Chat with us, powered by LiveChat neuroscience writing assignment | Abc Paper

a summary of the article i will upload as we as the rubric for this assignment. the rubric is very straight forward and there is no need for other references or quotations. 2 to 3 pages not including title page.this is the rubric:
APA Title page
Copy, paste, and then put in APA format the abstract of your chosen paper.

Type DIRECTLY UNDER the paper’s abstract the complete and correct APA reference citation of the chosen paper. Begin the summary directly under the reference citation, keeping in mind APA format. this is the URL (

Write in paragraph form.Use good grammar and sentence structure. Intelligible writing. No or very little use of quotes. Do not number your sections to answer these questions!

LOGIC: State why the study was conducted. Why does this topic matter to us in the big picture of neuroscience/biopsychology?

State the hypothesis or multiple hypotheses being tested.

List and describe the Independent and Dependent variables.
List and describe what the method was (very briefly for each experiment).

List and describe what the result was (for each experiment).

List and describe what the author(s) concluded.A conclusion is NOT a result; it is a conclusion BASED on the results.

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Received: 19 March 2018
Revised: 31 August 2018
Accepted: 17 September 2018
DOI: 10.1002/hbm.24408
Brain and soccer: Functional patterns of brain activity
during the generation of creative moves in real soccer
decision-making situations
Andreas Fink1
| Jürgen U. Bay1 | Karl Koschutnig1
Christian Rominger1 | Mathias Benedek1
| Katharina Prettenthaler1 |
| Ilona Papousek1 | Elisabeth M. Weiss1 |
Anna Seidel2 | Daniel Memmert2
Institute of Psychology, University of Graz,
Graz, Austria
Institute of Exercise Training and Sport
Informatics, German Sport University Cologne,
Cologne, Germany
This fMRI study investigated brain activity while soccer players were imagining creative moves in
Andreas Fink, University of Graz, Institute of
Psychology, Universitaetsplatz 2/III; A-8010
Graz, Austria.
that might lead to a goal. Findings revealed stronger activation during trials in which the generation
Funding information
Austrian Science Fund, Grant/Award Number:
I 2901-B27; Deutsche
Forschungsgemeinschaft, Grant/Award
Number: ME 2678/23-1
support the processing of multimodal input from different sensory, motor and perceptual sources.
real soccer decision-making situations. After presenting brief video clips of a soccer scene, participants had to imagine themselves as the acting player and think either of a creative or obvious move
of obvious moves was required, relative to trials requiring creative moves. The reversed contrast
(creative > obvious) showed no significant effects. Activations were mainly left-lateralized, primarily involving the cuneus, middle temporal gyrus, and the rolandic operculum, which are known to
Interestingly, more creative solutions in the soccer task were associated with smaller contrast
values for the activation difference between obvious and creative trials, or even with more activation in the latter. Furthermore, higher trait creative potential (as assessed by a figural creativity test)
was associated with stronger activation differences between both conditions. These findings suggest that with increasing soccer-specific creative task performance, the processing of the manifold
information provided by the soccer scenario becomes increasingly important, while in individuals
with higher trait creative potential these processes were recruited to a minor degree. This study
showed that soccer-specific creativity tasks modulate activation levels in a network of regions supporting various cognitive functions such as semantic information processing, visual and motor
imagery, and the processing and integration of sensorimotor and somatosensory information.
creativity, divergent thinking, domain-specificity, functional imaging, soccer
1 | I N T RO D UC T I O N
decisions, soccer players need to focus their attention on continuously
changing conditions of the soccer scenario, to integrate task-relevant
Successful solutions in soccer game situations are often original and
surprising, characterized by the flexible production of novel, unexpected passes, and moves (Memmert, 2017a). In making effective
This research was supported by a grant from the Austrian Science Fund (FWF):
I 2901-B27, and the German Research Foundation (DFG): ME 2678/23-1
information stored in memory, and to inhibit inappropriate solution
approaches. Creative solutions in sport situations thus seem to be
characterized by mechanisms that are very similar to those seen in
other creativity-related domains (for an overview see Memmert,
2015). These processes may include divergent and convergent modes
This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits use, distribution and reproduction in any medium,
provided the original work is properly cited.
© 2018 The Authors. Human Brain Mapping published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Hum Brain Mapp. 2019;40:755–764.
of thinking (Guilford, 1967), specific attentional foci (e.g., attentional
solutions in soccer decision-making situations. Each soccer scene was
breadth; Furley, Memmert, & Heller, 2010; Kasof, 1997), domain-
presented via brief video clips. Participants were asked to imagine
specific knowledge, and associative abilities—processes that have con-
themselves as the acting player and—depending on the respective task
sistently been identified as important ingredients of creativity in gen-
instruction—to think either of a creative/original (possible and promis-
eral (e.g., Eysenck, 1995; Runco, 2007; Sternberg & Lubart, 1996).
ing) or an obvious/conventional move (control condition) that might
Several empirical research reports demonstrate that creativity is a
lead to a goal. The general experimental test design has been validated
key factor for success in soccer performance. Kempe and Memmert
extensively in different sport settings (basketball: Furley et al., 2010;
(2018), for example, recently investigated the level of creativity of
Memmert & Furley, 2007; soccer: Memmert, Hüttermann, & Orliczek,
goals scored in the FIFA World Cup 2010 and 2014, likewise in the
2013). In the domain of soccer, for instance, Memmert et al. (2013)
UEFA Euro 2016. This study revealed that teams that advanced to the
found that better task performance was associated with more original,
later rounds of the competition showed greater creativity (as assessed
flexible, and adequate solutions in promotion-oriented (focus on
by soccer experts) than less successful teams. In another study, Vest-
accomplishments and aspirations) relative to prevention-framed (focus
berg, Gustafson, Maurex, Ingvar, and Petrovic (2012) found better
on safety and responsibility) soccer athletes. More recently, Fink
performance of high division as opposed to lower division soccer
et al. (2018) employed the soccer decision-making task in a sample of
players in various measures of executive functions also involving crea-
hobby to amateur soccer players while task-related power changes in
tivity related task demands (i.e., design fluency task). One crucial fac-
the EEG alpha band were assessed. This study revealed that the soc-
tor possibly contributing to higher creativity in soccer performance
cer task generally elicited comparatively strong alpha power decreases
might be more effective attentional or visual search processes. In a
(relative to a pre-stimulus baseline) at parietal and occipital sites, indi-
study by Roca, Ford, and Memmert (2018), soccer players were
cating high visuospatial processing demands during the processing of
required to interact with a representative life-size video-based simula-
the complex soccer scenarios. In addition, more creative task perfor-
tion of attacking soccer situations. An interesting finding of this study
mance in the soccer task was associated with stronger alpha power
was that more creative as compared to less creative players employed
desynchronization over left cortical sites, primarily involving motor
a broader attentional focus including more fixations of shorter dura-
related areas. This finding suggests that individuals generating more
tion and toward more informative locations of the display (as assessed
creative moves were more intensively engaged in processes related to
by a portable eye-movement registration system). Hence, not only the
motor or movement imagery.
technical and physical skills but also cognitive functions of soccer
The specific aim of this study was to further assess neurocogni-
players are important ingredients for successful performance (see for
tive mechanisms associated with creative solutions in realistic soccer
a review, Memmert, 2017a). Generating and implementing (including
decision-making situations, and to compare these findings with exist-
the imagination of motor executions) surprising and original solutions
ing functional imaging findings on creativity (Boccia, Piccardi, Palermo,
in a situation can be crucial for its success. In soccer this comes along
Nori, & Palmiero, 2015; Gonen-Yaacovi et al., 2013). Along with the
with tactical creativity, which includes decision making based on
related EEG study (Fink et al., 2018), this functional imaging study
observation and analysis of individual players, interaction of a player
sought to obtain a more comprehensive picture of the manifold neu-
group and general team strategy (see Memmert, 2017b).
rocognitive mechanisms involved in the generation of creative solu-
From a more general view, the domain of sports might be consid-
tions in this domain. The employed soccer decision-making task
ered as promising field to investigate creative performance in a more
requires participants to focus their attention on specific conditions of
ecologically valid way (cf. Lieberman, 2000; Runco & Sakamoto, 1999;
the soccer scenario (positions of teammates and opponents), to antici-
Simonton, 2003). To date, the vast majority of neuroscience studies
pate the behavior of other players (players emerging unexpectedly,
on creativity focused on (verbal) divergent thinking tasks. Available
etc.), and to think of possible passes or moves (including the motor
evidence allowed to identify a core creativity network underlying a
execution) that are most promising to score a goal. The imagination of
broad range of divergent thinking demands (for review see Gonen-
creative moves may also involve the search and retrieval of task-
Yaacovi et al., 2013), including regions of the lateral prefrontal cortex,
relevant information stored in memory (e.g., soccer-specific rules,
which are known to support various higher order executive processes
technical knowledge about the execution of the pass or move, con-
such as fluency, flexibility, or cognitive control. It moreover included a
ventional task solutions, etc.). Finally, in order to generate a creative
network of brain regions (i.e., left inferior parietal, superior temporal,
and effective move, participants are also required to evaluate the effi-
and the inferior frontal gyri) which have been associated with seman-
cacy and appropriateness of the imagined move, and to inhibit inap-
tic processes such as the activation and retrieval of internal memory
propriate or conventional solution approaches. Creative solutions in
representations (Binder, Desai, Graves, & Conant, 2009). A more
soccer decision-making situations may thus strongly overlap with clas-
recent meta-analysis of fMRI studies involving open-ended problems
sic divergent thinking tasks, especially with respect to the production
in musical, verbal, and visuo-spatial domains suggests that different
of novel and adequate/useful ideas, imaginative mental simulation,
domains of creativity are associated with functionally specialized brain
effective memory search retrieval, and the overcoming/inhibition of
areas, supporting the idea that creativity and its neural underpinnings
typical, prevalent task solutions. Creative solutions in sport-decision
are specific to a particular domain (Boccia et al., 2015).
making situations seem thus on the one hand recruit rather domain-
The goal of this study was to extend neuroscientific research on
general brain networks supporting executive functions and semantic
creativity to the domain of sports. Specifically, we investigated func-
memory demands (cf. Gonen-Yaacovi et al., 2013). On the other hand,
tional patterns of brain activity during the generation of creative
relevant creativity literature also clearly indicates that creativity and
its neural underpinnings are specific to a particular domain (Baer,
Papousek & Schulter, 1999), non-medicated, and written informed
1998; Boccia et al., 2015). For instance, studies in the visual creativity
consent was obtained. The study was approved by the local ethics
domain (e.g., Aziz-Zadeh, Liew, & Dandekar, 2013; Pidgeon et al.,
2016; Rominger et al., 2018) provide consistent evidence of the
involvement of brain networks supporting visuospatial processes and
2.2 | Experimental task during FMRI assessment
motor related imagery. In a similar vein, in investigating brain activity
during musical improvisation in jazz pianists, Limb and Braun (2008)
found among others a widespread activation of brain regions supporting sensorimotor functions. They suggested that this finding might not
necessarily reflect an increase in motor activity related to the playing
of the instrument, but also processes related to the encoding and
implementation of novel motor sequences that are implicated in spontaneous musical improvisation. On the basis of these findings, we
expect that functionally more specialized networks that support
movement related imagery may likewise play a crucial role in generating creative solutions in soccer decision-making situations (cf. Fink
et al., 2018).
Participants worked on a modified version of the standardized video
task in soccer (SVT-S), in which participants were required to mentally
generate moves with the intention to score a goal in a given soccer
decision-making situation. The objectivity, reliability and validity of
the SVT-S has been established in previous studies (Memmert, 2013;
Memmert et al., 2013). The stimuli for the SVT-S were videos of the
German and Australian soccer league. It is important to note that in
comparison with the original version of the SVT-S (e.g., Memmert
et al., 2013), the employed soccer task had to be modified to a considerable amount in order to be reasonable realizable during fMRI assessment, especially with respect to the specific instructions that were
given to the participants (generating either obvious or creative
moves), the specific kind and exact duration of stimulus presentation,
and the mode of responding (only one solution per trial). As shown in
Figure 1, each trial started with the presentation of a fixation cross for
2.1 | Participants
a time period of 10 s. Afterwards, brief video clips of real soccer
decision-making situations were shown (ranging from 2 to 12 s in
Thirty men in the age range between 18 and 32 years (M = 23.90;
length). The fixed image of the soccer scene marked the beginning of
SD = 3.44) participated in this study. As important inclusion criteria,
the idea generation period, in which participants had to imagine them-
participants were required to have been actively playing soccer for at
selves as the acting player of the attacking team (who was marked by
least 10 years (at least once per week). On average, participants have
an underline in the fixed image) and—depending on the respective
been actively playing soccer for approximately 17 years (M = 17.43,
task instruction—to think either of an obvious/conventional (control
SD = 3.85), and they indicated to play soccer for about 7 hrs per week
condition) or a creative/original move to score a goal. This assignment
(M = 6.78, SD = 4.15). All participants were right-handed (as assessed
was not made randomly but with regard to the originality range of
by the hand dominance test, HDT; Steingrüber & Lienert, 1971;
solutions a single video clip showed. Video clips tending to show more
Schematic time course of a trial of the soccer decision-making task during fMRI assessment. A trial started with the presentation of a
fixation cross for 10 s. Afterwards, brief video clips of real soccer decision-making situations were shown (ranging from 2 to 12 s). During the idea
generation period a fixed image of the soccer scene remained visible on the screen, signaling participants to imagine themselves as the acting
player, and—depending on the respective task instruction—to think either of an obvious/conventional (switched off bulb, control condition) or a
creative/original move (lightened bulb) to score a goal. When they thought of a solution/move they were instructed to press the IDEA button,
and to vocalize the imagined move (max 10 s; e.g., pass to 1, then pass to 3, etc.) [Color figure can be viewed at]
original solutions were assigned to the creative condition. Video clips
tending to show more solutions with a rating at the unoriginal end of
the scale were assigned to the standard condition (quantification of
originality see below). The respective task condition was indicated by
a lightened (i.e., creative/original) or switched off (i.e., obvious/conventional) bulb, respectively (see Figure 1). During the idea generation
period, the fixed image of the soccer scene remained visible on the
screen and the players of the attacking team were assigned with numbers to make them clearly identifiable. Participants were not allowed
to speak during the idea generation period. They were instructed to
press the IDEA button with the dominant right hand as soon as they
2.4 | Assessment of general creative potential
In order to assess the influence of trait creative potential on creative
solutions in the soccer task, a figural creativity test (“Test zum Schöpferischen Denken – Zeichnerisch,” TSD-Z; Urban & Jellen, 1995) was
administered. This test requires participants to complete abstract picture fragments (printed on a test sheet) in a free-associative, original
way. The time limit is 15 min. According to the instructions given in
the test manual, the generated drawings were evaluated with respect
to 14 different criteria (e.g., unconventionality, inclusion of new elements, graphic combinations, etc.), resulting in a total score for the
creative potential of the participants.
thought of a solution/move, and then (during the response period,
10 s) to vocalize the imagined move in shorthand notes (e.g., pass to
1, then pass to 3, hitting a cross to 5, and then header shot by 5, etc.).
2.5 | FMRI data acquisition
The oral responses were recorded via a microphone and transcribed
Imaging was performed on a 3T MRI scanner MAGNETOM Skyra
for further analysis. In each condition (creative/original and control
(Siemens Medical Systems, Erlangen, Germany) using a 32-channel
condition) 15 items were presented, resulting in a total number of
head coil. Structural images were acquired using a MPRAGE
30 trials. The presentation of trials was randomized and the total fMRI
T1-weighted sequence (TR = 1,680 ms, TE = 1.89 ms, inversion
session took about 15–20 min.
time = 1,000 ms, flip angle = 8 , 192 sagittal slices, FOV = 224 ×
224 mm, distance factor = 50%, slice thickness = 0.88 mm). BOLDsensitive T2*-weighted functional images were acquired using a single
2.3 | Quantification of task performance
shot gradient-echo EPI pulse sequence (TR = 2,520 ms, TE = 30 ms,
The 30 videos administered during fMRI assessment were taken from
flip angle = 90 , slice thickness = 3.3 mm, 10% distance factor, matrix
a pool of videos of previous studies of our laboratory (see
size = 66 × 66, FoV = 218 mm, 38 axial slices per volume, order des-
e.g., Memmert et al., 2013). In those studies, the videos were shown
cending). Head motion was restricted using firm padding that sur-
to a group of participants who had to find as many solutions that
rounded the head. To record the verbal responses of the participants,
would lead to a goal as possible. Afterwards, the answers were classified based on the first pass participants imagined to execute. Up to
four soccer experts with the highest soccer qualification (UEFA A
an MR compatible microphone was used (FOMRI-III, Optoacoustics
Ltd., Moshav Mazor, Israel). Stimuli were presented using the Software Presentation (Neurobehavioral Systems, Albany, CA).
license) viewed the answers, along with the respective video, and
rated the originality of each answer category on scales from 1 to
2.6 | FMRI data analyses
5 (1 = not original, 5 = very original; Memmert et al., …
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