depending
on your topic, you may want to use sources that are not objective, but they should still be reputable, and you
should be aware of their leanings. The final consideration for accurate sources is in their appearance. Does the
source look reputable? Is it free of typos, misspellings, and grammar errors?
• Purpose: Why is this information accessible to you?
Consider the motivation behind your source. Do the creators of this resource have a commercial interest? a
political interest? Is its purpose to persuade or to entertain? Studies paid for by corporate sponsorship typically are
published only if they support the correct outcome. Be sure that the source isn’t presented in your essay as fact if
it is propaganda or opinion-based.
1 Adapted from
Meriam Library. Evaluating Information: Applying the CRAAP Test. Chico: California State University, 24 Aug. 2004. Print.
Though definitions of plagiarism may vary slightly, they all contain the same basic ideas, which is the purposeful use of
someone else’s words or ideas as your own without acknowledgment. Below is a list of common definitions of plagiarism or
• Copying or purchasing another’s entire paper or part of a paper and claiming it as your own.
• Copying information from any source, including websites, and presenting that information as your own.
• Copying information from a source word for word without putting quotes around those words—whether or not
the source is cited directly in the paper or in the Works Cited.
• Copying or paraphrasing information from a source but changing the words around without providing an in-text
citation—whether or not the source is cited in the Works Cited.
• Copying information correctly with quotation marks, including a proper in-text citation, but no citation in the
• Copying a peer, parent, tutor, or former teacher’s paper topic, point, or wording.
• Turning in a paper used in another class or context without first seeking permission from all instructors or
• Citing incorrectly.
Tips for Avoiding Plagiarism
1. Only turn in your own work. A paper that is weak, a late paper (if accepted by the instructor), or a zero on the
assignment is better than the consequences of plagiarism.
2. Give yourself sufficient time to write the paper.
3. Learn to properly document your sources. If you are unclear about citing sources, consult your instructor, your textbook, a
tutor, or a research librarian. If you do not take the initiative to ensure that your source material is documented correctly, you
have intentionally plagiarized.
4. Take careful notes as you research.
a. Make photocopies of your sources, and write down all of the bibliographic information, including the URL and date
of access if researching online.
b. If you take notes instead of make photocopies, write down the information in direct quotes and give the necessary
information, such as page numbers, as well as the bibliographic information.
c. Save paraphrasing and summarizing for the actual writing process. Do not paraphrase or summarize in the note-
taking stage of research; otherwise, you may inadvertently plagiarize later on.
5. Keep your Works Cited/Bibliography page in the same file as your essay (use “Insert” and “Page Break”). This ensures
that you will print the entire document with the Works Cited to turn in for grading.
A Note about the Cover
Is everything really an argument? Seeing the images on the cover of
this book might make you wonder. The “Free Speech Zone” sign, for
example, instantly calls to mind the debates across the United States
about the limits of free expression, especially on college campuses.
The ominous-looking hand coming out of the laptop suggests the ease
with which hackers obtain personal data. Does the image of teens
playing on cell phones in the back seat of a car argue for or against the
ways that technology is shaping how we are communicating with one
another? The polar bear on a shrinking ice floe reminds us of the
scientific fact of climate change but also invites a discussion of how
powerful visuals can sway our opinions and beliefs. As for the “100%
vegan” sticker, what’s your impression? Is it a proud proclamation of
one’s identity or values? A straightforward fact about a food’s origins?
A sharp commentary on the influence of advertising on the food
industry? What’s your take?
Everything’s an Argument with Readings
Andrea A. Lunsford
John J. Ruszkiewicz
UNIVERSITY OF TEXAS AT AUSTIN
PORTLAND STATE UNIVERSITY
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When we began work on this text in 1996 (the first edition came out in
1998), we couldn’t have anticipated all the events of the next two
tumultuous decades, or all the changes to public and private discourse,
or the current deeply divided state of our nation. But we have tried
hard, over these decades, to track such changes and the ways rhetoric
and argument have evolved and responded to them.
Certainly, we recognized the increasingly important role digital culture
plays in all our lives, and so with each new edition we have included
more on the technologies of communication, particularly those
associated with social media; and we early on recognized that, like
rhetoric itself, social media can be used for good or for ill, to bring
people together or to separate them.
We have also carefully tracked the forms that arguments take today,
from cartoons and graphic narratives to blogs and other postings to
multimodal projects of almost every conceivable kind. While argument
has always surrounded us, today it does so in an amazing array of
genres and forms, including aural and visual components that
strengthen and amplify arguments.
The sheer proliferation of information (not to mention misinformation,
disinformation, and outright lies) that bombards all writers led us to
reaffirm our commitment to studying and teaching style, since (as
Richard Lanham and others argue) in the age of information overload,
style is the tool writers possess to try to capture and keep the attention
of audiences. Attention to style reveals other changes, such as the
increasing use of informal registers and conversational styles even in
Perhaps most important, though, a look back over the last twenty-two
years reaffirms the crucial role that rhetoric can and should play in
personal, work, and school lives. At its best, rhetoric is the art, theory,
and practice of ethical communication, needed more sorely today than
perhaps ever before. Everything’s an Argument with Readings presents
this view of rhetoric and illustrates it with a fair and wide range of
perspectives and views, which we hope will inspire student writers to
think of themselves as rhetors, as Quintilian’s “good person, speaking
Two books in one, neatly linked. Up front is a brief guide to
Aristotelian, Toulmin, and Rogerian argument; common types of
arguments; presenting arguments; and researching arguments. In the
back is a thematically organized anthology of readings in a wide range
of genres. Handy cross-references in the margins allow students to
move easily from the argument chapters to specific examples in the
readings and from the readings to appropriate rhetorical instruction.
Short, relatable excerpts weave in the debates that rage around us.
From #metoo tweets and protest posters to essays and scholarly
writing, boldfaced examples illustrate the arguments happening in
politics, economics, journalism, and media, with brief student-friendly
Five thematic readings chapters that encourage students to explore
complex arguments. Readings on “How Does Popular Culture
Stereotype You?,” “Has the Internet Destroyed Privacy?,” and “How
Free Should Campus Speech Be?” demand that students consider the
many sides of contemporary issues across the political spectrum, going
beyond a simple pro/con stance.
A real-world, full-color design that builds students’ understanding
of visual rhetoric. Presenting readings in the style of their original
publications helps students recognize and think about the effect that
design and visuals have on written and multimodal arguments.
New to This Edition
A new section on rhetorical listening in Chapter 1. The very first
chapter of the eighth edition now emphasizes the importance of
listening rhetorically and respectfully, encouraging readers to move
beyond “echo chambers” and build bridges among all viewpoints.
Eight new full-length models in the guide provide engaging, topical
arguments of fact, definition, evaluation, cause and effect, proposals,
and rhetorical analysis. Legal scholar Stephen L. Carter offers a
Toulmin analysis of whether racial epithets should be considered free
speech, while New York Times columnist Nicholas Kristof presents an
op-ed in defense of public wilderness.
Five new annotated student essays address topics students care about,
from millennials’ love of food to breaking a social media addiction.
Thirty-one engaging new readings on hot-button issues such as free
speech, food, language, privacy, and stereotypes. Selections
represent a range of genres and span the full gamut of social and
political views, including:
excerpts from a recent Gallup poll showing what college students
think about First Amendment issues
visual arguments and a scholarly essay supporting and critiquing
the concept of racial microaggressions
best-selling essayist Roxane Gay on the language we use to
describe sexual violence
an Economist blog post acknowledging that sport shooting can be,
an argument against veganism . . . written by a vegan
A new introduction in the instructor’s notes. Focusing on the
teaching of argument, this new introduction gives experienced and
first-time instructors a strong pedagogical foundation. Sample syllabi
for both semester and quarter courses provide help for pacing all types
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Pre-built units—including readings, videos, quizzes, and more—
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Use LaunchPad on its own or integrate it with your school’s
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Smart search. Built on research with more than 1,600 student
writers, the smart search in Writer’s Help 2.0 provides reliable
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Trusted content from our best-selling handbooks. Andrea
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Assign diagnostics to identify areas of strength and areas for
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You have a lot to do in your course. We want to make it easy for you to
find the support you need—and to get it quickly.
Instructor’s Notes for Everything’s an Argument with Readings is
available as a PDF that can be downloaded from
macmillanlearning.com. Visit the instructor resources tab for
Everything’s an Argument with Readings. In addition to chapter
overviews and teaching tips, the instructor’s manual offers an
introduction about teaching the argument course, sample syllabi,
correlations to the Council of Writing Program Administrators’
Outcomes Statement, and potential answers to the “Respond” questions
in the book.
We owe a debt of gratitude to many people for making Everything’s an
Argument with Readings possible. Our first thanks must go to the
thousands of people we have taught in our writing courses over nearly
four decades, particularly students at the Ohio State University,
Stanford University, the University of Texas at Austin, and Portland
State University. Almost every chapter in this book has been informed
by a classroom encounter with a student whose shrewd observation or
perceptive question sent an ambitious lesson plan spiraling to the
ground. (Anyone who has tried to teach claims and warrants on the fly
to skeptical first-year writers will surely appreciate why we have
qualified our claims in the Toulmin chapter so carefully.) But students
have also provided the motive for writing this book. More than ever,
they need to know how to read and write arguments effectively if they
are to secure a place in a world growing ever smaller and more
We are deeply grateful to the editors at Bedford/St. Martin’s who have
contributed their formidable talents to this book. In particular, we want
to thank the ingenious and efficient Rachel Goldberg for guiding us so
patiently and confidently—helping us locate just the right items
whenever we needed fresh examples and images and gracefully
recasting passage after passage to satisfy permissions mandates. Senior
content project manager Ryan Sullivan was relentlessly upbeat and
kind in all his communications, making the ever-more-complex stages
of production almost a pleasure. We also appreciate the extensive
support and help of Lexi DeConti, who kept us attuned to examples
and readings that might appeal to students today. We are similarly
grateful to senior program manager John Sullivan, whose support was
unfailing; Kalina Ingham, Arthur Johnson, and Tom Wilcox, for text
permissions; Angela Boehler and Krystyna Borgen, for art
permissions; William Boardman, for our cover design; Bridget Leahy,
copyeditor; and William Hwang, editorial assistant. All of you made
editing the eighth edition feel fresh and creative.
We’d also like to thank the astute instructors who reviewed the seventh
edition: Brigitte Anderson, University of Pikeville; Samantha Battrick,
Truman State University; Kathryn Bennett, Old Dominion University;
Jeanne Bohannon, Kennesaw State University; Rebecca Cepek,
Duquesne University; Laura Dumin, University of Central Oklahoma;
Tim Engles, Eastern Illinois University; Karen Feldman, Seminole
State College of Florida; Africa Fine, Palm Beach State College;
Darius Frasure, Mountain View College; Erin Gallagher, Washington
State University; Ben Graydon, Daytona State College; Joseph
Hernandez, Mt. San Jacinto College; Julie Moore-Felux, Northwest
Vista College; Laurie Murray, Anderson University; Kolawole Olaiya,
Anderson University; Leslie Rapparlie, University of Colorado;
Thomas Reynolds, Northwestern State University; Loreen Smith,
Isothermal Community College; Benjamin Syn, University of
Colorado; Gina Szabady, Lane Community College; Amy Walton,
Iowa State University; and Miriam Young, Truman State University.
Thanks, too, to Sherrie Weller of Loyola Chicago University and
Valerie Duff-Stroutmann of Newbury College, who updated the
instructor’s notes for this eighth edition with a new introduction, new
model syllabi, new points for discussion, and new classroom activities.
We hope this resource will be useful as instructors build their courses.
Finally, we are grateful to the students whose fine argumentative
essays or materials appear in our chapters: Cameron Hauer, Kate
Beispel, Jenny Kim, Laura Tarrant, Natasha Rodriguez, Caleb Wong,
Juliana Chang, George Chidiac, and Charlotte Geaghan-Breiner. We
hope that Everything’s an Argument with Readings responds to what
students and instructors have said they want and need.
Andrea A. Lunsford
John J. Ruszkiewicz
Correlation to Council of Writing Program
Administrators’ (WPA) Outcomes
Everything’s an Argument with Readings works with the Council of
Writing Program Administrators’ Outcomes Statement for first-year
composition courses (last updated 2014).
Support in Everything’s an Argument with Readings, 8e
Learn and use
variety of texts.
Chapter 1, “Understanding Arguments and Reading
Them Critically” (pp. 3–31), establishes the central
elements of the rhetorical situation and encourages
Chapter 6, “Rhetorical Analysis” (pp. 97–132), further
develops these concepts and teaches students how to
analyze a rhetorical analysis and compose their own.
Each chapter offers dozens of written, visual, and
multimodal texts to analyze, in both the guide portion
and the thematic reader.
several genres to
shape and are
Everything’s an Argument with Readings provides
engaging readings across genres, from academic essays
and newspaper editorials to tweets and infographics.
“Respond” boxes throughout each chapter (e.g., pp.
56–57) invite students to think critically about the
material. For more genre variety, Everything’s an
Argument with Readings also contains a five-chapter
thematic reader with additional multimodal genres,
including an art installation, Web articles, scholarly
essays, and political cartoons.
Each chapter on a specific type of argument features
project ideas (e.g., p. 186), giving students detailed
prompts to write their own arguments of fact,
arguments of definition, evaluations, causal arguments,
in responding to
a variety of
shifts in voice,
tone, level of
Chapter 13, “Style in Arguments” (pp. 321–45),
addresses word choice, tone, sentence structure,
punctuation, and figurative language, with engaging
examples of each.
The “Cultural Contexts for Argument” boxes
throughout the text (e.g., p. 163) address how people
from other cultures might respond to different styles or
structures of argument. This feature offers suggestions
on how to think about argument in an unfamiliar
use a variety of
address a range
Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402),
addresses how new media has transformed the array of
choices for making arguments and reaching audiences.
This chapter teaches how to analyze multimodal
arguments as well as how to create them through Web
sites, videos, wikis, blogs, social media, memes, posters,
(e.g., print &
Chapter 14, “Visual Rhetoric” (pp. 346–62), discusses
the power of visual rhetoric and how students can use
visuals in their own work.
Chapter 15, “Presenting Arguments” (pp. 363–80),
includes material on incorporating various media into
presentations and Webcasts.
Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402),
analyzes the evolving landscape of argument across
Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp. 405–37),
covers the conventions of academic arguments.
and reading for
Chapter 1, “Understanding Arguments and Reading
Them Critically” (pp. 3–31), features a section called
“Why Listen to Arguments Rhetorically and
Respectfully” (pp. 7–8). It teaches students to listen
openly and constructively and calls attention to the
need to escape “echo chambers,” respectfully consider
all viewpoints, and find common ground.
Throughout Everything’s an Argument with Readings,
students are invited to delve deeper into current issues
in the world around them, considering the various
arguments presented in tweets, newspapers, scholarly
papers, court rulings, and even bumper stickers.
Everything’s an Argument with Readings guides students
in asking critical questions about these contexts and
learning how to respond to and create their own
compositions. Chapters dedicated to central types of
argument explain how students might best approach
each writing situation. The chapters close with a guide
to writing arguments of that type:
Chapter 8, “Arguments of Fact” (pp. 164–96)
Chapter 9, “Arguments of Definition” (pp. 197–223)
Chapter 10, “Evaluations” (pp. 224–54)
Chapter 11, “Causal Arguments” (pp. 255–85)
Chapter 12, “Proposals” (pp. 286–318)
Chapter 16, “Multimodal Arguments” (pp. 381–402)
Read a diverse
range of texts,
Chapter 7, “Structuring Arguments” (pp. 135–63),
examines making claims and using evidence to support
those claims. It delves into the structure of Rogerian and
Toulmin arguments, showing how different argument
types work for different writing situations.
Each Guide to Writing features sections on
“Formulating a Claim” and “Thinking about
Organization” (e.g., pp. 212 and 214), emphasizing the
use of evidence and the structure of the argument.
Chapter 18, “Finding Evidence” (pp. 438–53), covers
locating evidence from print, electronic, and field
Chapter 19, “Evaluating Sources” (pp. 454–63),
addresses how to assess those sources effectively.
Use strategies —
Chapter 20, “Using Sources,” provides detailed
explanations of summary, paraphrase, and quotation
and when to use each approach (pp. 467–73). The
— to compose
with those from
chapter discusses framing with introductory phrases
and signal verbs, and it presents multiple ways to
connect source material to a student’s own ideas — by
establishing a context, introducing a term or concept,
developing a claim, highlighting differences, and
avoiding “patchwriting” (pp. 480–82).
Chapter 21, “Plagiarism and Academic Integrity” (pp.
484–93), highlights the importance of acknowledging
another writer’s work.
Chapter 22, “Documenting Sources” (pp. 494–532),
concludes the research section of the book with a
discussion of MLA and APA documentation, including a
wide range of citation models in both formats.
Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp. 405–37),
stresses the importance of working through multiple
drafts of a project, using revision and peer feedback to
improve the document.
Writing is a fundamental focus of Everything’s an
Argument with Readings, and students learn to critique
their own work and the work of others in almost every
part of the book. Each Guide to Writing, focusing on a
specific type of argument in the Part 2 chapters,
contains step-by-step advice on drafting, researching,
and organizing, as well as peer review questions about
the claim being made, the evidence provided for the
claim, and the organization and style of the essay.
The Guide to Writing also asks students to review their
spelling, punctuation, mechanics, documentation, and
tools as a means
to discover and
Chapter 7, “Structuring Arguments” (pp. 135–63),
provides a clear explanation for how to construct an
argument and support it effectively, and it includes a
brief annotated model from a classic text.
The “Developing an Academic Argument” section (pp.
411–18) in Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp.
405–37), guides students through the specific process of
developing a paper in an academic setting, from
selecting a topic and exploring it in depth to entering
into the conversation around the chosen topic. Two
annotated examples of academic arguments are
provided at the end of the chapter.
Many “Respond” questions have students work in pairs
or groups to analyze rhetorical situations, arguments, or
appeals. See p. 36, for instance.
In Chapter 21, “Plagiarism and Academic Integrity”
(pp. 484–93), students learn the importance of giving
credit, getting permission to use the materials of others,
citing sources appropriately, and acknowledging
collaboration with their peers.
Learn to give and
Each Guide to Writing, focusing on a specific type of
argument in the Part 2 chapters, contains a “Getting
and Giving Response: Questions for Peer Review”
section (e.g., pp. 183–85) tailored to that argument type.
These questions address the claim being made, the
evidence provided for the claim, and the organization
and style of the essay.
processes for a
Awareness of technology runs throughout Everything’s
an Argument with Readings, beginning in the first
chapter with an exploration of arguments made via
Twitter. A particular focus on multimodal arguments is
made in Chapter 14, “Visual Rhetoric” (pp. 346–62),
which covers how effective images can be and instructs
students on incorporating them to achieve specific
rhetorical purposes, and in Chapter 16, “Multimodal
Arguments” (pp. 381–402), which focuses on how
technology offers new platforms and opportunities for
composition, as well as some new pitfalls to avoid.
These chapters provide students with tools for creating
their own multimodal compositions.
Reflect on the
Everything’s an Argument with Readings presents
students with an important foundation in the purpose
and history of rhetoric (e.g., “Why We Make
Arguments,” pp. 8–9; “The Classical Oration,” pp.
136–39) as well as thoughtful reflections on how
composition and argument have changed in an
increasingly digital world (e.g., “Old Media
Transformed by New Media,” pp. 382–83;
“Conventions in Academic Argument Are Not Static,”
Chapter 13, “Style in Arguments” (pp. 321–45), covers
sentence structure and punctuation.
Chapter 17, “Academic Arguments” (pp. 405–37),
discusses drafting, revising, and editing.
The Guide to Writing in each Part 2 chapter asks
students to review their spelling, punctuation,
mechanics, documentation, and format.
The argument chapters in Part 2 address genre
conventions, discussing how the approach and structure
of a document adapt to its genre. Each chapter also
includes a Guide to Writing and Sample Arguments,
which highlight differing uses of sources and tone (e.g.,
“Guide to Writing a Proposal,” pp. 300–305).
Each of the Part 2 chapters offers a section on
characterizing that particular genre (e.g.,