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***Please see my philosophical question(part 1) and my claims and counterclaims paper(part 2) to with making this final part 3 paper based on the classical argument essay.***For the Final Project stage 3 you will present the answer to your philosophical question in the form of a speech. You will write this speech on a Word .docx to submit. You can also supplement your written speech by recording yourself saying it on an .mp3. but this is optional.Your speech will take the form of what is known as the Classical Style:The Classical Style is divided into four (4) parts:(1) The Introduction and Narration: In the first part of the classical style, you, as the speaker, introduce the question that is going to be answered by making the speech relevant to the audience. You can do this by contextualizing the speech and narrating the problem that the question brings. Philosophers often use narration, stories, analogies, and events to introduce problems or controversies that the question elicits. Common devices for introducing philosophical questions to an audience are: “Have you ever asked this question?” or “Many people have debated this topic.” The aim of the first part is to make the audience feel comfortable before beginning the argument proper. The more relevant the introduction is to the audience, the better the argument. A very short introduction will not be persuasive, but neither will an overly long one.(2) Arguments supporting your Claim: In the second part of the classical style, you present your arguments and evidence to back up or substantiate the main points of your claim. Your arguments and evidence are connected together in a chain of reasoning that link the facts and examples, and testimony that support the arguments you are making. Remember, it’s important to faithfully present the arguments of the philosopher(s) you are studying in order to bolster your claim. When presenting your arguments, it is most persuasive to present your best argument and evidence first, your worst argument and evidence second and your middle argument and evidence third (if you have one). You have already done this step in the Final Project stage 2 assignment. Now, put your arguments and evidence into a convincing speech.(3) Addressing the Counter-Claim: In the third part of the classical style, you concede and/or refute the arguments that support the counter-claim. The aim of the classical style is to persuade, and your persuasion will be more effective if you take into account these arguments: “Some people say this….but they are wrong because of XYZ” etc. You can anticipate and respond to objections before they are stated, or concede a particular point in order to make another point stronger (as long as you don’t undercut your main claim). You have already identified the arguments that support the counter claim in your Final Project Stage 2 assignment. Now, address these arguments in your speech; your strongest refutation first, your weakest refutation second, and your middling refutation third (if you have one).(4) Conclusion: In the fourth part of the classical style, you tie everything together, creating a sense of finality or closure to the question, convincing the audience that the question or problem stated in the Introduction has been answered. Often, speakers will include an emotional or ethical appeal in the conclusion in order to help sway the audience to their opinion.There is no minimum word count or minimum time for your written or oral speech. However, I doubt you will be able to do it well in under 1000 words. Your speech will be graded on the elements of the Classical Style and your speech’s overall persuasiveness. Please review the grading rubric in the weekly announcement for week 8. The suggested length is about 1000 words. STRICTLY Due Sunday by 11:30PM ET. Please submit your final project part 3 both to your assignment folder and ALSO to turnitin. Papers not submitted to both places will not be marked.
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Claims and Counterclaims
Angel Casimiro
University of Maryland University College
Introduction to Philosophy
Professor Levine
Claims and Counterclaims
6-April-2019
Claims and Counterclaims
In our everyday lives, we make the decision to be honest with oneself and to others. I fell
that each person entails some type of courage in making that decision. Is courage a characteristic
one must have in order to tell the truth? Which is more important for a person to possess,
courage or truthfulness? Personally, you can go either way on this, whether you feel that it is
more important to possess courage than truthfulness or vice versa. According to Aristotle, virtue
is a mean between extremes of too much and too little of a trait.
I believe it is essential for an individual to have truthfulness instead of courage. Having
courage is a pre-requisite of possessing to be truthful, but courage is not required for one to be
honest since if one is truthful, they will tell it regardless of whether they are afraid of it or not.
Aristotle argues that courage is a virtue which me disregarding fear. According to Aristotle,
courage is having the correct amount of fear, not too much nor too little. One fears something
that can harm him/her, and it is right to have some of these fears because they invalidate the
question of whether one is courageous or not. As part of Aristotle definition, a courageous
person is not supposed to fear even those things that are harmful which death is the greatest
among them of a course that is noble especially dying in the battle. A courageous person should
not fear things that everyone fears and faces them as one is supposed to meet them. Aristotle
associates courage with things that are all people fear, hence being courageous or having
confidence. Therefore, being courageous means, one has overcome his/her fear. Most people fear
not just things they should not worry but also fear things when they should not fear because of
having the wrong motive. A courageous person can face danger or threat of punishment. These
people are motivated to be courageous by fear or shame. According to Aristotle, a virtuous
person should take pride in the fact of taking moral action. Courageous action should involve
pain, and its end must be pleasant, and through acting courageously one can achieve a good
outcome that is pleasant. This takes courage to be a more important virtue than truthfulness
because it involves fighting fear.
Claims and Counterclaims
For example, Soldier most valued asset is courage and a layman most valuable asset is
the truth. The soldier is required to be courageous while the layman is required truthful or have
truthfulness. The two can be interchanging with the layman that gives courage while being
allocated to a soldier. Truthfulness is a virtue that the society cherishes and it speaks with a lot of
courage and conviction. It takes courage to speak out and reveal what the truth is, and there are
instances where speaking truth can affect oneself as Aristotle noted. Truthfulness is a virtue that
one looks in a leader since leaders are required to be courageous and bold. They are supposed, to
be honest, and truthful, outstanding and simple. It does not take someone much to speak what is
untruthful or lie, but it takes courage to express what is truthful.
A courageous person knows the danger, and overcome the fear to face the danger
according to one values. As Aristotle argues, being courageous does not mean being reckless,
fearless or have rashness. It is a well-considered, brave, rational and wise decision to behave
irrespective of weakness, temptation, or discomfort constructively. Courage is a balance drawn
from a balance between recklessness and cowardice weaknesses. Aristotle argues that a
courageous person is bold and fearful, which are useful in the right manner, right tight and for
the right reason. In my opinion, this implies that courage comes before truthfulness.
The morality of being courageous rather than being truthful is relative; the two virtues go
hand in hand by them being right, wrong or evil. With this understanding, to have chosen
between courage and truthfulness should be guided by reason. One should be able to identify the
emotions that can make one want one over the other. The “conscious, careful, and rational” basis
is especially critical since some people may be courageous naturally, for instance, but that is not
virtuous because they are not rationally acting but are responding to natural responses. This is an
issue to Aristotle since the action that is virtuous cannot be unreflectively done. A person only
categorizes virtuous action if it is done rationally, consciously and voluntarily. This is the
difference between truthfulness and courage. A courageous person is the one who boldly acts,
Claims and Counterclaims
and his/her courage can is dependent. Courage occurs naturally to an individual; it is a character
that has been typically inculcated into a person through moral education. This is mandatory
because a person, feelings, desires, sentiments, and emotions may be different from moral action.
Aristotle defined virtue differently from what is students learn in schools, through
making it relate with what people do daily. One learned in school that cowardice is an antonym,
of courage, and truthfulness the opposite of false modesty. Nonetheless, Aristotle defined virtues
extreme of two virtues that one should avoid. This brings us to the conclusion that being
courageous is more important than being truthful. Aristotle’s moral philosophy is highly
complex, unlike utilitarianism and deontology. This is because the latter two theories abstract
heavily from human behavior to come up with simple principles. Aristotle, however, is trying to
understand the complexity of human behavior in its entirety to understand every aspect of it.
Claims and Counterclaims
References
Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics, Courage, 350 B.C.E translated by W.B.Ross, Retrieved from
https://learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/content/352129/viewContent/14030394/View
Aristotle. Nicomachean Ethics, Truthfulness, 350 B.C.E translated by W.B.Ross, Retrieved from
https://learn.umuc.edu/d2l/le/content/352129/viewContent/14030395/View
Hello Professor,
Which is more important for a person to possess, courage or truthfulness?
The question that I will choose for my Final Project is below. I’m truly excited to start the
argumentative portion of this essay. The main reason why I chose this question, is because it’s
very hard for me to believe you can have courage without truthfulness. It’s probably an argument
I’ve had in the past and ever since week three with my wife and even co workers and I can
honestly say there are definitely two sides to this argument. Personally, I’m going with it’s more
important to possess courage.

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