Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Observation Instrument and Observer Instructions | Abc Paper

– PRESUME that you will be performing a research project on your topic and problem. You need accurate, valid, and reliable observations from a sample obtained from multiple sites by many co-investigators.You will need to craft an ‘instrument’ or ‘tool’ to facilitate the observations of most interest to your study, and an accompanying training program for those surrogate /co-investigator.Your goal is to assure inter-observer reliability, as well as overall reliability and validity of the observations.Craft your instrument and instructions, and place them in the related assignment folder.This particular assignment was to craft an observational tool for co-investigators or agents to record YOUR targeted behavioral observations of human subjects and the related instructions to the observers of what behaviors were meaningful to your analysis.- My research topic is What have the Philadelphia residents done to prepare for the occurrence of a hurricane similar to Hurricane Irma in the near future?- I will attach my literature review.- I will attach many examples of paper to help you to do it.- APA Style





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Hurricanes Preparedness in Philadelphia
Student’s Name
Institutional Affiliation
Hurricanes Preparedness in Philadelphia
Previous research from different authors has identified how people in different regions
prepare for disasters. During catastrophes, humans should ensure that they are self-sufficient
(Hoffmann & Muttarak, 2017). Hoffmann and Muttarak suggest that having enough stock for
food, water, first aid kits, and existence of proper evacuation plan are some of the steps that can
help to achieve the latter. They also claim that it is important to motivate people to take
precautionary measures before there is an outbreak of a catastrophe. Hoffmann and Muttarak
argue that disaster-prone areas, governments and NGOs provide education and training to create
awareness and improve self-resilience among citizens. If people are keen during and after
tragedies, they can support the opinion that education, use of current technology, collaboration
with the government and other agencies, early warning messages, and cooperation within local
communities help in disaster preparedness.
Education plays a crucial role in disaster management (Hoffmann & Muttarak, 2017;
Tkachuck, Schulenberg, & Lair, 2018). The most educated individuals are already aware that
disasters are harmful (Hoffmann & Muttarak, 2017). Such people do not need to experience them
to understand the latter. Hoffmann and Muttarak claim that both formal and non-formal
education plays a significant role in disaster management. Accordingly, neighbors should share
their previous experiences during a disaster with one another (Mukhopadhyay, 2015). Research
conducted by Hoffmann and Muttarak suggest that education improves disaster preparedness.
After observing keenly, it is crucial for learning institutions especially universities to
offer orientation to students on disaster preparedness. They should consider adding a calamity
preparedness course to the existing syllabus, which should be mandatory to every scholar since it
helps to communicate to every scholar about catastrophes (Tkachuck, Schulenberg, & Lair,
2018). As a suggestion, higher education institutions should identify those who are weak in
disaster preparedness and try to improve their skills in this field. Tkachuck et al. maintain that
taking students through practical experiences and drills can assist in enhancing their awareness
about tragedy alertness.
Water and first aid kits are the most common items that students carry to prepare
themselves for an outbreak of a disaster (Tkachuck, Schulenberg, & Lair, 2018). Tkachuck et al.
argue that learners prefer using simpler methods that are cheaper and faster, and they only
require proper training to improve the implementation and enhancement of the existing
processes. Consequently, it is possible to improve the existing efforts in the future if students get
quality educating students on disaster preparedness. Effective communication should be part of
any plan which improves disaster preparedness (Tkachuck, Schulenberg, & Lair, 2018; Zaw &
Lim, 2017). Failure to share information with them increases their exposure risk
(Tkachuck, Schulenberg, & Lair, 2018).
Educating households is a crucial factor as it helps to improve their consciousness to
disasters (Hoffmann & Muttarak, 2017; Preston, Chadderton, Kitagawa, & Edmonds, 2015).
Preston et al. claim that it is essential to consider features that may affect a learning process such
as age. Accordingly, it can be easy to determine which path it follows. To elaborate it using an
example, in the case of the youths, the use of social media can help to educate them on issues
related to disaster preparedness.
It is true that preparedness reduces the number of casualties reported after an emergency.
Also, training can a positive impact on household preparedness. However, those who are above
the age of 53 tend to decline emergency preparedness (Nukpezah & Soujaa, 2018). As a result, it
should start at an earlier age. Nukpezah and Soujaa suggest that policymakers should avoid
cultural biases and pay attention to the factors that improve households’ knowledge of
The community is an important element in disaster preparedness. There are three types of
community learning, and they include navigation, organization, and reframing (Preston,
Chadderton, Kitagawa, & Edmonds, 2015). Preston et al claim that there is no defined path of
educating the public. The researchers found that volunteering is one of the methods that can help
to educate it. Experience with tragedies can help to determine people’s preparedness
(Wulandari, Sagala, & Sullivan, 2018). Thus, individuals who have experienced their occurrence
are more prepared for them, whereas those with no experiences ignore them.
Use of Technology
People use science and technology to send early warning messages (Shaw, Izumi, &
Shi, 2016). Focusing on early warnings and can help to reduce the risk caused by disasters
(Mauroner & Heudorfer, 2016). It can help to create awareness among the illiterate people
during such times (Mukhopadhyay, 2015). As s suggestion, individuals should embrace it to
prepare others about the occurrence of catastrophes such as hurricanes, which occur in
Philadelphia. For example, experts can use audiovisuals to inform people about the hazardous
effects caused by a disaster. As a result, it will help them to manage tragic situations. Geospatial
Information System (GIS) provides evacuation plans during such moments
(Mukhopadhyay, 2015). People can use them to save lives when hurricanes strike.
It is vital to develop new ways of communicating about tragedies such as the use of social
media platforms such as Facebook groups, which can help to inform people about their
occurrence and educate them on preparedness (Mauroner & Heudorfer, 2016). Early warnings
are also crucial for tragedy preparedness (Dube, 2015; Macherera, & Chimbari, 2016; Mauroner
& Heudorfer, 2016). They can be shared through social platforms to help others reduce the loss
caused by disasters. Mauroner and Heudorfer argue that communication through social media is
economical and does not have to follow any bureaucratic process. Thus, information can be
shared easily to a large group of people. Another crucial factor in catastrophe preparedness plan
is information systems (Dube, 2015). They help to inform individuals about the precautionary
actions they should take.
If people observe how things unfold during and after catastrophes, they can support the
opinion that digital technologies have simplified the communication process during such
occurrences. The offline and online communities should connect to overcome the existing
shortcomings in the aid system during catastrophes (Mauroner & Heudorfer, 2016). Mauroner
and Heudorfer suggest that in case a community requires urgent assistance, social media can help
to communicate such information to a large group of people immediately. The authors propose
that humans should not neglect it since it will help in the effective management of disasters in
the future.
Collaboration with the Government and Other Agencies
Disaster management has brought together various stakeholders in various fields which
include non-governmental organizations (NGOs), the government, and the private sector
(Lassa, 2018). Lassa claims that NGOs play a major role in reducing the danger caused by
tragedies, and they provide services to those in need. The author maintains NGOs serve people in
areas where a government has neglected its people or has inadequate resources to serve them.
According to him, tragedies, governments, especially in developing countries, lack enough
resources in terms of money and materials to support the victims. As a result, NGOs provides to
support such communities. Therefore, when there is an outbreak of disaster in a region, they act
quickly to save lives. Lassa reasons that NGOs begin educating people in the affected regions on
managing tragedies to reduce harm.
According to Lassa (2018), NGOs play an important role during an emergency and nonemergency circumstances. Thus, they set in to fill empty spaces left by organizations that have
the mandate to serve the community when there is a challenge. Lassa argues that disaster
management should be an all-inclusive process and should not neglect the vulnerable groups.
NGOs can help to achieve the latter if the local authorities put in place proper policies that
support their functions. The author maintains NGOs should work together with national
governments to improve disaster preparedness in affected regions.
Policymakers should communicate with citizens about tragedies in advance to improve
their vigilance (Madrigano, Chandra, Costigan, & Acosta, 2017). Sometimes, people have no
trust in the governments that rule their countries (Wulandari, Sagala, & Sullivan, 2018). As a
result, they do not feel secure when the government plays a role during the crisis as an external
party. Wulandari et al. claim that trust the neighbors who surround them. Thus, it is important to
recruit the youth at the local level to evacuate people when disaster strikes (Wulandari, Sagala, &
Sullivan, 2018). Agencies such as NGOs can help to bridge the gap between the government and
the community. Thus, it can help to disseminate important messages from the government to the
local community to enhance preparedness. Reducing the risk of a catastrophe begins with
empowering people who are within the local premises where it occurs (Harris et al., 2018).
Disaster risk management requires the collaboration of various sectors from different
fields and levels (Zaw & Lim, 2017. It makes it simple since every organization uses unique
tactics and knowledge that can be applied during this period. If there is proper coordination, the
disaster management team can achieve its objective easier and faster. The military plays a major
role in managing catastrophes due to its excellent coordination (Zaw & Lim, 2017). Zaw and
Lim claim that they are always ready and have the facilities to deal with disasters. Accordingly,
emergency managers should emulate them.
From an individual point of view, military is the strongest institution that can deal with
catastrophes in a fast and effective manner. Military officers should be given proper training to
increase their competence in disaster management (Zaw & Lim, 2017). Thus, governments
should strengthen them by providing the necessary resources. Authorities should encourage the
media to share accurate and timely information during catastrophes (Mukhopadhyay, 2015).
Consequently, they can alert people on the occurrence of a disaster so that they can move to safer
places earlier.
Some governments such as the Indian government have developed community-based
catastrophe management plans such as the Patanaka New Life Plan (Wulandari, Sagala, &
Sullivan, 2018). The latter helped in effective rehabilitation after an earthquake hit the country.
As a suggestion, ties and leadership can help to manage disasters.
Preparation of evacuation plans by governments can also help to manage risk caused by
disasters. The awareness process begins with planning (Dube, 2015). Dube argues that it
involves agreeing with the people and agencies that provide emergency services when a tragedy
strikes. Governments should ensure that there is an already existing institutional framework
which deals with disasters (Dube, 2015; Zaw & Lim, 2017). Thus, there is no need for creating
new organizations every time they occur.
Sending Early Warnings
Sending early warnings to individuals help to reduce the harm caused by disasters
(Bradley, McFarland, & Clarke, 2014; Macherera & Chimbari, 2016). People can make rational
decisions to protect themselves when governments at national and local levels give information
about the occurrence of a tragedy. Authorities should support individuals in the villages so that
they can be able to read early warning messages (Macherera & Chimbari, 2016). Macherera and
Chimbari argue that they should involve local communities when developing early warning
systems. As a result, the victims can identify the indicators of a tragedy and protect themselves in
case there is an outbreak of disasters, which helps to reduce the risk they cause. It is important to
send timely warnings to give people time to prepare (Macherera & Chimbari, 2016).
People get confused when there is an outbreak of disasters such as hurricanes, floods, or
earthquakes (Mukhopadhyay, 2015). It is important to be prepared to minimize risk (Kanta
Kafle, 2017). Radio and television can play a crucial role in ensuring that people receive
information when there is an outbreak of a disaster or when it is yet to occur
(Mukhopadhyay, 2015). During such times, communication media help to send warnings to the
affected parties (Zaw & Lim, 2017). Thus, signals sent can help to understand when to start
making arrangements for evacuation.
Collaboration Within the Local Community
Local people in the area of occurrence of a disaster should be the first ones to respond
(Harris et al., 2018; Lassa et al., 2018). Therefore, they should bring together their knowledge
and resources to fight catastrophes. People should not assume the suggestion of training and
equipping the local population in areas where disaster is a common phenomenon. Drills and
exercises can help to test if they have gained the necessary skills and abilities required (Harris et
al., 2018; Tkachuck, Schulenberg, & Lair, 2018). The authors argue that the action helps to
reduce the risk associated with tragedies such as hurricanes.
Community-based disaster risk management (CBDRM) is a significant approach that can
help to reduce the harm caused by catastrophes (Lassa et al., 2018). Local communities
understand their problems better than those who come to visit them (Garschagen, 2016). Lassa et
al. claim that external agencies such as the NGOs have tried to adopt the CBDRM approach
when dealing with tragedies. Communities can overcome some problems that face them if they
have experience and understand the risk associated with them. Elders can tell how tragedies
occur since they have lived in their villages for a long time (Lassa et al., 2018). Thus, nongovernmental organizations should involve local people when dealing with disasters because
they understand the problems in their villages better than visitors.
When disasters strike, it is important to involve local communities to solve all the
problems they cause (Garschagen, 2016; Lassa et al., 2018). For example, when there are
hurricanes, education systems in the affected areas can get disrupted. However, the assisting
agencies may forget such challenges and focus on feeding the victims only. CBDRM approach
can help to provide solutions from the ground.
Disaster risk reduction strategies can help to reduce the harm caused by catastrophes.
Local authorities in the affected areas should support the local communities in developing and
implementing them (Dube, 2015). Accordingly, community leaders should be part of the units
that help to fight tragedies. Regular campaigns and drills are crucial to help improve the people’s
preparedness in areas where catastrophe is a common phenomenon (Dube, 2015; Harris et al.,
2018; Tkachuck, Schulenberg, & Lair, 2018).
People continue to acknowledge the fact that there is a need to support those who are
close to them in case there is an outbreak of a disaster (Twigg & Mosel, 2017). Twigg and Mosel
suggest that informal voluntary from local organizations and groups is important during an
emergency, especially in urban areas. Therefore, voluntary groups and organizations can offer a
quick response to prevent tragedies from happening. In such places, professional emergency
teams may sometimes take many hours before they arrive at the scene of the catastrophe. The
authors suggest that it is necessary to have a group that can act before they arrive.
Households should have adequate preparations for emergencies (Nukpezah & Soujaa,
2018), but most of them remain unprepared. Nukpezah and Soujaa claim that preparedness for
emergencies involves actions that can help to save life and property. From an individual point of
view, household’s vigilance can be measured by the preventive actions they take before and
when emergencies occur. Sharing information related to the tragedy and readiness to use their
resources to reduce the possible risk are some of the examples given by the authors. The study by
Nukpezah & Soujaa suggest that the media can act as a good source of information, and it can
improve household alertness. They argue that people who are well informed are more prepared
than those who are not. Therefore, in the case of hurricanes, actions that can be taken before the
storm hits include helping neighbors buy food and other items required. Preventive actions can
involve transporting people to safe areas and securing a room for them (Nukpezah & Soujaa,
The community might lack proper preparations when a disaster strikes, but once there is
an outbreak of a disaster, it triggers the formation of informal voluntary groups to assist the
victims (Twigg & Mosel, 2017). Twigg and Mosel propose that professionals should share the
functions with volunteers or allocate non-technical tasks to them. The authors also claim that
public organizations such as schools and places of worship that are within the local communities
can enhance preparedness by offering shelter during tragedies. The study by Twigg and Mosel
reveals that the value of emergency groups is yet to be utilized. Accordingly, agencies still
concentrate on groups and organization that are already in place.
Bradley, D. T., McFarland, M., & Clarke, M. (2014). The Effectiveness of Disaster Risk
Communication: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies. PLoS Currents.
Dube, E. (2015). Improving disaster risk reduction capacity of District Civil Protection Units in
managing veld fires: A case of Mangwe District in Matabeleland South Province,
Zimbabwe. Jàmbá: Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 7(1). doi:10.4102/jamba.v7i1.143
Garschagen, M. (2016). Decentralizing urban disaster risk management in a centralized system?
Agendas, actors and contentions in Vietnam. Habitat International, 52, 43-49.
Harris, C., McCarthy, K., Liu, E., Klein, K., Swienton, R., Prins, P., & Waltz, T. (2018).
Expanding Understanding of Response Roles: An Examination of Immediate and First
Responders in the United States. International Journal of Environmental Research and
Public Health, 15(3), 534. doi:10.3390/ijerph15030534
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Education and Experience on Disaster Preparedness in the Philippines and Thailand.
World Development, 96, 32-51. doi:10.1016/j.worlddev.2017.02.016
Kanta Kafle, S. (2017). Disaster Early Warning Systems in Nepal: Institutional and Operational
Frameworks. Journal of Geography & Natural Disasters, 07(02). doi:10.4172/21670587.1000196
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Lassa, J. A., Boli, Y., N …
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