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1- Read the case analysis and write Abstract and Conclusion.[The abstract should be one paragraph of between 150 and 250 words.] [The conclusion should be one paragraph]2- Check the text and edit, changes sentences when necessary, rephrase, changes vocabulary, etcImportant Note: Do NOT check and edit the text what is written in blue ink.Thank you!

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[The abstract should be one paragraph of between 150 and 250 words. It is not indented.
Section titles, such as the word Abstract above, are not considered headings so they don’t use
bold heading format. Instead, use the Section Title style. This style automatically starts your
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Keywords: [Click here to add keywords.]
Case summary
The case involves a high school, City high school, which has been popularly known for its
political dynamics and poor student performance. The school is mainly made up of black
students who constitute a significant 67 percent of the student population and 24 percent Latina
and seven percent white population. The poor performance of the school can be traced to two
main factors. One of the factors is the political dynamics in the teachers’ departments. The
teachers in the school are divided over a number of issues and do not act in Unison when
implementing a certain policy. This manifested clearly when at one instance one of the teachers,
Mrs. Mendez suggested the observation policy to the new principle Mrs.Yarell. According to
Mrs. Mendez plan, every teacher was supposed to observe each other and come up with a report
on their observation. Not every teacher followed the policy; however as some did not show up
for the observations while others did not write detailed reports as they were supposed to show a
lack of unity in the teaching staff. Another factor that was affecting the school was the student
teacher conflict which seemed to manifest mainly on cultural and racial lines. Cases emerged
where teachers mistreated students based on their color while disregarding black students,
stereotyping the Latino and favoring the white students. The fact that the teaching staff
comprised mainly of the white race and the student body comprised of black students seemed to
heighten the conflict. The new principal took Mrs. Mendez’s report seriously and decided to
work closely with her and the deputy in effecting new strategies beginning with changing the
practices and beliefs.
Relevant PSEL Standards

Standard (1F) Develop shared understanding of and commitment to mission, vision, and
core values within the school and the community.
As the school principal, Mrs. Yarell is new to City High School, she needs to review the school’s
mission and vision based on the needs of the school and its students. Also, she should involve
staff and faculty in developing the vision and core values.

Standard (2E) Lead with interpersonal and communication skill, social-emotional insight,
and understanding of all students’ and staff members’ backgrounds and cultures.
A large part of the reasons for the problems of City High School is the lack of understanding of
student backgrounds and cultures, so the principal must focus on that.

Standard (3A) Ensure that each student is treated fairly, respectfully, and with an
understanding of each student’s culture and context.
Peer observations that done by Ms. Mendez, English Department chair and her colleagues
indicate that students are not treated fairly and respectfully, in addition, teachers do not
understand student cultures well. What happened in Ms. Holloway class and Mr. Conway class is
an example of that.

Standard (3C) Ensure that each student has equitable access to effective teachers,
learning opportunities, academic and social support, and other resources necessary for
Standard (6A) Recruit, hire, support, develop, and retain effective and caring teachers
and other professional staff and form them into an educationally effective faculty.
Standard (6C) Develop teachers’ and staff members’ professional knowledge, skills, and
practice through differentiated opportunities for learning and growth, guided by
understanding of professional and adult learning and development.

I believe that City High School lacks effective teachers. As proof, students’ achievements, the
lack of enthusiasm of teachers to observe their peers, the disrespect for students. Here comes the
role of the school administration in developing teachers and employing effective teachers.

Standard (5B) Create and sustain a school environment in which each student is known,
accepted and valued, trusted and respected, cared for, and encouraged to be an active
and responsible member of the school community.
The school environment at City High School needs urgent development. Teachers and school
administrators do not trust the students, it was evident in Ms. Mendez discussions with assistant
principal Dr. Hill.

Standard (8C) Engage in regular and open two-way communication with families and the
community about the school, students, needs, problems, and accomplishments.
The school is in urgent need to open its doors to families and the community, they must be part
of any plan to improve the school.
Central issue
The central issue is that the school lacks a vision and an effective common mission and lacks
effective teachers who can relate the curriculum to the student culture and invest that to motivate
students to critically think that helps them to solve their school and community problems. In
addition, some members of the school administration do not believe with students’ abilities. I chose
to focus on this particular issue because the school administration can solve this problem and the
solution tools are available. The central office could have been blamed or the main problem could
be said to be the lack of school funding, but this is a surrender to the problem and leads to
exacerbate the school’s problems and harm the students and their future. In school problems,
principals must always think about possible solutions they can implement.
Three Possible Solutions
First Solution
The first solution focuses on developing a vision and mission for the school that focuses on
students and their needs. Developing a vision is always the way to achieve the goals of the
school. Most school principals say that setting vision contributed to achieving their success
(McKinsey & Co., 2010). It is obvious that City High School does not have a clear vision and
mission. The new school principal still wants to learn more about the school, teachers are
frustrated, and assistant principals are only interested in raising student achievement in
standardized tests. One of the important things that must be included in the vision is to consider
the students’ cultural and social background. Also, the school leader should involve his
management, team, teachers, and parents in developing the vision and mission, ignoring any
element may lead to failure.
One of the positive aspects of the development of the school’s vision and mission is that it is the
foundation for actions that will lead to school improvement. Also, it helps to express the values
of the school and common beliefs which is very important for City High School. Because of does
not have clear planning for the school, the vision will determine the priorities for school
missions. Moreover, the development of the vision inspires the school community in the
importance of the role plays by the school and drives them to interact and communicate with the
school. One of the difficulties of this solution is the difficulty of agreeing to prioritize the vision
and mission of the school due to differences of views among the members of the school
administration, for example, between principal Yarell and her assistants Dr. Hill and Mr. Lewis.
Also, principal Yarell is new to City High School, still wants to get to know the school more and
that may take time. On the other hand, it seems that the teachers are not eager to participate. This
was evident through Ms. Mendez’s visits within the classrooms.
Second Solution
Professional development for all teachers
Ms. Mendez, through her observation to some of the school’s classes, noted the widespread of
the disrespect for students and the poor teaching methods, in addition, Teachers are not sensitive
to racism. Teacher professional development programs have the ability to address all these
problems. Many studies confirm that professional development programs have a significant
impact on improving schools and promote the abilities of teachers to make their practices
effective, all this reflected on the success of students. Most schools spend a lot of money on
professional development each year. Professional development programs vary from one school
to another because each school designs its programs according to its needs. Therefore, the
aspects that professional development programs of City High School should emphasize are as
follows: (1) provide teachers with effective teaching methods that suit the cultural diversity of
the students. (2) help teachers integrate the curriculum with the students’ culture and
backgrounds. (3) How to manage classes and deal with frustrated students. One of the difficulties
of this solution is to make teachers actively participate in professional development programs. It
is very clear that some school teachers are not enthusiastic for improving teaching, we noticed
that they were not enthusiastic about peer observations. Professional development programs may
encounter opposition from assistant principal Dr. Hill who believes the school has “difficult
students and good teachers.” Does that mean he does not believe in the need for teacher
development? Also, development programs need adequate resources, which will be a burden on
the school budget. In City High School’s case, we do not know how well they can provide
enough resources to support training programs.
Third Solution
The third solution focuses on developing the work of the school administration and define its
objectives and raise the compatibility ratio between the school leader and the assistants. In City
High School case study, the inconsistency between principal Yarell and her assistants Mr. Lewis
and Dr. Hill was obvious. The conversation between Ms. Mendez, English Department chair and
the three administrators highlighted the extent of the disparity between them. The principal
believes teachers need to develop their practices. Also, she believes in Ms. Mendez’s initiative
and the need for teachers to be culturally sensitive. Dr. Hill fully opposes this view. Furthermore,
Mr. Lewis’s interests focus on student achievement in standardized tests. This disparity makes it
difficult for the school to achieve its goals. This solution depends entirely on the role of the
leader and her skills in unifying the management efforts and bringing his team together on
common goals and vision. Principal Yarell must sit with the assistants to form a team that shares
the same interests. Ms. Mendez should be part of the team. She has a comprehensive vision and
knowledge of teacher practices and student needs. The impact of this solution will be positively
reflected on teachers and staff. The team spirit will attract all staff, teachers, and parents to be a
part of success. One of the difficulties that may be faced on this solution is that the school leader
may not find the necessary interaction of the assistants, and the school leader cannot do
everything alone.
Proposed Solution
The solution proposed at City High School case is to design teacher development plan. The
teacher development process is a part of the school vision, principals cannot achieve school goals
without activation of the teacher development plan. Principal Yarell is new and may not have a
plan yet, but it is important to begin designing an appropriate plan for implementing it. The
principal may find an objection from Dr. Hill because he believes that the school teachers are
good and may not need these development programs. The important thing that the school leader
should explain to Dr. Hill is that development programs are not only for poor teachers but are for
all teachers. Every individual in the school needs for development programs even members of
the administration. “Education is changing rapidly. To keep up with those changes, school
personnel must learn new techniques, methods, and procedures (Smith, 2009)”.
I strongly believe that this solution will change the form of the school and solve many of the
problems of the school, such as poor teaching, the disrespect for students, failure to push students
to effective critical thinking, the inability of teachers to understand the cultures of students, and
the educational process focuses on the academic results and neglecting the emotional, cultural
and social aspects of students. The main goal of teacher development at City High School is to
alter the professional practices, beliefs, and understanding of school students. This is an objective
in which most professional development programs are involved in schools (Grif, 1983).
The principal of City High School should implement some measures to ensure the success of the
teacher development program First, the development program should be designed on the abilities
and needs of the school. Second, listen to the teachers about their needs and include those needs
in the teacher development plan. Thirdly, the incentives should be a part of the teacher
development program. Finally, the school leader should set criteria for evaluating the program to
consider how effective it is.
The actors who would participate in the preparation and implementation of the plan are as
follows: 1. The school administration team, which consists of the principal and assistants, the
school counselor, and a representative of the teachers, Ms. Mendez. 2 – Teachers are the real
tools to implement the solution. It is important to meet with them to explain program objectives.
3. Department of Instructional Assessment and Professional Learning in the state or in the
schools that City High School belong to. This department could provide the school with effective
professional development based on research.
This proposed solution aligns with PSEL standards which I mentioned in this case. The solution
is consistent with standard 1F because the teacher development program is part of any school’s
vision. Also, it conforms to standards 2E and 3A because teacher development will provide the
needed skills to understand students’ backgrounds and cultures. Moreover, the solution is
consistent with standards 3C, 6A, and 6C because the teacher development program contributes
to providing them with the skills, knowledge and professional practice that make them effective
teachers. In addition, the development of teachers contributes to creating a school environment in
which each student is known, accepted and valued, trusted and respected and this is what
standard 5B indicate to.
The proposed solution is connected to transformational leadership theory which refers that the
leader encourages followers to come up with new and unique ways to challenge the status quo
and to change the environment to support being successful (Bass, 1998). When we look at the
problems of City High School and its environment that do not help teachers and students to
provide their best, we recognize that the school needs a transformational leader who acts as role
models to the followers, helps improve the school environment, provides inspiring mission and
vision for followers, and able to create valuable and positive changes in order to improve
followers’ morals (Craig, 2017).
Furthermore, the proposed solution encompasses several different goals that align with
definitions of transformational leadership, including: to providing coaching and mentoring for
teachers, emphasizing positive development of teachers, raising awareness of moral standards,
highlighting important priorities in the teaching process, fostering higher moral maturity in
teachers, creating an ethical climate at the school, promoting cooperation and harmony among
teachers, and students.
final insight/takeaway/implication regarding this case. 1 paragraph

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