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– Look at two of my classmate’s posts. I need you to respond to each one separately. Don’t write about how good their posts or how bad. All you need to do is to choose one point of the post and explore it a little bit with one source support for each response. In the attachment, you will find all the classmates posts.- APA Style.
_crisis_and_emergency_risk_communication_card__cerc_.pdf

students_post_610_12.docx

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Emergency Message Components
1. Expression of empathy
2. Call for Action
Who
What
Where
When
Why
How
3. What we don’t know
4. Process to get answers
5. Statement of commitment
6. Referrals
For more information
Next scheduled update
CRISIS AND EMERGENCY RISK COMMUNICATION (CERC):
Crisis and emergency risk communication encompasses the urgency of disaster communication with the need to communicate risks and benefits to
stakeholders and the public. CERC differs from risk communication in that a decision must be made within a narrow time constraint, the decision may be
irreversible, the outcome of the decision may be uncertain, and the decision may need to be made with imperfect or incomplete information.
CREATING YOUR CERC MESSAGES
Be prepared
Foster alliances
Develop consensus
recommendations
Test messages
Acknowledge the
event with empathy
Explain and inform
the public in
simplest forms about
the risk
Establish agency
spokesperson
credibility
Provide emergency
courses of action
(including how/
where to get more
information
Commit to stakeholders and
public to continue
communication
Check your message
Positive action steps
Honest/open tone
Apply CERC principles
Clarity
Use of simple, short words
Avoid jargon/humor
Avoid judgmental phrases
Avoid extreme speculation
Help public
accurately
understand risks
Provide background/
information to those
who need it
Gain understanding
and support for
response and
recovery plans
Listen to stakeholder
and audience
feedback; correct
any misinformation
Explain emergency
recommendations
Empower risk/
benefit decisionmaking
Improve public
response in future;
similar events
through education
Examine problems
and mishaps;
reinforce what
worked
Encourage the
public to support
resource allocation
and public policy
Promote the
activities and
capabilities of the
agency (reinforce
corporate identity
externally and
internally)
CERC NINE-STEP PLAN
1. Verify situation.
2. Conduct notification.
3. Activate crisis plan.
4. Organize assignments.
5. Prepare information, obtain approvals.
6. Release information via pre-arranged channels.
7. Obtain feedback, conduct crisis evaluation.
8. Begin additional public education activities.
9. Monitor events.
CRISIS AND EMERGENCY RISK COMMUNICATION
Evaluate
communication plan
performance
Document lessons
learned
Determine specific
actions to improve
crisis systems or the
crisis plan
Present a short, concise, and focused message (6thgrade level). It’s difficult in a heightened state of anxiety
or fear to take in copious amounts of information. Get
the bottom line out first.
Cut to the chase. Relevant information only at this time.
Don’t begin with a lot of background information.
Give action steps in positives. Avoid the use of negatives.
Repeat the message. Repetition reflects credibility and
durability.
Create action steps in threes or rhyme, or create
an acronym. Three is not a magic number, but in an
emergency, you should not expect your audience to
absorb more than three simple directions.
Use personal pronouns for the organization. “We are
committed to . . .” or “We understand the need for . . .”
Accuracy of
Information
Speed of
Release
Empathy
+
Openness
Credibility
=
+
Trust
Successful
Communication
www.cdc.gov
CS111855
The First 48 Hours
BE FIRST. BE RIGHT. BE CREDIBLE.
Notification
Use your crisis plan’s notification list to ensure that your leadership
is aware (especially if it comes from the media and not the EOC) of
the emergency and that they know you are involved. Give leadership
your first assessment of the emergency from a communication
perspective and inform them of your next steps.
Coordination
Contact local, state, federal partners now. If there is potential for
criminal investigation, contact your FBI counterpart now. Secure a
spokesperson as designated in the plan. Initiate alert notification
and call-in extra communication staff, per the plan. Connect with the
EOC— make your presence known.
Media
Provide a statement indicating that your agency is aware of the
emergency and is involved in the response. Begin monitoring media
for misinformation that must be corrected. Tell the media when and
where to get updates from your agency. Give facts. Don’t speculate.
Ensure partners are saying the same thing.
The Public
Prepare your public information toll-free number operation now if
you anticipate that the public will seek reassurance or information
directly from your organization. (You may adjust hours of operation
and number of call managers as needed.) Use your initial media
statement as your first message to the public. Remind people that a
process is in place to mitigate the crisis. Begin public call monitoring
to detect trends or rumors.
Partners/Stakeholders
Send a statement to partners and stakeholders using prearranged
notification systems (preferably e-mail listservs). Engage your
leadership to make important initial phone calls, based on your plan,
to partners and key stakeholders. Use e-mail to notify employees that
their agency is involved in the response and that updates will follow.
Ask for their support.
Resources
Conduct the crisis risk assessment and implement assignments and
hours of operation accordingly. Secure your pre-planned place in the
EOC or adjoining area.
For More Information about CERC: CERC_info@cdc.gov
CRISIS EMERGENCY
RISKCOMMUNICATION
Quick Tips
Express empathy and caring.
Display honesty/openess.
Avoid jargon; use humor
cautiously.
Show commitment/dedication.
Refute negatives without
repeating them.
Know your organization’s
policies.
Use positive terms.
Tell the truth.
Stay on message.
Acknowledge uncertainties.
Stay in your lane (scope of
responsibilities).
Give people things to do.
Don’t over-reassure.
Don’t assume you’ve made
your point. Ask whether you’ve
made yourself clear.
Don’t lead with messages
about money.
Avoid one-liners, cliches,
and off-the-cuff comments.
Discuss what you know, not
what you think.
Ask more of people.
(share risk)
Failure to prepare is
preparing to fail.
— Unknown
Important Reminders About Your CERC Plan
Update the plan at regular intervals.
Longer is not better; your plan is a reference tool not
a step-by-step guide.
Keep your plan simple and flexible.
RESOURCES
www.cdc.gov
www.bt.cdc.gov
www.hhs.gov
www.fema.gov
www.redcross.org
www.ndpo.gov
www.nphic.org
To request CERC training tools: CERC request@cdc.gov
– Look at two of my classmate’s posts. I need you to respond to each one separately. Don’t
write about how good their posts or how bad. All you need to do is to choose one point of the
post and explore it a little bit with one source support for each response. In attached you will
find all the classmates posts.
– APA Style.
– Overview
– Public information, media, risk communication
Communication is a huge issue in emergency management. Done right, emergency managers serve the
public well. Done wrong – big problems. Most organizations have a Public Information Officer who
has undergone extensive training. Some organizations haven’t yet learned their lesson.
– Reading Assignments
Attached Files:

610- Crisis and Emergency Risk Communication Card (CERC).pdf (1.04 MB)
Ciottone chapters 24, 42, 45
A useful pocket card – (See attachment)
http://emergency.cdc.gov/cerc/resources/pdf/basic_cerc_zcard.pdf
FOCUS POINTS
You may find these sites interesting, but this is not required reading. The lesson in each of these is that
the right PIO makes all the difference. The wrong one is a major problem. (My personal thanks to
DMM student Christina Pareja for finding these).
Gluckman, W. A., Weinstein, E. S., Dilling, S., & Paul, J. S. (2015). Public information management.
In Ciottone’s Disaster Medicine (pp. 143–148). http://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-28665-7.00024-8
http://www.wmsym.org/archives/2008/pdfs/8313.pdf

The Communications Failures Lessons of Three Mile Island

http://www.nejm.org/doi/full/10.1056/NEJMp1001737#t=article
– Discussion
Board Question
Describe the role of the Public Information Officer in media relations and reporting during an
incident. Why is this role so crucial? How can the PIO beneficially utilize the media for Risk
Communication activities during the event? What pre-event activities lead to success in these
relationships?
Student 1 post:
Public information officer is responsible for gathering valid information about the incident,
organize it to introduce it to the public within a limited time. Additionally, PIO should be
familiar with various means of communication within the community to transfer and give
instructions for a large number of people. For instance, when the incident commander request
evacuation in response to disasters, the PIO will have a variety of methods to disseminate
evacuation command. Since the PIO will speak for the incident command, he or she must be
well-versed of the incident plan and objectives, what has been done and what further actions
will be taken. The public information officer has the right to hold a press conference to have
enough time to gather information and alleviate public concerns. At the same time, PIO will
form a link between incident responders.
One of the methods the PIO will develop is educated the society about local to cooperate
during the response to hazards. Another point is the provision of multiple means of
communication and capable of operation on the ground during tough situations.
Motschall, M., & Cao, L. (2002). An analysis of the public relations role of the police public
information officer. Police Quarterly, 5(2), 152-180.
Ciottone, G. R., Biddinger, P. D., Darling, R. G., Fares, S., Keim, M. E., Molloy, M. S., &
Suner, S. (Eds.). (2015). Ciottone’s disaster medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences.
Student 2 post:
The role of the Emergency Public Information is to speedily offer the society with the
information on the incident as well as the instructions on what the community should do.
Also, EPI provides the media with timely and accurate information about the scope of the
incident and the response efforts. However, for the Emergency Public Information to achieve
these objectives, the Public Information Officer must operate with the media representatives
to publicize the event details and instructions to the community like the health centers.
The role of PIO in media relations during an incident is essential as it helps the emergency
management agencies through PIO to know what the media wants. Further, the responsibility
of the PIO in media relations and reporting entails distributing disaster instructions and
significant information of an emergency through the media to the community. When an
incident occurs, the PIO requires the media to give the information to the community but as
well manages the scene and guides the story. During an incident occurrence, PIO serves as
the media contact personnel and as the source of official emergency information.
Moreover, as a way of effectively utilizing the media for emergency communication
activities, the PIO holds the press briefings. It also achieves the role through media
coordination and website management. During a crisis, the PIO needs to create plans of
collecting, verifying and disseminating the information to the society through the media to
warn the community centers of the incident and to direct evacuation as well as other
protective measures. Therefore, before any emergency, the emergency management
organization is responsible through the PIO to help with the outreach activities like the
programs intended to educate the society on the local hazards and threats together with the
potential mitigating approaches.
References
Carlson, C. S., & Kashani, P. (2018). Mediated Access Police Public Information Officers
and Crime Reporters on Message Control, Social Media, Body Camera Footage and
Public Records. GSTF Journal on Media and Communications (JMC), 3(2).
Ciottone, G. R., Biddinger, P. D., Darling, R. G., Fares, S., Keim, M. E., Molloy, M. S., &
Suner, S. (Eds.). (2015). Ciottone’s disaster medicine. Elsevier Health Sciences.
FEMA. (n.d.). Basic Guidance for Public Information Officers (PIOs). Retrieved from
https://www.fema.gov/media-library-data/20130726-1623-204900276/basic_guidance_for_pios_final_draft_12_06_07.pdf

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