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Doctor of Business Administration Prospectus – Finance
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Business Administration
Prospectus: Strategies for Retaining Night Audit Employees in the Hotel Industry
Employee turnover is considered costly to the hotel industry because it disrupts business
operations by additional costs of hiring and training new personnel (Ramall, 2014). Studies
indicate that the estimated cost of hotel employee turnover is 30% of the annual staff wages
The general business problem is that the high rate of turnover among hotel front desk positions
may lead to poor customer service and lost profits. The specific business problem is that some
hotel leaders lack strategies for retaining front desk night audit employees.
The purpose of this qualitative study is to explore strategies some hotel leaders use for retaining
front desk night audit employees. The population of the study involves two hotels that have a
low turnover during the night audit shift, in Virginia Beach, VA. The implication for positive
social change is job security continued employment, which in effect improves standards of
Nature of study
The researcher will focus on a qualitative method of research design. This will aid in the nature
of the environment the data will be sourced. The advantage of this kind of research is that the
researcher does not dwell on gathering information that is far from the lived experiences of the
participants targeted. According to Barratt, Choi, & Li (2011), a quantitative approach would not
be appropriate for this kind of research since the researcher is not seeking a cause and effect
relationship. Further, Sparkes (2014), infers that a mixed-methods approach consisting of both
qualitative and quantitative research designs enables a researcher to seek the information needed
to solve a problem instead of identifying the cause of the problem. The researcher will focus on
various studies that will be used to explore a phenomenon by comparing the target population’s
differences and similarities and based on multiple sources of evidence which will be the intent of
What strategies do hotel leaders use for retaining front desk night audit employees?
1. What strategies does the company use to achieve a low turnover rate on the night audit
2. Which of these strategies has been effective in keeping a low turnover rate on the night
3. Why have the strategies been effective in keeping a low turnover rate on the night audit
4. How do you measure, or assess, the effectiveness of these strategies?
5. What factors do front desk night audit employees say to make them satisfied with their
employment in your company?
6. What factors do front desk night audit employees say make them dissatisfied with their
employment in your company?
7. How do you address the factors that cause them to be dissatisfied?
8. What else could you tell me that would help me understand the strategies you use to
retain front desk night audit employees?
Barratt, M., Choi, T. Y., & Li, M. (2011). Qualitative case studies in operations
management: Trends, research outcomes, and future research implications.
Journal of Operations Management, 29, 329-342. doi:10.1016/j.jom.2010.06.002
Davis, O. A. (2018). Strategies for Low Employee Turnover in the Hotel Industry. Scholar
Ferreira, A. I., Martinez, L. F., Lamelas, J. P., & Rodrigues, R. I. (2017). Mediation of job
embeddedness and satisfaction in the relationship between task characteristic and
turnover: A multilevel study in Portuguese hotels. International Journal of Contemporary
Hospitality Management, 29, 248–267. doi:10.1108/IJCHM-03 2015-0126
Francis, D., & Les Roches Jin Jiang, L. R. J. J. (2017, July). Socialization and friendship as
the Panacea for turnover in the hospitality industry. In ICICKM 2017 14th International
Conference on Intellectual Capital Knowledge Management &Organizational Learning:
ICICKM 2017 (p. 81) Academic Conferences
Houghton, C., Casey, D., Shaw, D., & Murphy, K. (2013). Rigour in qualitative case-study
research. Nurse Researcher, 20, 12-17. doi:10.7748/nr2013.03.20.4.12. e326
Krstic, B., Kahrovic, E., & Stanisic, T. (2015). Business process management in the hotel
industry: A proposed framework. Ekonomika, 61, 21-34.
Leite, N. R. P., Rodrigues, A. C. D. A., & Albuquerque, L. G. D. (2014). Organizational
commitment and job satisfaction: What are the potential relationships? Brazilian
Administration Review, 11, 476-495.doi.org/10.1590/1807-7692bar2014276
Lewis, S. (2015). Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches.
Health Promotion Practice, 16, 473-475.doi:10.1177/1524839915580941
Ramall, S. (2014). A review of employee motivation theories and their implications for
employee retention within organizations. Journal of American Academy of Business, 5,
Russ, T. L. (2011). The relationship between Theory X / Y: Assumptions and
communication apprehension. Leadership & Organization Development Journal,
34, 238-249. doi:10.1108/01437731311326675
Shah, S. H. A., & Beh, L. S. (2016). The impact of motivation enhancing practices and
mediating role of talent engagement on turnover intentions: Evidence from Malaysia.
International Review of Management and Marketing, 6(4), 824-833.
Sebastian, R. J., & Davison, B. (2011). The root causes of contract administration
problems. Journal of Public Procurement, 11, 171-189. www.pracademics.com/jopp.html
Sparkes, A. C. (2014). Developing mixed methods research in sport and exercise
psychology: Critical reflections on five points of controversy. Psychology of Sport
and Exercise, 16, 49-58. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2014.08.014
Torres, E., & Mejia, C. (2017). Asynchronous video interviews in the hospitality Industry:
Considerations for virtual employee selection. International Journal of Hospitality
Management, 61, 4-13. doi: 10.1016/j.ijhm.2016.10.012
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018a). Table 16. Annual total separations rates by industry
and region, not seasonally adjusted www.bls.gov/news.release/jolts.t16.htm
U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. (2018b). Job openings and labor turnover – June 2018.
Vroom, V. (1964). Work and motivation. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.
Vroom, V. (2013). Expectancy theory. In E. Kessler (Ed.), Encyclopedia of management
theory (pp. 272-277). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage doi:10.4135/9781452276090.n83
World Travel and Tourism Council. (2015). Travel & tourism economic impact 2015: World.
DBA Doctoral Study
155 Fifth Avenue South, Suite 100
Walden University is accredited by The Higher Learning Commission and
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© 2013 Walden University, LLC
Completing the Prospectus
The DBA Doctoral Study Prospectus consists of several detailed small sections. A sample
prospectus is in the appendix. The goal for the prospectus is to create a plan for developing your
doctoral study proposal. Therefore, you need to have some detailed information for the
prospectus, but you do not need to know all the specific details of the study that you will
ultimately conduct. For example, you may identify employee satisfaction as a variable of the
study, but at this point, you do not yet need to identify the instrument that you plan to use to
measure the variable.
Each research project is different, and because this outline is general, reviewers often ask to
include additional information in your prospectus. For example, feasibility is one criterion for
evaluating your prospectus, and if you are considering a unique sample group, your committee
may ask you to explore that aspect in more detail before moving forward.
The DBA Doctoral Study Prospectus will follow APA 6th edition guidelines and formatted as
.doc or. docx file. As you work on the document, also review the tools available on the CRQ
website, the Doctoral Capstone Research Guide, DDBA Doctoral Study Template, and Doctoral
Study Rubric. Appendices A, B and C contain an annotated outline, sample “quantitative”
prospectus, and Prospectus Rubric, respectively. Appendix D is a graphical depiction of a threestep formula for “qualitative” business problem alignment.
Submitting the Prospectus
Students will work with their chair in DDBA 8100, Doctoral Study Mentoring, to complete the
prospectus. You will use the example Prospectus (Appendix A) as a guide and template; there is
no other official Prospectus template. Students should aim to have an approved Prospectus by the
end of their 3rd DDBA 8100 course. As is the case for the proposal and doctoral study, for which
you will receive feedback on working drafts, prospectus development is an iterative process.
Committee members will use the Prospectus Rubric (Appendix C) to evaluate the Prospectus.
Follow the submission guidelines identified in the course submission instructions.
Appendix A – Annotated Outline
The recommended title of the business study should not exceed 12 words to include the topic, the
variables and relationship between them (quantitative studies), and the most critical keywords.
Double-space the title if over one line of type and center it under the word Prospectus.
Include your name, your program of study (and specialization if applicable) and Banner ID
Number, double-spaced and centered under the title.
Include the title as it appears on the title page. Double-space if over one line of type and centered
at the top of the page. The title follows the word Prospectus and a colon.
Provide a one-paragraph statement (recommended approximately 150 words) that is the result of
a review of research findings, appropriate peer-reviewed/government sources, and current
practice and that contains the following information:
1. Hook: (a WOW statement supported with a peer reviewed citation no older than 5
years from anticipated date CAO will sign.)
2. Anchor (includes a number supported with a peer reviewed/government citation no
older than 5 years from your anticipated CAO signature)
3. The general business problem is XXXX
4. The specific business problem is some (identify who has the specific business
problem) has limited information on XXX
Review the Problem Statement Video tutorial to aid you in completing the Problem Statement.
The video tutorial is located at: http://youtu.be/IYWzCYyrgpo
Provide a one-paragraph Purpose Statement (recommended approximately 200 words) and that
contains the following information:
Quantitative Study: (a) methodology, (b) design, (c) research variables (independent and
dependent), (d) specific population, (e) geographical location, and (f) social change statement.
Note: A correlation study must examine the relationship between “more than” two variables. In
other words, a simple bivariate correlation analysis is not substantive for a doctoral study. As a
minimum, a multiple linear regression, using at least two predictor (independent) variables, is
Qualitative Study: (a) methodology, (b) design, (c) specific population, (d) geographical
location, and (e) social change statement.
Please review the Purpose Statement Video tutorial to aid you in completing the Purpose
Statement. Located the video tutorial at: http://youtu.be/pLP4r0mfT9A.
Nature of the Study
The Nature of the Study component serves two purposes. The first purpose is describing and
justifying the methodology (i.e. quantitative, qualitative, or mixed-method). The second purpose
is describing and justifying the design (i.e. case study, phenomenological, correlation).
Therefore, a well-crafted Nature of the Study can be presented in two paragraphs but not exceed
The first paragraph is to describe and justify the methodology. State why you selected a specific
method and why other methods were not appropriate. The second paragraph is to describe and
justify the design. State why you selected a specific design and why other designs were not
List the research question that will lead to the development of the requirements in the study and
steps for accomplishing the requirements. A research question informs the research design by
providing a foundation for:
• Generation of hypotheses in quantitative studies,
• Questions necessary to build the design structure for qualitative studies (i.e. interview
• Process by which different methods will work together in mixed studies.
Interview Questions (Qualitative)
The interview questions are to be informed by the conceptual framework. Please see the
Theoretical/Conceptual Framework video tutorial at: http://youtu.be/P-01xVTIVC8.
In one paragraph, describe the theoretical base or conceptual framework from the scholarly
literature that will ground the study (providing citations). Base this description on the problem,
purpose, and background of your study. Specifically, identify and describe:
(a) theory: theoretical base or conceptual framework,
(b) author of the theoretical base or conceptual framework (if applicable),
(c) date of the theoretical base or conceptual framework (if applicable),
(d) key tenets, propositions, constructs, variables, hypotheses, etc., and
(e) how the theoretical base or conceptual framework is applicable and fits to the study.
Review the Theoretical/Conceptual Framework video tutorial at: http://youtu.be/P-01xVTIVC8
to aid in completing Theoretical/Conceptual Framework section.
Significance of the Study
Provide one to two paragraphs, informed by the topic in the problem statement, which
1. The value to the business/social impact.
2. Contribution to effective practice of business
3. Potential contribution to positive social change and improvement of business practice.
Include references formatted in the correct style (APA 6th edition, modeled at the end of this
guide) for all citations within the Doctoral Study Prospectus.
Student and Committee Information
Date of Review:
Student’s Name (Last, First):
Student ID (for office use only):
Second Committee Member:
University Research Reviewer:
Person Conducting this Review:
Note: Type in the applicable information.
Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Employee Turnover Intentions
Alpha B. Gamma
Doctor of Business Administration Prospectus – Name of DBA Specialization
Submitted in Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree
Doctor of Business Administration
Student ID: A00000000
Anticipated CAO Signature Date
Prospectus: Relationship Between Transformational Leadership and Employee Turnover
Losing highly skilled technical employees disrupts organizational functioning,
service delivery, and administration (Bothma & Roodt, 2012). From a financial
perspective, employee turnover can cost employers between 90 and 200 % of annual pay
(Hom, Mitchell, Lee, & Griffeth, 2102). The general business problem is that employee
intent to leave is a major antecedent of actual employee turnover (Siddiqi, 2013). The
specific business problem is that some information technology (IT) small business
owners do not know the 2relationship between IT employee perceptions of their
leaders’ transformation leadership characteristics and employee turnover intention.
The purpose of this quantitative correlation study is to examine the relationship
between IT employee perceptions of their leaders’ transformation leadership
characteristics and employee turnover intention. The targeted population consists of
IT business leaders located in Orlando, Florida. The independent variables are employee
perceptions of their leaders’ (a) idealized attributes, (b) idealized behaviors, (c)
intellectual stimulation, (d) inspirational motivation, and (e) individualized consideration.
The dependent variable is employee turnover intention3. The implications for social
change include the potential to (include social change implications).
Note the alignment (bold underlined text) between the last sentence of the Problem Statement, first
sentence of the Purpose Statement, and Research Question.
The independent and dependent variables are the same variables identified in the research question.
Nature of the Study4
Quantitative methodology is the foundation of the postpositivist worldview. The
researcher uses descriptive and inferential statistics, by-products of the quantitative
methodology, to describe the population and infer the sample results to the broader
population (Orcher, 2014). The justification of the quantitative method results from the
need to test the efficacy of transformational leaderships constructs in predicting employee
turnover intentions. Conversely, researchers employing qualitative methodology seek to
explore (seeking how or why answers), rather than explain a phenomenon or outcome
(Yin, 2014). Therefore, the qualitative method is not appropriate for this study.
Researchers employing correlation designs do not seek cause and effect (Pallant,
2013). A key focus of correlation designs is tracing the distribution of the dependent
variable or some characteristic of the distribution (such as its mean) as a function of one
or more predictor variable (Pallant, 2013). Researchers employing experimental and
quasi-experimental designs seek cause and effect relationships (Orcher, 2014). However,
the purpose of this study is not to seek cause and effect; thus, the experimental and quasiexperimental designs are not appropriate for this study.
Quantitative Research Question5
What is the relationship between employee perception of their leaders’ (a)
idealized attributes, (b) idealized behaviors, (c) intellectual stimulation, (d)
inspirational motivation, (e) individualized consideration, and employee turnover
The first paragraph addresses the methodology only. The second paragraph addresses the design only.
The “specific” variables identified in the research question and are the same variables identified in the
Null Hypothesis (H0): There is no statistically significant relationship between
employee perception of their leaders’ (a) idealized attributes, (b) idealized behaviors, (c)
intellectual stimulation, (d) inspirational motivation, (e) individualized consideration, and
employee turnover intention?
Alternative Hypothesis (H1): There is a statistically significant relationship
between employee perception of their leaders’ (a) idealized attributes, (b) idealized
behaviors, (c) intellectual stimulation, (d) inspirational motivation, (e) individualized
consideration, and employee turnover intention?
Burns (1978) developed the transformational leadership. Burns used the theory to
offer an explanation for leadership based upon the premise that leaders are able to inspire
followers to change expectations, perceptions, and motivations to work toward common
goals. Burns identified the following key constructs underlying the theory (a) idealized
attributes, (b) idealized behaviors, (c) intellectual stimulation, (d) inspirational
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