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: From any number of scholarly readings on issues relating to understanding multiculturalism and diversity, write a reflective essay on the educational significance of the readings and how they would be used in your teaching practice. Multicultural perspectives may include issues relating to gender, race, individual differences, social class, and ethnic and cultural perspectives. Specifically, read the following articles and :Identify five literacy learning challenges that English-language learners (ELLs) face that were addressed by the articles, giving sources and examples. Discuss how each of these challenges impacts literacy development and if more than one article agrees on the issue. Suggest options for each of these five challenges that you would implement in your own teaching situation, and why you advocate them.





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Author(s): Jennifer Rowsell and Maureen Kendrick
Source: Journal of Adolescent & Adult Literacy, Vol. 56, No. 7 (APRIL 2013), pp. 587-599
Published by: International Literacy Association and Wiley
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Accessed: 02-03-2019 15:56 UTC
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Boys’ Hidden Literacie
Jennifer Rowsell & Maureen Kendrick
This article explores adolescent males’ hidden appreciation and
understandings of images. Focusing on specific case studies, the
authors offer visual methods to elucidate the social practices of visual
rather, the focus on tangible ways of framing visuals
to foster and critically frame literacy work.
are yin and yang. Married, they produce
Dr. a are progeny Seuss yinaandprogenyoncemoremore
ng thansaieitdher, interesting Married, “Words they and than produce pictures either
parent/’ Across many disciplines in the arts and in
fields such as geography, where visual phenomena
are a taken-for-granted way of knowing the world
(Nairn, 2005; Rose, 1996; Scott, 1992), the visual is
In a commentary in the Journal of Adolescent
Ö Adult Literacy , Marjorie Siegel (2012) argues it
is tempting to suggest that “the privileged status of
language is being challenged by the ease with which
youth can access semiotic resources of all varieties-visual, aural, gestural, and spatial- to assemble
privileged. By contrast, in our own field of literacy
meanings” (p. 671). Yet, as she rightly points out, even
education, language is privileged, and it is assumed
though multimodality has become ubiquitous in aca-
that whatever can be thought or felt can best be
expressed through language.
demic and professional journals and is central to literate practice everywhere, the one exception is schools.
Our society has many terms for literacy (e.g.,
In this article, we consider three telling examples
family literacy, health literacy, media literacy) and
of boys’ hidden talents
and conceptual
many new understandings of it in the 21st century
understandings of the
(e.g., multiliteracies). However, in the eyes of many
visual to elicit how
teachers, literacy still widely refers to reading and
visual methodologies
writing achievement (Blair & Sanford, 2004). As
can be used in the
such, many practices that embed literacy (e.g., play,
literacy classroom.
art, video games) are “invisible” because teachers do
What is new about
not define these activities as literacy. In all fairness,
such an analysis is
methods for incorporating the visual into language arts
not so much the
and English classes are relatively vague, even nebulous.
focus on gender or on
multimodality but,
As a result, we have come together to
examine the visual as a hidden literacy. What
Journal of Adolescents Adult Literacy 56(7) April 2013 doi:10.1002/JAAL.184 © 2013 International Reading Association (pp. 587-59
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adolescent boys in our examples reveal are hidden
literacies , or literacies that are least recognized by
schooling (Pähl, 2003). Hidden literacies are often
realized multimodally as drawings, performances,
resemble literacy in the everyday (Smith & Wilhelm,
or gesture (Lankshear & Knobel, 2003). In this
1997), as in blocks of time when learners can
article, we focus on the relationship between the
engage in gratifying and self-motivating tasks. Flow,
visual and hidden literacies. Given concerns about
2006). Smith and Wilhelm (2006) attribute part of
the contrast between literacy in school and literacy
outside school to a lack of flow (Csikszentmihalyi,
as Csikszentmihalyi (1997) conceived it, allows
boys’ literacies in particular and how these are individuals to complete tasks that are enjoyable
often glossed over in schools (Blair & Sanford, and that have a set of characteristics: competence
2004; Kendrick & Rowsell, in press; Moss, 2008), and control with manageable challenges and
we turn our attention to how boys use the visual to problems; clearly defined levels of difficulty; clear
and immediate feedback; sensation of losing one’s
transform or relocate their school literacies to find
personal meaning.
self in the action; and, finally, a participatory, social
Boys and Hidden Literacies
Without reifying or generalizing participants
in our research, the adolescent boys with whom
There is extensive research on gender and literacy and
divergent views about the issues. For the purposes of
our article, we offer some of the theory and research,
but with more of a focus on our experiences as
researchers seeing patterns across our adolescent male
Standardized tests over the past decade have shown
an increase in underachievement by boys in reading
and writing (e.g., National Assessment of Education
Progress, 2011), and this trend is also supported by
we work fall in with these descriptions; they invest
time in keen interests and ruling passions that
are certainly wide ranging, from video games to
cooking to writing poetry and lyrics. Though it is
certainly the case that girls are in front of screens as
much as boys, questions remain about repertoires
of practice within screen-based domains. Tapscott’s
(2009) description of “Net Geners” is consistent
with our experience with adolescent boys in our
results from the Programme for International Student
Assessment (PISA, 2009). It is important, as Watson,
Kehler, and Martino (2010) have underscored, that
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< oc LU h- Î3 researchers "engage with literature and analytic perspectives that are capable of addressing the complex interplay between various social, cultural, and institutional factors- such as gender, social class, race, ethnicity, and sexuality- that affect both boys' and girls' engagement with literacy" (p. 356). Such research and writing about gender illustrate how much we need to move beyond essentialist and simplistic explanations of boys' underachievement. A concern about school literacies and boys, specifically, is that literacy in school does not often 3 O < 00 h- Z Hidden literacies are often UJ O CO LU _J O o < LU realized multimodally as < z OC =5 O -5 588 graphs, and icons. They may be more visual than their parents are (Sternberg & Preiss, 2005). A study of Net Gen college students showed that they learned much better from visual images than from text-based ones. (p. 106) So many Net Geners, especially adolescent boys, would prefer to watch screens and televisions, interacting with digital media rather than reading a book, magazine, or newspaper (Brozo, 2010). Providing choice and flow time is one way to increase motivation for literacy, but a further push is to incorporate visual methodologies into text reading and composition. Duncan-Andrade and Morrell (2008) encourage educators to build on the affordances and tacit understandings of popular culture by adolescent drawings, performances, or boys to confront problems within literacy education. gesture. We focus on the They advocate using popular culture as a bridge to more traditional academic texts. Indeed, such relationship between the visual work demonstrates how much schooling neglects the myriad cultural forms that exist in the world O _l Net Geners who have grown up digital have learned how to read images, like pictures, and hidden literacies. in addition to traditional academic texts and This content downloaded from on Sat, 02 Mar 2019 15:56:19 UTC All use subject to literature- films, dance, music, art, graphic texts, video games, smartphones, and so forth (Rowsell, Each of these "hidden literacy" researchers calls for the need to reframe our approach to understanding 2013). All these communicational channels signal literacy by uncovering, unpacking, and identifying something about culture and ideological perspectives. the hidden dimensions of literacy that are embedded Whats more, all these types of cultural forms are in learners' meaning-making practices, rather than visual by their nature and substance. narrowly attending to what Street (2005) referred to In Kirklanďs (2008) article "The Rose That Grew From Concrete," the author argues that as "correctness," "lack of ambiguity," and "the formal youths like the young men he studied are certainly readers and writers, but their repertoires of practice and preferred texts and artifacts do not align with schooling models of proficiency in reading and features of language" (p. 136). In the next section, we bring together methodological and conceptual frameworks in what we think is a productive way forward for examining hidden literacies in multimodal and visual texts. writing. He uses hip-hop culture in his research to encourage a "New English Education," which is a study of English that accounts for the texts that todays youths value (Kirkland, 2008). Other researchers have illustrated the ways in which hidden literacies are realized multimodally. For example, Blair and Sanford (2004) found that boys in particular frequently use morphing in their play with PlayStation, computer games, collector Interpreting and Conceptualizing Hidden Literacies Over the past decade, through our various research projects, we have become keenly aware of the complexity and multilayered nature of visual texts, including the ways in which literacies might be hidden or embedded. The richness and complexity of visual cards, BeyBlades, and Bionicles to describe the images, in combination with their range of forms, present inherent challenges for both researchers another. and teachers to make sense of these texts. Although Several scholars, although not specificallysubstantial academic work on "things visual" is being transformation of one form or character into focusing on boys, have highlighted the everydaypublished in the social sciences, "there are remarkably few guides to possible methods of interpretation and practices and routines that can go unnoticed but that play such a pivotal role in their conceptionseven fewer explanations of how to do those methods" (Rose, 2007, p. 2). of self and their worlds. By examining adolescent artifactual worlds, Rowsell s work (Pähl & Rowsell, In Becker s (2007) insightful writing about ways 2010) exposes the material nature of hidden literacies.of "telling about society," he argued that reports Using the term artifact allowed her to interpreton society, visual or otherwise, "make most sense when you see them in organizational context... historical layering and agentive qualities embedded within material objects, as if these objects were found as organized activities shaped by the joint efforts of everyone involved" (p. 15). In other words, he during an anthropological dig. By having students contends that we need to see the visual as social and think about everyday objects that they value, use, cultural artifacts, as the "frozen remains of collective and understand and that mediate their identities, Rowsell reveals how valuable it is to acknowledge andaction" (p. 15). Siegel and Panofsky (2009) stressed that critically frame things- objects that are often hidden from view. interpreting visual texts as artifacts of a particular place and space requires drawing on a range of In Artifactual Literacies : Every Object Tells a Story , cowritten with Kate Pähl, Rowsell features longitudinal work in a ninth-grade classroom in New Jersey in which young people write artifact reflections about valued objects. In the book, Pähl accessing the underlying meanings of visual and other and Rowsell (2010) note that although "new" and multimodal practices, "we need not only to account digital literacies are clearly important, what remains for the materiality of the texts, that is, the way they underplayed are the everyday objects that occupy look, sound, and feel, but also have an understanding young peoples attention and affections, such as bracelets, paper cranes, photographs, and the of who made the text, why, where, and when" (p. 2). like. theoretical frameworks, in other words, a hybrid approach- "a blend or mash-up of theories" (p. 99). Similarly, Pähl and Rowsell (2006) asserted that when In this article, as a means of uncovering the hidden literacies of adolescent boys, we engage This content downloaded from on Sat, 02 Mar 2019 15:56:19 UTC All use subject to 03 3 (O >

<û Z rä o O (1) .e I< /i o CO 589 in an analysis of visual texts that combines Rose s (2007) visual methodologies framework with an ecological/multimodal approach to language and institutions, practices, and relations (economic, social, and political) that provide context for an image and through which it is understood and literacy learning. Each of these frameworks involves broad conceptualizations of literacy that emphasize used. individuals' and groups' social, cultural, and historical understanding the particular circumstances under experiences in relation to language use and meaningmaking practices. which an image is produced (Site 1), to focusing on the image itself as a bounded unit (Site 2), to This interweaving and meshing of The three sites of meaning making progress from methodological and conceptual frameworks allows carefully considering how an image is looked at by various audiences in relation to the ways of seeing us to foreground context as our unit of study, which and the kinds of knowledge they bring to the viewing brings into view the hidden literacies in visual texts. (Site 3). Although presented as distinct sites, Rose Our analysis is driven by "rich points," or "moments (2007) emphasized there is considerable overlap of incomprehension and unmet expectations" (Agar, across the sites of production, image, and viewing, 1996, p. 4)- in other words, moments or "telling" given that process and product are inextricably examples in our data that make salient the tensions linked. between schooled literacies and the everyday social Many of the theoretical disagreements about worlds of adolescent boys. visual analysis across disciplines relate to disputes Visual Methodologies important and why (Rose, 2007). We find it most productive to place equal emphasis on each of the three sites, seeing them as inextricably connected and recursively relational to one another. Moreover, over which sites of meaning making are most Rose (2007) emphasized that "images are made and used in all sorts of ways by different people for different reasons, and these makings and uses are crucial to the meanings an image carries" (p. 14). Moreover, because both images and audiences may be sites of "resistance and recalcitrance" (p. 15), a critical approach to visual images is required, one that takes seriously the agency of the image, the social practices/activities and effects around co o CM -I K Q_ < r~CO in >o
< 0c LU H; Ü ZD O < o3 H- Z UJ making (production, image, and audiencing/ viewing). In terms of modalities, technological defines any apparatus designed to be looked at (e.g., oil paintings) or to enhance normal vision (e.g., the Internet). Compositional refers to formal strategies of composing, such as content, color, and spatial organization, among others. Social is the range of O CO u_ Because both images and audiences O _i < Z ar ZD O 590 (see, e.g., Kendrick & Jones, 2008; Mutonyi & Kendrick, 2011). In other words, Rose s (2007) framework allows premised on a view of multilingualism- or, as we adapt it, multimodality- as a resource (Hornberger, 2002). An ecological approach to language learning emphasizes emergent language development; "learning and cognition as explained not only in terms of processes inside the head, but also in terms of interaction with the environment; and learners' -I < for the integration of other visual methodologies for the creation of hybrid or mixed theories and methods that give access to the accretive layers of viewing, and the specific nature of viewing by visual texts. Adopting multimodal and ecological various audiences. approaches to language and literacy learning has According to Rose (2007), a critical methodology helped us to access the social practices of composing requires careful consideration of the intersections and and interpreting visual texts. To do so, we draw on relationships across three modalities (technological, ecological approaches with multimodal approaches. compositional, and social) and three sites of meaning Taken as a metaphor, the ecology of language is Ui o a we take her core methodology as a constructive space may be sites of "resistance and recalcitrance" a critical approach to visual images is required. perceptual and social activity as, in a fundamental way, their learning" (van Lier, 2000, cited in Hornberger, 2002, p. 35). An ecological approach allows us to look more closely at the performance of multimodal text construction and to consider students' experience across time and within a variety of contexts. This content downloaded from on Sat, 02 Mar 2019 15:56:19 UTC All use subject to Similar to Villalva (2006), who draws on Fairclough (2001), we locate the "artifact" (text) at the center of our analysis and nest this text first within the influence of actions and interactions and reception also helps us to raise important and unexamined questions about these students as meaning makers and the related educational possibilities. and then within systems and contexts in which the It is our strong contention that visual texts participants, interactions, and artifacts are situated.have the potential to recruit students' subjectivities, We view these levels of analysis (text, interaction,identities, experiences, and knowledge in important context) as reciprocally connected to Rose s three sites ways that allow for participation in social, economic, of meaning making (production, image, viewing/ and political activities in their societies. What audiencing). interests us as literacy researchers and educators Taking a multimodal perspective on visual texts is not only the nature and materiality of these gives us a heuristic to apply to our fieldwork. Clearly, visual artifacts but also the sites of production- to take visual perspectives on literacy practices connects our research to the field of multimodality. Multimodality serves both theoretical and methodological purposes for our research because it allows us to broaden our understanding of how participants make meaning. Certainly, multimodality has been on the rise for some time now (Jewitt, 2009; Kress, 1997, 2003, ... Purchase answer to see full attachment

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