Assessment InstructionsWrite an essay in which you express and defend your views on the following issues:Consider the rise of modern science during the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries.How did Enlightenment philosophers both defend and contribute to this cultural development?How did elements of scientific reasoning alter conceptions of the origin and limits of human knowledge?Explain the difference between intrinsic and instrumental goods and how modern science embodies an instrumental approach to the relationship between human beings and the natural world.Is recognition of our proper place in the context of a vast and ancient universe an essential insight?How does it affect our understanding of ourselves?Consider how philosophical and scientific reasoning make a difference to our daily lives. (Of course we all benefit from technological advances that came from these ways of thinking, but that is not the point here.)In what situations or circumstances of ordinary life is it appropriate to apply philosophical or scientific thinking to seek a solution, resolve a conflict, or make a decision? Imagine you are invited to contribute a post on this topic to a blog about philosophy, like those that appear in The New York Times blog The Stone, the What Is it Like to be a Woman in Philosophy? blog from WordPress, or Philosophy Nowmagazine.How would you argue for (or against) the use of philosophical reasoning in everyday life?Additional RequirementsWritten communication: Should be free of errors that detract from the overall message.APA formatting: Your paper should be formatted according to APA (6th edition) style and formatting.Length: 4 typed and double-spaced pages.Font and font size: Times New Roman, 12 point.OverviewWrite a 4-page essay that addresses three key concepts related to the philosophical and historical development of modern science.This assessment allows you to demonstrate your understanding of the philosophy of science.By successfully completing this assessment, you will demonstrate your proficiency in the following course competencies and assessment criteria:Competency 1: Describe the historical development of the humanities from the pre-historic era to the present.Describe the influence of philosophical reasoning on the development of modern science.Competency 2: Examine the forms of expression that instantiate the arts and humanities.Distinguish intrinsic from instrumental goods in human thought.Explain the use of scientific reason in an effort to control the natural world.Competency 3: Integrate the humanities with everyday life.Assess the role of philosophy and science in contemporary life.Competency 4: Communicate effectively in forms appropriate to the humanities.Write coherently to support a central idea in appropriate format with correct grammar, usage, and mechanics.ContextThe development of modern science has a rich history. The Assessment 4 Context document provides a brief overview of some key scientists, breakthroughs, and concepts in that history. You may wish to review this document for important ideas related to this topic.ASSESSMENT 4 CONTEXTThe seventeenth and eighteenth centuries saw rapid development of reliance upon reasoning as the basis for worthwhile knowledge of the natural world and of ourselves. This approach had a profound effect on the rise of modern science, technology, philosophy, and social thought, completing the promise of the Renaissance with a self-conscious appropriation of intellectual clarity that came to be known as the Enlightenment. During the same period, artistic expression took a different path, with florid Rococo decoration and the evocative emotionalism of the Romantic.Applying mathematical methods to the study of nature, Johannes Kepler, Galileo Galilei, Isaac Newton, and Robert Boyle expanded our conception of the universe and our understanding of the way it works. One key to their success was a careful distinction between the intrinsic features of things in themselves (which may be unknown to us) and the extrinsic qualities they bear only in relation to our perception of them. Focusing on what we can know, they developed laws of nature that operate independently of human values. Thus, René Descartes drew a sharp contrast between scientific knowledge, which we use instrumentally in an effort to control the natural world, and our own intrinsic nature as thinking beings.Other philosophers of this period developed alternative ways of understanding and expressing fundamental ideas, but always in service of the advances being made by the new sciences:Leibniz and Spinoza deployed mathematics even for comprehension of ultimate reality.Locke and Hume explored the extent (and limits) of empirical study of natural phenomena.Montesquieu, Rousseau, and Smith worked out political and economic implications of Enlightenment thought.Kant sought to transcend dichotomies by emphasizing the active participation of the human mind in apprehension of reality.Hegel and Schopenhauer expanded this approach in more explicitly idealistic directions.Though sometimes mocked by satirists like Swift and Voltaire, each of these Enlightenment philosophers aimed to show that rational thought and scientific knowledge provide a solid basis for apprehension of the truth and practical mastery of the natural world.Meanwhile, the visual and discursive arts focused instead on the emotional side of human nature. Inspired by exciting political revolutions, painters like David, Goya, and Delacroix portrayed the social leaders as heroic individuals worthy of admiration and respect. For Constable, Turner, and Bierstadt, even landscape became an opportunity to arouse deep feelings about the natural world. Goethe’s Faust similarly elevated the individual hero, and the poets Shelly, Keats, Byron, and Blake took relied on their emotional appeal. The female novelists of the day—the Brontë sisters, Mary Shelly, and Jane Austen—heightened the personal feelings of their characters.Thus, in the span of a few generations, we see amply illustrated the contrast between instrumental and intrinsic value. It is one thing to regard the natural world as something to be manipulated and controlled for other purposes, to employ our knowledge—however provisional and imperfect—in service of mundane needs. It is quite another to appreciate the beauty of nature and to revel in the emotional delight we feel in relation to it and to each other.Through it all, the distinction between instrumental applications of scientific knowledge and intrinsic human values continued to guide the separation of practical from abstract thought.Questions to ConsiderTo deepen your understanding, you are encouraged to consider the questions below and discuss them with a fellow learner, a work associate, an interested friend, or a member of the business community.Among the classical Greek philosophers, Plato and Aristotle stand in sharp contrast to each other. Although both used the power of human reason to explore the world and human conduct, they approached these issues with distinct expectations: Plato held that ultimate reality lies in unchanging forms distinct from the mere appearances we perceive, while Aristotle began instead from observable features of the world and sought to discover their underlying commonalities.Which of these approaches seems to you most appropriate in application to your own personal and professional life?Would you rather base important decisions on abstract thinking or on sensory observations?Immanuel Kant argued that everything in the world has either price or dignity. The difference is that things with price can be substituted for each other whenever their value is equivalent. Dignity, on the other hand, is always unique to the individual that has it; the value of these individuals can never be replaced with anything else. Things have price; people have dignity.How does this fit with the notions of intrinsic and instrumental value?What consequences does this distinction have for the ethical choices we make in everyday life?Does Kant’s belief that we should treat people as ends in themselves and never as means to some other end—and that this provides a rational philosophical basis for morality—help us to understand the different roles played by scientific thinking and the humanities?Much of modern science can be characterized as the slow but steady recognition that human beings do not occupy a uniquely privileged position in the natural world. Copernicus and Kepler showed that Earth is not the center of the universe. Newton and Boyle identified natural processes that generate natural phenomena without regard for human concerns. And Darwin established that our very existence as a species is the result of an ongoing process that began long before our appearance and will continue long after we are gone.What has this progressive displacement of any claim to human centrality or superiority done for our sense of the meaning of our lives and culture?How can the humanities interpret human significance in the face of such facts?ResourcesSuggested ResourcesThe following optional resources are provided to support you in completing the assessment or to provide a helpful context. For additional resources, refer to the Research Resources and Supplemental Resources in the left navigation menu of your courseroom.Capella ResourcesClick the links provided to view the following resources:Assessment 4 Context.The following interactive helps you to become familiar with the central features of modern scientific method and its continuing utility in our experience of the world.Philosophy and Natural Science.SHOW LESSCapella MultimediaClick the link provided below to view the following multimedia piece:Personal Significance: Renaissance | Transcript.Library ResourcesThe following e-books or articles from the Capella University Library are linked directly in this course:Deligiorgi, K. (2005). Kant and the culture of enlightenment. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press.Bookstore ResourcesThe resources listed below are relevant to the topics and assessments in this course and are not required. Unless noted otherwise, these materials are available for purchase from the Capella University Bookstore. When searching the bookstore, be sure to look for the Course ID with the specific –FP (FlexPath) course designation.Fiero, G. K. (2016). Landmarks in humanities (4th ed.). Boston, MA: McGraw-Hill Higher Education.Chapters 9–11.
Modern Science During Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries Paper
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