Chat with us, powered by LiveChat UCWR110 Loyola University Self Driving vs Manual Driving Cars Argumentative Essay | Abc Paper
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6pages; due in 2 daysI already have a rough frame of the paper, so you can find some sources based on my topic sentences. Feel free to add your own idea or change somethings. At least 2 scholarly sources, 2 popular sources.Also, when you finish the paper, please write a separate page/ pages to evaluate four of the sources(2 scholarly + 2 general; btw, you can use as many source as you want in the essay) you used in the paper. It does not need to be long. Just give a few sentences for each source, such as is it scholarly? is it reliable? why you picked this one?I will upload my guideline, my frame, and the example of bibliography for you.Thank you! Please let me know if you have any question.
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Work Cited
Miller, Caroline, and Child Mind Institute. “Does Social Media Cause Depression?” Child
Mind Institute, childmind.org/article/is-social-media-use-causing-depression/.
Miller discusses the many issues that teens are facing through the interaction with
social media. There was a group study that was conducted that that shows that teens
who are involved with social media tend to show more signs of depression than those
who were less exposed to social media. One of the biggest differences between this
generation and others is that they spend more time on social media and don’t focus
much on socializing with their peers. People who feel socially isolated are more likely to
turn to social media as a result. One example such as instagram, many women or girls
have the idea of comparing themselves to celebrities with the image that they are
nothing comparing themselves in a negative light.
Hurley, Katie. “Is Social Media Affecting Your Teens’ Mental Health?” PsyCom.net Mental Health Treatment Resource Since 1986, Nov. 2018, www.psycom.net/
depression-teens-social-media.
Hurley begins to explain how social media has changed the way that teenagers
communicate, socialize, and maintain relationships. The youth of this generation miss
out on a bunch of social skills because a majority of their interactions are through a
screen. Many people find confrontation face to face extremely hard so they use social
media or text messaging to express these feelings. Hurley also mentions that teens use
social media as a way to connect, seek friendships, and a support system.
Rettner, Rachael. “These 5 Social Media Habits Are Linked with Depression.”
LiveScience, Purch, 1 June 2018, www.livescience.com/62718-social-media-habitsdepression.html.
Rettner explains that researched who analyzed the information of 500 undergraduate
students who actively use social media tend to show more symptoms of major
depressive order. People on social media are guilty of comparing themselves to other
people negatively. Rettner relates the feeling of isolation in a way becauce she says that
people who post pictures by themselves are most likely to show symptoms of
depression.
.
Self-driving cars can’t completely replace manual driving cars
1. The current self-driving technology is not advanced enough
– give a few accident cases
2. The law for the occurrence of an accident is very unclear. It needs significant
development.
– Cars and self-driving cars are two completely different things in the legal
sense. The traditional car is a commodity, and the self-driving car is essentially
a kind of transportation service provided by the manufacturer. The potential
legal risk is unimaginable for any enterprise. Look for examples.
3. The degree of cost can be surprisingly high for the self-driving car to reach
the number of drivers as much as the traditional cars .
4. Driving itself is a fun thing to do. Self-driving car will change the meaning of
driving itself, which is, eventually, a loss of fun. At that point, the type of car
does not even matter, just like people barely care what type of train they take.
Even Ferrari will be not as fun.
The current maximum speed of Google’s self-driving vehicles does not exceed
25 mph (about 40.2 km / h), which is too slow comparing to normal cars. In
other words, it will impact the regular traffic badly, especially during the peak
periods.
In addition, if the automatic driving cars really replace traditional cars, the
excitement and fun of human driving will become boring because people are
picked up monotonously by a “machine” and no one wants the self driving all
the times, and no one wants to lose the fun of life. Especially for those who
drive a sports car can’t tolerate this happening. Originally, people who bought
supercars such as Ferrari or Lamborghini want passion, but if there are some
slow-moving autonomous vehicles in front, the fun and passion of driving would
dissipate.
5. Big companies don’t give up gaining profits easily.
In the current era of traditional cars, people can choose the brand that we like
according to our own preference, or they can choose different models.
However, once self-driving revolution is achieved, it is a subversive revolution in
the traditional automotive field. Because by then, people no longer need to own
a car, the car will only become a tool to solve the traffic, the shape can be
multiple. At that time, people will not pay too much attention to the brand. Just
like mobile phones and PCs, the future car brands will gradually be covered by
one or two mainstream brands from the current hundreds. As the brand
differentiation disappears, one company can make all the chassis and engines,
and another company can make all the car casings. Just like airplanes, trains,
etc. No one care which brand made them anymore. Obviously, big companies on
the market don’t want to lose the advantages of their own brands, so they won’t
feel happy about self-driving cars to completely replace normal cars. If they do,
these big brands will lose their market.
6. Road construction in rural areas does not meet the standards for
autonomous driving.
We can imagine that when driving to a suburb in the self-driving mode, there are
highways along the road. These self-driving don’t have the ability to on these
roads. First of all, the infrastructure of the road is not perfect enough to
support the self-driving vehicle all the way in the self-driving mode. At least this
kind of construction can not be seen in the small towns and even remote rural
areas in our lifetime.
UCWR 110
Loyola University Chicago
Process guide for the Researched argument essay (invitational rhetoric), pt. 1
Assignment overview
Choose an issue about which you are passionate and which affects you or your
community, whether on campus or in your hometown. Structure an invitational
argument that addresses this issue, using sources that your audience will respect and
appealing to values that you share. Consider at least four secondary sources, two of
which must be scholarly and one of which must offer a perspective very different from
your own. As you consider these sources, employ strategies suggested by Foss and
Griffin, such as “offering perspectives” and “creating external conditions of safety, value,
and freedom.” Your task is to give expression to multiple ways of looking at an issue
and to develop a perspective of your own that is informed by your research.
Requirements

At least 1800 words and no more than 2400 words

At least 4 secondary sources, two of which must be scholarly and one of which
must offer a perspective very different from your own

Reasonable font and formatting

Parenthetical citations and a Works Cited page, per MLA 8 guidelines

Pithy title
FINDING A STARTING POINT
This assignment asks you to choose an issue about which you are passionate and
which affects you or your community. So, ask yourself: “What matters to me right now?”
“What is an issue that affects me in some way and that I think other people should
consider as well?”
Don’t choose the kind of issue that you think you should choose because you’ve been
asked to write a research-based essay.
Choose something unique, or at the very least, something that you’re genuinely
interested in.
Here are a few non-unique topics to avoid:
Gun control
The death penalty
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UCWR 110
Loyola University Chicago
Process guide for the Researched argument essay (invitational rhetoric), pt. 1
Doctor-assisted suicide
“Climate change”
Sea World
Drinking age / marijuana legalization
How social media is bad
Abortion
“Technology”
“Artificial intelligence”
“Human trafficking”
Can you think of other clichéd topics/issues?
SOME EXAMPLES OF UNIQUE AND MEANINGFUL ISSUES

Student who wrote about the psychology of rock climbers and misperceptions of
people who engage in extreme sports

Student who wrote about YouTube conspiracy theories and how this shapes
many peoples’ political orientation (thinking of her father)

Student who wrote about burnout and PTSD in the NICU (neonatal intensive care
unit) among nurses

Student who wrote about Confederate Civil War monuments in her small
(southern) town

Student who wrote in response to this question: “Should there be a ‘Latinx Lives
Matter’ movement? But would this be appropriation?”
NARROWING YOUR TOPIC—TRY “4-SQUARE”
Say, for example, that I’m interested in the following topic:
“Technology and kids”
This is too broad for an essay of just 1800 words.
Let’s try to narrow the topic a bit.
The “4-square” might help:
What
Specifically, tablets in classrooms
Who
Kindergarteners and first
graders
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UCWR 110
Loyola University Chicago
Process guide for the Researched argument essay (invitational rhetoric), pt. 1
Where
When
United States
(or perhaps you might be interested
in a State or region, the rural South
for example?)
2010-present
So, we’ve narrowed the topic to tablet use among Kindergarten and first graders in the
United States, perhaps in the rural South, where many children might not have these
technologies at home. Now we’re getting closer to a unique and meaningful topic.
TOPIC vs. ISSUE
Make sure that your essay focuses on an issue, not just a topic. “College education” is
a topic. “What steps can be taken by colleges to guarantee that students are genuinely
educated?”—that’s an issue. Again, “college education” is a topic. “What social and
economic factors have shaped the ways in which Americans understand the goals of
college education?”—this is an issue.
“Confederate Civil War monuments” is a topic. “Should my town remove all Civil War
monuments?” points to an issue. Burnout and PTSD among NICU nurses is a topic.
“What can hospital administrators do to better equip nurses to deal with witnessed
trauma?”—this points to an issue
Alternately, you may begin with a thesis statement rather than an issue question. For
example, “Though Civil War monuments in my southern town memorialize racism and
violence, these monuments should remain so that we don’t ever forget the horrors of the
South.” Or: “Hospital administrators do not provide enough resources for NICU nurses
and should rethink the way nurses are trained.”
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UCWR 110
Loyola University Chicago
Process guide for the Researched argument essay (invitational rhetoric), pt. 1
In short, an ISSUE implies a debate. When you’re considering an issue in all its depth
and complexity, you’re recognizing that there are many sides to the issue (there are
never just two sides!) and that there are many different perspectives, all of which are
rooted in peoples’ experiences in the world.
CONCEPTUAL AND PRAGMATIC ISSUES
A conceptual focus will ask readers to gain understanding or adopt a belief regarding an
issue or a problem. In other words, your intention as an author of a conceptual
argument is to create understanding.
A pragmatic focus will ask readers to do something or adopt a specific action to solve a
problem. In other words, your intention as an author of a pragmatic argument is to urge
a solution or action.
Note that conceptual and pragmatic issues overlap. If you are trying to solve a problem,
you will have to engage in some conceptual thinking about the issue. And if you are
working out a conceptual problem, your thinking may lead you to pragmatic solutions.
But it is helpful to identify your main purpose before you begin writing.
For the sake of our approach which uses invitational rhetoric, you should be able to
identify whether your issue is conceptual or pragmatic once you’ve articulated an issue.
Some writers find it useful to proceed knowing which kind of argument they are
constructing, though there is no need to think too much about this for this essay.
SEARCHING FOR AND VETTING SECONDARY SOURCES
For this essay, you will develop an argument based on your consideration of at least
four secondary sources. Each of your sources must be substantial and argumentative.
And you will use at least two scholarly sources. In what follows I will show you how to
distinguish between scholarly and popular sources and how to distinguish between
sources that are argumentative and sources that are purely informational.
Scholarly vs. popular sources: some definitions
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UCWR 110
Loyola University Chicago
Process guide for the Researched argument essay (invitational rhetoric), pt. 1
Scholarly sources
A scholarly publication is one in which the content is written by experts in a particular
field of study—generally for the purpose of sharing original research or analyzing others’
findings. Scholarly work will thoroughly cite all source materials used and is usually
subject to “peer review” prior to publication, which means that independent experts in
the field review the manuscript to check the accuracy and validity of its claims. The
primary audience for a scholarly source is fellow experts and students studying the field.
As a result the content is much more sophisticated and advanced than articles found in
general magazines, newspapers, or books. Scholarly sources include articles found in
academic journals and books that are published by presses usually associated with a
university or college.
To summarize, a scholarly work is:

written by experts for experts

based on original research or intellectual inquiry

provides citations for all sources used

is usually peer reviewed prior to publication

is published by a press associated with a university or college
Here is a great source that dissects a scholarly source and provides an “anatomical”
explanation of its components: https://www.lib.ncsu.edu/tutorials/scholarly-articles/
Popular sources
If your source does not meet the criteria listed above, it’s a popular source. There is a
wealth of information to be found in popular publications. These aim to inform a wide
array of readers about issues of interest and are more informal in tone and scope.
Examples include general news, business and entertainment publications such as Time,
The Economist, Vanity Fair, The Atlantic. Special interest publications which are not
specifically written for an academic audience are also considered “popular,” e.g.,
National Geographic, Psychology Today, Scientific American.
Argumentative vs. newsy sources
Sources that make an argument or share a perspective on an issue are persuasive.
Some may employ the tactics of invitational rhetoric as described in Foss and Griffin’s
“Beyond Persuasion”; some may not. The authors of argumentative sources may use
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UCWR 110
Loyola University Chicago
Process guide for the Researched argument essay (invitational rhetoric), pt. 1
information, but their primary goal is to demonstrate for the reader that their perspective
is valid and worth considering.
On the other hand, sources that are purely informational include news stories as well as
websites (often produced by .orgs or .govs, but also some .coms) that offer background
information, statistics, timelines, or other contextual information on an issue. Authors of
sources that are purely informational do not enter the debate; they hold back.
The Researched argument essay assignment instructions are clear on this: while you
may use informational sources such as newspaper articles to support a claim with a fact
or statistic, your focus will be on argumentative sources—sources that offer a unique
perspective on your issue.
In the wild west of the internet, sometimes it is difficult to determine whether a source is
purely informational or purely argumentative. There are instances where a source
exists in a gray area between the two. Let’s practice determining whether a source is
argumentative or not.
Which of these articles is news, purely informational?
Which of these articles is argumentative? Which offers a perspective?
“The Economic Senselessness of President Trump’s DACA Repeal”
Derek Thompson (The Atlantic, Sep. 17, 2017)
https://www.theatlantic.com/business/archive/2017/09/trump-daca-repeal/538911/
“Federal Judge Rules Trump Administration Must Accept New DACA Applications”
Molly Olmstead (Slate, Apr. 25, 2018)
https://slate.com/news-and-politics/2018/04/daca-federal-judge-rules-trumpadministration-must-accept-new-applications.html
Let’s try this again with two articles on the “gay gene”:
“ ‘Born this Way’ vs. the Empty ‘Choice’ Argument”
Brendan Shucart (Advocate, Nov. 2, 2016)
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UCWR 110
Loyola University Chicago
Process guide for the Researched argument essay (invitational rhetoric), pt. 1
https://www.advocate.com/current-issue/2016/11/02/born-way-vs-empty-choiceargument
“Homosexuality may be caused by chemical modifications to DNA”
Michael Balter (Science, Oct. 8, 2015)
http://www.sciencemag.org/news/2015/10/homosexuality-may-be-caused-chemicalmodifications-dna
Which of these articles is purely informational, journalism?
Which of these offers an argument?
SOURCES TO AVOID
Avoid the following kinds of sources:
“listicles” and other clickbait-y sources
(e.g., “10 Reasons Why College Students Are Stressed”);
crowd-sourced publications,
such as The Odyssey Online, Yahoo Answers, Quora, Reddit, etc.;
and sources lacking discernable authorship.
CQ RESEARCHER?
One great source for finding surface-level information about an issue is the CQ
Researcher. You can navigate yourself to this site through Loyola’s library website,
under the “databases” tab.
“CQ” stands for “Congressional Quarterly,” and its purpose is to contextualize current
issues for lawmakers. Its reports are very heavy on statistics and background
information. These reports also include many links to secondary sources that you may
find useful.
The CQ Researcher may be a good starting point for you, but a report from it will not
count as one of your sources. You may find some argumentative “pro/con” debates
within a CQ report, but these editorial-style texts are usually very short and
insubstantial. (Though there may be exceptions.)
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UCWR 110
Loyola University Chicago
Process guide for the Researched argument essay (invitational rhetoric), pt. 1
HOW DO I BEGIN SEARCHING FOR SOURCES?
We’ll discuss this in part 2 of this process guide. For now, you may experiment with the
following search tools:
Academic Search Complete (accessible in the “Databases” tab on the library’s website)
The college library’s main search bar: http://libraries.luc.edu/
Google Scholar
Google
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