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300-350wordsfollowing the form of example to write; intro paragraph; body1 paragraph( includes 2 theme); body2 paragraph (includes 1 theme); conclusion paragraph.choosing three themes from: Inclusion with DSM; cause and influence; brain effects; when does social media become addiction; the similarity of social media addiction; extra of other evidence of social media addiction.PS: all the theme are from the review articles, writer should read the article and choose three themes to write
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social_media_addiction__literature_review_articles_.pdf

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Social media addiction: should we be worried?
By Charlotte Jee | Oct 03, 2017
https://www.techworld.com/social-media/social-media-addiction-should-we-be-worried-3664608/
….
The experts are not in agreement and it’s a controversial question. But some argue that mental health issues
around social media – in particular addiction – exist, and are becoming increasingly prevalent. It’s a theory the
press has taken up with gusto. Most national newspapers reported on a survey earlier this year which found
Instagram is the worst social media site in terms of the impact on young people’s mental health.
A study by Nottingham Trent University as far back as 2011 found ‘it appears that from a clinical perspective,
social networking sites addiction is a mental health problem that may require professional treatment’. It
added that ‘addiction criteria, such as neglect of personal life, mental preoccupation, escapism, mood
modifying experiences, tolerance and concealing the addictive behaviour, appear to be present in some
people who use [social networks] excessively’. It has even been suggested that social media addiction should
be added to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM), a manual used by health
professionals for diagnosis. A study published in May this year by a university in Rome said ‘changes after
cessation of internet use are similar to those seen in individuals who have ceased using sedative or opiate
drugs’.
Despite some of the findings mentioned so far, social media addiction is not an officially recognised
phenomenon and it is not listed in the DSM. That means that for all the fears for mental health that have
swirled around social media networks since they first became popular, coining the phrase social media
‘addiction’ may be an overreaction. Who can judge the point at which checking social media goes from habit
to addiction? What if you have to use social media as part of your job, or there is no other way to keep in
touch with an old friend?
It’s true that social media can have powerful effects on our psychology: it provides social validation, feeds our
egos, and can fire up our brain chemistry in a way similar to addictive substances. Rather than panicking about
addiction, the answer might lie in encouraging people to keep a check on their social media use. There is no
officially prescribed specific amount of time on social media that is healthy or unhealthy. But if it is starting to
have a detrimental effect on other parts of your life – neglecting relationships or personal care – there’s clearly
an issue. Perhaps in the end for most of us, we just need to ensure we aren’t relying too heavily on social
media alone for validation and happiness.
What Is Social Networking Addiction? How to Tell If You’re Hooked
by Leslie Walker, Updated April 22, 2017
https://www.lifewire.com/what-is-social-networking-addiction-2655246
Social networking addiction is a phrase sometimes used to refer to someone spending too much time using
Facebook, Twitter and other forms of social media — so much so that it interferes with other aspects of daily
life. There’s no official medical recognition of social networking addiction as a disease or disorder. Still, the
cluster of behaviors associated with heavy or excessive use of social media has become the subject of much
discussion and research
Addiction usually refers to compulsive behavior that leads to negative effects. In most addictions, people feel
compelled to do certain activities so often that they become a harmful habit, which then interferes with other
important activities such as work or school. In that context, a social networking addict could be considered
someone with a compulsion to use social media to excess — constantly checking Facebook status updates or
“stalking” people’s profiles on Facebook, for example, for hours on end.
But it’s hard to tell when fondness for an activity becomes a dependency and crosses the line into a damaging
habit or addiction. Does spending three hours a day on Twitter reading random tweets from strangers mean
you’re addicted to Twitter? How about five hours? You could argue you were just reading headline news or
needed to stay current in your field for work, right?
Researchers at Chicago University concluded that social media addiction can be stronger than addiction to
cigarettes and booze following an experiment in which they recorded the cravings of several hundred people
for several weeks. Media cravings ranked ahead of cravings for cigarettes and alcohol. And at Harvard
University, researchers actually hooked people up to functional MRI machines to scan their brains and see
what happens when they talk about themselves, which is a key part of what people do in social media. They
found that self-disclosure communication stimulates the brain’s pleasure centers much like sex and food do.
Plenty of clinicians have observed symptoms of anxiety, depression and some psychological disorders in
people who spend too much time online, but little hard evidence has been found proving that social media or
Internet use caused the symptoms. There’s a similar lack of data about social networking addiction….
Some people consider excessive use of social networks simply the latest form of “Internet Addiction Disorder,”
a phenomenon people first began writing about in the 1990s when Internet use was starting to spread. Even
back then, people theorized that heavy use of the Internet might impair people’s performance at work, in
school and in family relationships. Nearly 20 years later, there is still no agreement that excessive use of the
Internet or social networking services is pathological or should be considered a medical disorder. Some have
asked the American Psychological Association to add Internet addiction to the official medical bible of
disorders, but the APA has so far refused (at least when this was written in 2012)
Social media is as harmful as alcohol and drugs for millennials
Tony Rao | June 12, 2017 6.46am EDT
https://theconversation.com/social-media-is-as-harmful-as-alcohol-and-drugs-for-millennials-78418
The word “addiction” brings to mind alcohol and drugs. Yet, over the past 20 years, a new type of addiction
has emerged: addiction to social media. It may not cause physical harms, such as those caused by tobacco and
alcohol, but it has the potential to cause long-term damage to our emotions, behaviour and relationships.
While the older generation – those born in the baby boom period shortly after World War II – had alcohol and
drugs as their vice, the younger generation – the so-called millenials – have social media as theirs. The
millennials, born between 1984 and 2005, have embraced the digital age, using technology to relax and
interact with others. Social media is a big deal for them; it is a lifeline to the outside world. Although people of
all ages use social media, it is more harmful for younger users than it is for older people.
Addiction may seem a bit of a strong word to use in the context of social media, but addiction refers to any
behaviour that is pleasurable and is the only reason to get through the day. Everything else pales into
insignificance. Millennials may not get liver damage or lung cancer from social media, but it can be damaging
nonetheless. The harm lies in their change in behaviour. Their addiction means spending increasing amount of
time online to produce the same pleasurable effect, and it means social media is the main activity they engage
in above all others. It also means taking away attention from other tasks, experiencing unpleasant feelings
from reducing or stopping interaction with social media and restarting the activity very soon after stopping
completely.
We should also be concerned about the effect of social media on sleep and doing less “offline”, such as
making time for work responsibilities and direct face-to-face social interaction. It has also been linked to
depression and loneliness, both of which may be the cause or the effect of social media addiction. Millennials
report compulsively checking social network profiles and updates. They can make riskier decisions and be
open to online exploitation. They often mistakenly believe that, if things go wrong, they will get help from
their online community, even if this community consists of relative strangers….
The digital age has changed the nature of addictions in millennials, who have replaced one maladaptive
behaviour with another. Social media certainly looks as if it has replaced alcohol as a way of social interaction
with others. It is perhaps no surprise that, over the past ten years, there has been a 20% rise in the proportion
of 16 to 24-year-olds who are teetotal. Ten years ago it was 17%. It is now 24%. Spending time online now
seems more desirable than spending time in a pub with friends.
There is no recognised treatment for social media addiction. Although we are starting to become aware of the
problem, there is no classification of social media addiction as a mental disorder in the same way as substance
misuse. If we want this to happen, there needs to be a clearer definition of the symptoms and progression
over time. We will need to answer some key questions, such as: does it run in families? Are there blood tests
that can distinguish it from other mental disorders? And will it respond to drugs or psychological therapies?
We still have more questions than answers.

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