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1.Define the term “resilience.” What attitudes, behaviors, and activities can be expected (or are proven) to enhance personal resilience? Neighborhood resilience? Community resilience? Are these activities complimentary, collaborative, or deleterious? Explain.Reading:Chandra, A. (2011). Building Community Resilience to Disasters : A Way Forward to Enhance National Health Security. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation Chap 7Johnston, D. M., & Paton, D. (2006). Disaster Resilience : An Integrated Approach. Springfield, Ill: Charles C Thomas. Chap 2 & 10What is resilience? US Dept of State – one page article – see attached. url – The United States Department of State. (n.d.) What is resilience? Retrieved from: http://www.state.gov/m/med/dsmp/c44950.htmWhat is Disaster Resilience? – This is an excellent website and the PDF is helpful, but focus now on the home page – http://www.gsdrc.org/topic-guides/disaster-resilience/concepts/what-is-disaster-resilience/Check this brief but very informative note from HUD – the Dept of Housing and Urban Development.https://www.huduser.gov/portal/pdredge/pdr-edge-tr…FOCUS POINTSThe McIntire chapter is an excellent overview of the concept of resilience. The other three chapters (attached) expand a bit and put the concept into practical terms. You will about real-world examples – the good, the bad and the ugly.
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Copyright © 2011. RAND Corporation. All rights reserved. May not be reproduced in any form without permission from the publisher, except fair uses permitted under U.S. or applicable
copyright law.
CHAPTER SEVEN
Self-Sufficiency: Enable and Support Individuals and Communities
to Assume Responsibility for Their Preparedness
Self-sufficiency is a critical component of community resilience and entails increasing the
capacity of individuals, communities, or institutions to become more self-reliant. In the context of community resilience, the concept of “self” in self-reliance or self-sufficiency can be
extended beyond the individual citizen to include the community. The “self” can apply to the
individual who stockpiles supplies, the household that develops a household emergency plan,
or the community that expects to manage an emergency without immediate external assistance
following an incident. To work toward self-sufficiency, individuals should take responsibility
for personal preparedness and support the preparedness efforts of other community members.
Furthermore, community members and leaders should have reasonable expectations of external support in an incident. Finally, the community should foster a sense of civic responsibility
in preparedness and response.
Since September 11, 2001, preparedness communications and guidance have heavily
emphasized the need for individuals to play a proactive role in preparedness and response.
For example, governmental and nongovernmental information sources across the spectrum,
from Ready.gov to Red Cross and AARP, suggest that the general population, as well as atrisk individuals, stockpile supplies and medications, prepare disaster kits, plan for evacuations,
and receive first aid training (McGee et al., 2009; FEMA, 2011). The active engagement of
individual citizens in response is critical for a variety of reasons. First, individuals on the scene
are the true “first responders” to an incident, and communities that are capable of mobilizing
a bystander response can mitigate many negative public health impacts (Subcommittee on
Economic Development, 2009; Jacob et al., 2008; AufderHeide, 2004; Hesloot & Ruitenberg,
2004). According to FEMA, “Every citizen in this country is part of a national emergency
management system” (FEMA, 2004). Second, disaster conditions can prevent the deployment
of external aid until the acute phase of the emergency has passed; thus, communities have to
improvise response at the local level and leverage existing resources. Finally, communities with
a strong sense of civic responsibility and community identity are likely to be cohesive communities with strong social ties, a clear public health ethic (i.e., willingness to make certain individual sacrifices for the greater good), and a firm commitment to place. Cohesion is protective
in an incident and encourages communities to make greater investments in recovery.
Traditionally, at-risk individuals are less empowered and more vulnerable to increased
harm during a health incident because they are unable to take advantage of disaster preparedness planning, response, and recovery activities normally afforded (Wingate et al., 2007). As
Norris and colleagues (2008) indicated, the people who are hardest hit by disasters are those
who already find it difficult to meet their family’s needs. At-risk individuals should not be
expected to assume responsibility for their safety in isolation in the face of disaster; rather, they
33
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34
Building Community Resilience to Disasters: A Way Forward to Enhance National Health Security
should be encouraged to take responsibility for their preparedness by accessing their social networks and community resources.
Key elements of self-sufficiency are shown in Table 7.1.
Activities Related to Self-Sufficiency
Suggested activities relating to each of these elements are discussed in detail below.
Element 1: Activities to Encourage Personal and Community Preparedness
This element includes four possible activities: (1) develop individual/family plans that identify where reunification will take place; (2) disseminate preparedness materials to community
members; (3) incentivize individual preparedness; and (4) conduct and/or sponsor research on
appropriate use of Medkits.
Develop individual/family plans that identify where reunification will take place.
Table 7.1
Key Elements of Self-Sufficiency
Element
Description
Activities for State and Local
Entities
1. Encourage personal
and community
preparedness.
Promote and support actions taken
by individuals, households, and
communities to gain knowledge
about potential hazards, prevent
adverse consequences, and implement
appropriate incident response.
Develop individual/family plans that
identify where reunification will take
place.
Become educated on emergency
preparedness and disseminate
educational materials received from
trainings to community members and
neighborhood associations.
Incentivize individual and community
preparedness.
2. Encourage civic
responsibility.
Support actions and attitudes associated
with democratic governance and social
participation. In the context of national
health security, civic responsibility
includes actions such as participation in
emergency planning and advocacy.
Develop and disseminate messages
that foster a sense of civic
responsibility in responding to a
disaster (e.g., public benefits of
vaccination). Emphasize positive
messaging as opposed to the negative
consequences of inaction.
3. Promote effective
bystander responses.
Encourage productive actions to
be taken by individuals to protect
themselves and other community
members during an incident. Bystander
response requires that, until emergency
responders arrive, communities are
sufficiently healthy to sustain themselves
and attend to their own health needs
(including the need for psychological
support), and can assist in addressing the
needs of at-risk individuals.
Develop and promote programs that
recognize the vital role citizens can
and must play as “first responders” to
help their own families and neighbors
in the first hours to days of a major
disaster.
4. Foster self- and
community-reliance.
Encourage individuals and communities
to assume responsibility for their health
and well-being and the health and
well-being of their neighbors, and
communicate that they should expect to
function without external assistance for
up to 72 hours after an incident.
Ask for and provide informational,
instrumental, and emotional support
to/from neighbors, friends, and family.
Emphasize a community “call
to action” in which individual
responsibility is stressed.
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Self-Sufficiency: Enable and Support Individuals and Communities to Assume Responsibility
35
Rationale: The quick and efficient reunification of families after a disaster helps to reduce
negative mental health outcomes and allows individuals to exert control over their situation
(Moore et al., 2004). At the community level, effective response plans promote collective efficacy and help render the situation more comprehensible and manageable.
Key leaders: State and local government, local NGOs, and community members.
Potential steps: Local organizations and community members should encourage families to develop response plans to designate locations and any action steps for reuniting after a
disaster. Similarly, communities should develop a community-level response plan to promote
a greater sense of coherence and connectedness in cases of disaster, as well as to promote communication and information sharing.
Become educated on emergency preparedness and disseminate educational materials received from trainings to community members and neighborhood associations.
Rationale: Educated citizens are aware of critical pre-incident public health messages
and where to seek information during an incident. They are also aware of evacuation routes in
their community and are trained in basic first aid. Since individuals make up the community,
individual preparedness relieves some burden on already taxed response systems, freeing up
the responders to dedicate resources in the early stages of an incident to the most vulnerable
populations.
Key leaders: State and local government, local NGOs, and community members.
Potential steps: Individuals and other stakeholders should pursue strategies that incentivize individual efforts to become educated and prepared and help motivate and inform others
within the community such as neighbors, family members, and members of social, cultural,
and religious groups.
Incentivize individual and community preparedness.
Rationale: Research suggests that the appropriate, targeted use of incentives can encourage and sustain behavior change (Sutherland, Christianson, & Leatherman, 2008).
Key leaders: Federal government, state and local government, NGOs, and researchers.
Potential steps: To encourage actions by individuals and communities regarding personal and community preparedness, governments, NGOs, and research institutions should
work together to determine and evaluate what incentive structure (e.g., monetary, other) could
be used to motivate proactive, self-sufficient behaviors (e.g., storing water) and the movement
toward community preparedness. Once there is an evidence base to inform this incentive
structure, funding can be allocated for community-level interventions.
Conduct and/or sponsor research on the utility and appropriate composition of
Medkits. Disseminate research to local jurisdictions, NGOs, and individuals to inform
individual-level preparedness activities, including the stockpiling of supplies.
Rationale: Resilient communities are prepared for temporary disruptions in vital services, such as electricity and water, and for limited availability of critical supplies such as food
and medicine. Although official messages often stress the importance of purchasing disaster
kits or stockpiling critical supplies, and various organizations have experimented with providing disaster kits to low-income populations, there is little evidence to suggest these activities
result in enhanced individual-level preparedness.
Key leaders: Federal government.
Potential steps: The federal government should support research regarding the appropriate composition of disaster kits/supplies for various types of hazards.
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36
Building Community Resilience to Disasters: A Way Forward to Enhance National Health Security
Element 2: Activities to Encourage Civic Responsibility
This element includes an activity to foster civic engagement and responsibility.
Develop and disseminate messages that foster a sense of civic responsibility in
responding to a disaster (e.g., public benefits of vaccination). Emphasize positive messaging as opposed to the negative consequences of inaction.
Rationale: Framing messages to emphasize the connections between individual and
community preparedness helps motivate community members to take preparedness measures.
Key leaders: Federal, state, and local governments and NGOs.
Potential steps: Governments, in partnership with nongovernmental organizations such
as businesses, should develop these positive messages, test them to ensure they resonate with
community members and promote the value of individual and civic responsibility for a community’s well-being, and then disseminate them broadly to community members in a variety
of formats (radio, newspaper, TV, etc.). The federal government can also begin to provide templates for how to emphasize this connection between individual and community preparedness.
Element 3: Activities to Promote Effective Bystander Responses
Develop and promote programs that recognize the vital role citizens can and must
play as “first responders” to help their own families and neighbors in the first hours to
days of a major disaster.
Rationale: A productive bystander response can greatly reduce the impacts of an incident, and citizens who are prepared to make such a response can support the efforts of traditional first responders (Hesloot & Ruitenberg, 2004). Also, having realistic expectations for
external support (i.e., help may not arrive for hours to days) will limit certain negative mental
health impacts.
Key leaders: Federal, state, and local governments and NGOs.
Potential steps: Government as well as NGOs should develop, evaluate, and implement programs to support the role of the citizens as first responders (i.e., provide necessary
knowledge, skills, and tools).
Element 4: Activities to Foster Self- and Community Reliance
These activities center on creating a sense of personal and community reliance and responsibility for preparedness.
Ask for and provide informational, instrumental, and emotional support to/from
neighbors, friends, and family.
Rationale: Research has suggested that communities with many social connections can
more quickly mobilize needed resources through local residents (Baker & Refsgaard, 2007;
Magsino, 2009). Research has suggested the decentralized and flexible structure of these local
social networks allowed them to respond quickly—and that a centralized, rigid emergency
response takes longer to mobilize and can delay the distribution of needed resources, ultimately reducing community resiliency (Haines, Hurlbert, & Beggs, 1996).
Key leaders: Local NGOs and community members.
Potential steps: Local community organizations should facilitate this resource sharing
and reinforce social networks that can provide crucial community assets during disasters, while
serving as key sources of emotional support to enhance recovery. Individuals should become
educated about their civic responsibility and ask for/offer support as needed.
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Self-Sufficiency: Enable and Support Individuals and Communities to Assume Responsibility
37
Emphasize a community “call to action” in which individual responsibility is
stressed.
Rationale: Mobilizing communities around individual responsibility serves to increase
resilience; in addition, community members will build social connections in the process of
mobilization.
Key leaders: Federal, state, and local governments and NGOs.
Potential steps: Governmental and nongovernmental organizations should use social
marketing techniques to mobilize and educate community members around individual responsibility and self-reliance—continuing to emphasize, however, that self-reliance can coexist with
willingness to follow official guidance and messaging (e.g., to evacuate a given jurisdiction).
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Chapter 10
LINKS BETWEEN COMMUNITY
AND INDIVIDUAL RESILIENCE:
EVIDENCE FROM CYCLONE
AFFECTED COMMUNITIES IN
NORTH WEST AUSTRALIA
J ULIE ANN POOLEY, LYNNE COHEN,
AND
MOIRA O’CONNOR
INTRODUCTION
nsuring that communities can respond and recover from disasters
requires organization and preparation prior to their occurrence
(Quarantelli, 1985). This chapter considers how the goals of organization and preparedness can be pursued from two perspectives. First, it
briefly considers how individual and community characteristics influence vulnerability. Then discussion turns to the role of resilience factors and how interactions between individual- and community-level
factors influence post-disaster outcomes. This process is illustrated
with a case study of the impact of cyclones on communities in
Northwest Australia.
E
DISASTER VULNERABILITY
Vulnerability describes those characteristics of a person or group in
terms of their capacity to anticipate, cope with, resist, and recover
from the impact of a natural hazard (Blaikie, Cannon, Davis & Wisner,
161
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162
Disaster Resilience
1994). Vulnerability research has focused on social and/or economic
disadvantage or marginalization that limits the capacity to cope with
disasters (Blaikie et al., 1994; Bolin & Stanford, 1998; Buckland &
Rahman, 1999; Morrow, 1999). The identification of vulnerabilities in,
for example, residents, structures, eco-systems and economies has
played an important role in mitigating natural hazard risk (Blaikie et
al. 1994). The identification of vulnerabilities has challenged emergency managers and researchers to look more systemically as disasters
strike whole communities as well as the individuals within them
(Boyce, 2000).
Analysis of the distribution of structural (e.g., housing, building construction), social (e.g., community isolation, cultural insensitivities) and
psychological (e.g., language, avoidance coping) factors (Bachrach &
Zautra, 1985; Bishop, Paton, Syme & Nancarrow, 2000; Fothergill,
Maestas, & Darlington, 1999; Millar, Paton & Johnston, 1999) has
informed the development of community vulnerability maps. These
maps aid emergency managers in decision making for disaster
responses and disaster planning for community needs (Morrow, 199 …
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