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1. What concerns should be understood about data communications being sent over wireless networks? Discuss the pros and cons of one method of transmission, such as Wireless Application Protocol.Words: 400 with atleast two peer reviewed reference in APA format.2. Refer to the attached case study and answer any ONE of the below questionsQUESTIONS1. How many different estimating techniques were discussed in the case?2. If each estimate is different, how does a project manager decide that one estimate is better than another?3. If you were the project manager, which estimate would you use?Words: 400 with atleast two peer reviewed reference in APA format.
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CASE STUDY
THE ESTIMATING PROBLEM
Barbara just received the good news: She was assigned as the
project
manager for a project that her company won as part of competitive
bidding. Whenever a request for proposal (RFP) comes into
Barbara’s
company, a committee composed mainly of senior managers
reviews
the RFP. If the decision is made to bid on the job, the RFP is turned
1095
over to the Proposal Department. Part of the Proposal Department
is an
estimating group that is responsible for estimating all work. If the
estimating group has no previous history concerning some of the
deliverables or work packages and is unsure about the time and
cost for
the work, the estimating team will then ask the functional
managers for
assistance with estimating.
Project managers like Barbara do not often participate in the
bidding
process. Usually, their first knowledge about the project comes
after the
contract is awarded to their company and they are assigned as the
project manager. Some project managers are highly optimistic and
trust
the estimates that were submitted in the bid implicitly unless, of
course,
a significant span of time has elapsed between the date of
submittal of
the proposal and the final contract award date. Barbara, however,
is
somewhat pessimistic. She believes that accepting the estimates
as they
were submitted in the proposal is like playing Russian roulette. As
such, Barbara prefers to review the estimates.
One of the most critical work packages in the project was
estimated at
twelve weeks using one grade 7 employee full time. Barbara had
performed this task on previous projects and it required one person
full
time for fourteen weeks. Barbara asked the estimating group how
they
arrived at this estimate. The estimating group responded that they
used
the three-point estimate where the optimistic time was four weeks,
the
most likely time was thirteen weeks, and the pessimistic time was
sixteen weeks.
Barbara believed that the three-point estimate was way off of the
mark.
The only way that this work package could ever be completed in
four
weeks would be for a very small project nowhere near the
complexity
of Barbara’s project. Therefore, the estimating group was not
considering any complexity factors when using the three-point
estimate.
Had the estimating group used the triangular distribution where
each of the three estimates had an equal likelihood of occurrence,
the final
estimate would have been thirteen weeks. This was closer to the
fourteen weeks that Barbara thought the work package would take.
While a difference of 1 week seems small, it could have a serious
impact on Barbara’s project and incur penalties for late delivery.
Barbara was now still confused and decided to talk to Peter, the
employee that was assigned to do this task. Barbara had worked
with Peter on previous projects. Peter was a grade 9 employee and
considered to be an expert in this work package. As part of the
discussions with Barbara, Peter made the following comments:
I have seen estimating data bases that include this type of work
package and they all estimate the work package at about 14 weeks.
I
do not understand why our estimating group prefers to use the
three
point estimate.
“Does the typical data base account for project complexity when
considering the estimates?” asked Barbara. Peter responded:
Some data bases have techniques for considering complexity, but
mostly they just assume an average complexity level. When
complexity is important, as it is in our project, analogy estimating
would be better. Using analogy estimating and comparing the
complexity of the work package on this project to the similar works
packages I have completed, I would say that 16–17 weeks is closer
to reality, and let’s hope I do not get removed from the project to
put
out a fire somewhere else in the company. That would be terrible. It
is impossible for me to get it done in 12 weeks. And adding more
people to this work package will not shorten the schedule. It may
even make it worse.
Barbara then asked Peter one more question:
Peter, you are a grade 9 and considered as the subject matter
expert.
If a grade 7 had been assigned, as the estimating group had said,
how long would it have taken the grade 7 to do the job?
“Probably about 20 weeks or so,” responded Peter.

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