1. Read the introduction, thesis, and outline.2. Leave in-text comments on the introduction, thesis, and outline. I expect comments on every major part/idea/point. Please also include 2 -4 comments on grammar or sentence structure.3. Answer in detail and in complete sentences the peer review questions on page 513 of Longman textbook.4. Finally, answer these question in complete sentences:Introduction: How does the first paragraph introduce both the paper’s topic and the writer’s approach or general conclusion? Is the first sentence attention-getting and relevant to the topic? What introduction method is used? Is it effective? Provide suggestions.What can you identify as a thesis statement? Suggest, if possible, a way to improve the introduction or thesis statement. What is the preview of points? Does the thesis meet all that is required for this thesis statement? Provide suggestions.Structure: Can you identify the organization of the paper from the main idea of each paragraph? What are the main concepts explored in the paper? Does each paragraph make a relevant point that is distinct from what has already been covered? What are the main conclusions? Provide suggestions.https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=GBhlW0l1ZQc&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UEgRQZBalJk&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lXWMPbfKtUI&feature=youtu.behttps://www.youtube.com/watch?v=z5fj5LJMAG8&feature=youtu.be
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Types of Introductions
Introductory paragraphs should accomplish two tasks:
1. They should get the reader’s interest so that he or she will want to read more.
2. They should let the reader know what the writing is going to be about.
The second task can be accomplished by a carefully crafted thesis statement. The first
task—securing the reader’s interest—is the task that this discussion addresses.
Use this kind of introduction when you are asked to respond to a reading. Begin
with a single sentence in which you give the author’s full name, the title of the
reading, and a summary of its main idea or thesis statement. Then, in your own
words, sum up the other key points in the reading. To introduce these ideas, place,
at the beginning of the sentence, the author’s last name or a pronoun (he or she).
Then, transition to your thesis statement.
Formula: In “[title],” [author’s full name] [verb in present tense] that [thesis summary].
In “Procrastination,” Ed Lazie argues that putting things off is a good idea. He
points out . . . He adds . . . Finally, Lazie concludes . . .
In “What Employees Need Most,” Peter Drucker argues that the most important
skill an employee can possess is the ability to communicate well in both writing and
speaking. As one moves up the corporate ladder, the demand, he says, is less for
particular technical abilities and more for the skill to “make clear . . . ideas to others and
persuade them.” To acquire these skills, Drucker recommends taking writing courses in
college—even creative writing. Despite his enthusiasm, it can be argued that the modern
employer is still unwilling to accept such preparation.
Begin with a general statement about the subject. Add statements that narrow
down, moving in more specific fashion toward the thesis.
Example: Education >> adult education >> adults returning to school >> difficulties for
an adult returning to school >> [thesis] skills I needed to brush up on.
[LEAD] It seems that these days we never leave school, that education is an
ongoing concern to. We need constant education to keep up with job skills, or acquire
new skills for a new job. But for a variety of reasons, adults who pursue these goals often
have a difficult time making the transition from worker to student. [THESIS] In my case,
I realized that my classroom skills were not as sharp as they used to be. [PREVIEW] I
had totally forgotten how to locate information in a library, how to write a report, and
how to speak up in class discussions.
Begin with the opposite idea that your thesis will develop.
Example: For a thesis pointing out the advantages of something, begin with the
disadvantages; for an essay emphasizing the present, begin with the past; for
an argument about what the truth is about a subject, begin with what seems to
[LEAD] When I decided to return to school at age thirty-five, I wasn’t at all
worried about my ability to do the work. After all, I was a grown woman who had raised
a family, not a confused teenager fresh out of high school. But, when I started classes, I
realized that those confused teenagers sitting around me were in much better shape for
college than I was. They still had all their classroom skills in bright, shiny condition.
[THESIS] I had lost all of my classroom skills over time, mine growing rusty from
disuse. [PREVIEW] I had totally forgotten how to locate information in a library, how to
write a report, and how to speak up in class discussions.
All writing is a response to something—another idea, and essay assignment. If
your writing is not answering a specific, assigned question, beginning with the context
for why you are writing can give your reader necessary information.
Example: Begin with what you are responding to, or the reason for your writing.
[Lead] “It was because of my letters that I happened to stumble upon starting to
acquire some kind of a homemade education. I became increasingly frustrated at not
being able to express what I wanted to convey in the letters that I wrote, especially those
to Mr. Elijah Muhammad. In the street, I had been the most articulate hustler out there—I
had commanded attention when I said something. But now, trying to write simple
English, I not only wasn’t articulate, I wasn’t even functional.”
From “Learning to
Read” by Malcolm X.
People like to hear stories, and many writers begin essays with a concise and brief
story to engage their readers. Keep in mind that this story should have the same message
that you have in the rest of the essay.
Example: Begin your essay with a brief personal story that highlights your point.
[Lead] “When I was nine or ten, I was steeped in Barbie madness. So much so
that I joined the Barbie fan club. My mother still has the membership document
displaying my careful cursive writing alongside the scrawled block letters of a younger
From Cynthia Tucker’s “Barbie Madness”
Begin with a reference to a significant idea and/or event that you want to establish
a connection and that your audience is aware of. This will help your audience understand
what your topic/ideas are similar to.
Example: Begin with an idea that you are comparing your ideas to.
[Lead] “Five score years ago, a great American, in whose symbolic shadow we
stand, signed the Emancipation Proclamation. This momentous decree came as a great
beacon light of hope to millions of Negro slaves who have been seared in the flames of
withering injustice. It came as a joyous daybreak end to the long night of captivity.”
From I have a Dream by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr.
Classic Model for an Argument
No one structure fits all written arguments. However, most college courses require arguments that
consist of the following elements. Below is a basic outline for an argumentative or persuasive essay.
This is only one possible outline or organization. Always refer to your handbook for specifics.
o Your introductory paragraph sets the stage or the context for the position you are arguing for.
o This introduction should end with a thesis statement that provides your claim (what you are
arguing for) and the reasons for your position on an issue.
A. Your thesis:
o states what your position on an issue is
o usually appears at the end of the introduction in a short essay
o should be clearly stated and often contains emphatic language (should, ought, must)
B. Sample Argumentative Thesis
o The production, sale, and possession of assault weapons for private citizens should be
banned in the U.S.
II. Body of your Argument
A. Background Information
o This section of your paper gives the reader the basic information he or she needs to
understand your position. This could be part of the introduction, but may work as its
B. Reasons or Evidence to Support your Claim
o All evidence you present in this section should support your position. This is the heart of
your essay. Generally, you begin with a general statement that you back up with specific
details or examples. Depending on how long your argument is, you will need to devote
one to two well-developed paragraphs to each reason/claim or type of evidence.
o Types of evidence include:
first-hand examples and experiential knowledge on your topic (specific examples
help your readers connect to your topic in a way they cannot with abstract ideas)
Opinions from recognized authorities
The tipsheet on the three logical appeals covers the types of evidence you can use in
1. Claim: Keeping assault weapons out of private citizens’ hands can lower the
increasing occurrences of barbaric public slayings
o Jul 93 Law firm murders
o Columbine School Shootings
o University of Virginia incident
o How did these individuals gain access to weapons?
2. Claim: The ban on assault weapons is backed heavily by public opinion, major
organizations, and even law enforcement.
o 12% favor ban (Much 92 Timetable News)
o Organizational endorsements
o Nat’l Sherriff’s Assoc./lntn’l Assoc. of Police Chiefs
3. Claim: The monetary and human costs incurred by crimes committed with assault
weapons are too great to ignore.
o 10,561 murders in 1990 by handguns
o Study of 131 injured patients’ medical expenses paid by public funds
III. Addressing the Opposite Side
o Any well-written argument must anticipate and address positions in opposition to the one
o Pointing out what your opposition is likely to say in response to your argument shows that
you have thought critically about your topic. Addressing the opposite side actually makes
your argument stronger!
o Generally, this takes the form of a paragraph that can be placed either after the introduction
or before the conclusion.
A. 1st Opposing View: Strict gun control laws won’t affect crime rate
Refutation: Low murder rate in Britain, Australia (etc., where strict controls are in
B. 2nd Opposing View: Outlaws would still own guns
Refutation: Any effort to move trend in opposite direction would benefit future
o The conclusion should bring the essay to a logical end. It should explain what the
importance of your issue is in a larger context. Your conclusion should also reiterate why
your topic is worth caring about.
o Some arguments propose solutions or make prediction on the future of the topic.
o Show your reader what would happen if your argument is or is not believed or acted upon as
you believe it should be.
Simon & Schuster Handbook for Writers. Ed. Lynn Quitman Troyka, 6 ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002.
The Writer’s Workplace. Ed. Sandra Scarry and John Scarry. 6 ed. Boston: Thomson Wadsworth, 2008.
The State of San Diego Should Consider Implementing A No-Smoking Policy at Personal
1. Freedom of expression for the property owner
2. Lower death rate caused by smoking and fires
a. There too many preventative deaths associated with smoking
b. Nowadays their reported cases of fire caused by smoking on
3. Littering of the city
4. Protect citizens who has different views on the topic
B. Thesis: To protect local citizens who have various stands on the no-smoking
polies is a hard topic since there different stake holders involved including
government, smoking citizens and property owners however everyone has the
freedom of expression including citizens who own properties. This policy who
see a reduction of death caused by smoking and fires related to smoking,
reduction of litter in the city and make citizens with different views on the
topic as they are heard on the issue.
II. Freedom of expression
A. Property owners have their right to express what they want on their property
B. Not everyone in the property like Smoking
III. Lower death rate caused by smoking and fires
A. There are lot of diseases associated with smoking
B. Lots of property have burned down due to fire resulting from smoking
IV. Littering of the city
V. Protect citizens who has different view on the topic
A. Difficult issue
1. Many stick holders
2. Protect every citizen stand point
B. Restate thesis: This policy will protect every stick holder involved from the
problems brought about by smoking in private property from infringing on
other people rights to lowering death rate associated with preventable diseases
caused by smoking.
Smoking has notable negative effects in the city of San Diego residents. Smoking cause
notable preventable death in the United States and third-party smokers are developing stroke,
lung cancers and health diseases at higher rate than ever before. ‘Family Smoking Prevention
and Tobacco Control Act’ that was effective 2009 and amended in 2016 offers FDA the mandate
to regulate the manufacture, marketing, and distribution of products of tobacco for public health
protection. After the release of Surgeon General Report in 1964, showing cigarette as most
important source of chronic bronchitis, a luckily cause of women lung cancer and cause of
laryngeal cancer and lung cancer in men, that is when changes were being proposed to shield
general public. In federal law there was a ban on all tobacco products in the media and it was
made mandatory to place warning on cigarette packages. This brought several changes in
different states as they started introducing policies to shield the general public from having to
endure problems caused by smokers. I believe that San Diego need to introduce non-smoking
policy at personal properties since no one should go through the effect of smoking unwillingly
and this will go a long way in preventing many preventable diseases.
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