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Article to be used are two pages each the total 4 but it is separate1st article”Pfeffer et al. (2006)To make the best decisions, demand the best data “2nd article”Morey et al. (2015) Customer Data: Designing for Transparency and Trust”Paper details Marketing 603Individual Article Reaction Papers Provide a synopsis of the material including key take aways that you interpreted from the reading. In addition, you should provide critical analyses of this material (i.e. you should interject your thoughts about what the material is telling you). This could be applying the material to your daily career or other critical insights you have from this material. At the conclusion of the write-up, you should take material from all readings and analyze. Thus are there commonalities, counter arguments, etc across readings. Again, the point here is for me to see your reading and comprehending the material. Topic about PromotionPaper format and sources APA2 pages
pfefferetal._2006_tomakethebestdecisions_demandthebestdata.pdf

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For the exclusive use of h. Almehmadi, 2019.
C O L L E C T I O N
www.hbr.org
Making tough
business decisions?
Depend on hard, cold
data—not your gut.
To Make the Best
Decisions, Demand
the Best Data
Included with this collection:
2 Evidence-Based Management
by Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton
16 Decisions Without Blinders
by Max H. Bazerman and Dolly Chugh
27 Competing on Analytics
by Thomas H. Davenport
Product 3048
This document is authorized for use only by hetham Almehmadi in Applied Strategic Marketing-1 taught by PHILLIP FRANK, Missouri Western State University from Jan 2019 to Jul 2019.
For the exclusive use of h. Almehmadi, 2019.
Collection Overview
Your company’s success hinges on the
quality of the decisions you and your executive team make. A major strategy shift,
a large-scale process-improvement initiative, your firm’s response to a public relations crisis—no matter what the decision,
you need hard data to select the best
course of action.
COPYRIGHT © 2005 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Yet many managers fail to gather adequate information while considering a
crucial decision. They rely on their gut, or
they embrace the latest “best” practice
without investigating its risks. Even if
there’s evidence at hand suggesting the
right course of action, they may ignore
it—especially if it has disturbing implications. (Think of drug manufacturer Merck’s
discounting of initial medical reports describing the dangers of pain reliever
Vioxx.) And some managers fail to share
crucial information because they lack the
right communication vehicles—such as
meeting protocols and IT systems.
The Articles
3 Article Summary
4 Evidence-Based Management
by Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton
Evidence abounds to help you make smart choices. How to capture it? Require managers to
provide supporting data whenever they propose a course of action or make a seemingly
compelling claim. Examine the logic behind the evidence, looking for faulty reasoning. For
example, ask why a best practice that succeeded in another company would work in your
firm. Encourage managers to conduct small experiments (a trial promotional campaign to
test customers’ responses, a minor change to correct a problematic process) to test the viability of proposed strategies. And provide resources for the continuing professional education of managers—to help them constantly expand their knowledge and thus accumulate
increasingly more reliable evidence.
15
17 Article Summary
18 Decisions Without Blinders
by Max H. Bazerman and Dolly Chugh
Cognitive blinders can prevent managers from seeing or seeking out vital information—and
from failing to use or share the data they do have. To remove those blinders, train yourself to
see information that lies outside your awareness—by asking questions like, “What if our strategy is wrong? How would we know?” When individuals support a proposed course of action
with data justifying their position, insist that they also provide contradictory evidence to uncover the proposal’s risks. And during meetings, require each participant to share information that only he or she possesses. Not every decision requires extensive data gathering. But
when an ill-considered choice would generate irrevocable damage to your firm, you can’t
afford to skimp on information.
Result? Poor-quality decisions that waste
time and money (at best) or risk a company’s future (at worst).
To avoid these scenarios, establish rigorous disciplines for gathering, sharing,
and analyzing data. This Harvard Business
Review OnPoint collection helps you get
started. When you systematically collect—and use—information, you make
the right decisions on the most pressing
issues facing your firm.
Further Reading
26
Further Reading
28 Article Summary
29 Competing on Analytics
by Thomas H. Davenport
Companies that excel at gathering, sharing, and analyzing data excel in the marketplace.
Procter & Gamble, for instance, created a centrally managed “überanalytics” group of 100
analysts drawn from numerous functions. The group applies this critical mass of expertise to
pressing business issues. For example, sales and marketing analysts supply data on growth
opportunities in existing markets to supply-chain analysts who use that information to design more responsive corporate supply networks. Top performers also augment analytics
with technology (such as enterprise resource planning systems) that enables them to
present data in standard formats, integrate it, and make it easily accessible to everyone.
38 Further Reading
page 1
This document is authorized for use only by hetham Almehmadi in Applied Strategic Marketing-1 taught by PHILLIP FRANK, Missouri Western State University from Jan 2019 to Jul 2019.
For the exclusive use of h. Almehmadi, 2019.
1st article from the collection:
To Make the Best Decisions,
Demand the Best Data
Evidence-Based
Management
by Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton
Included with this full-text Harvard Business Review article:
3 Article Summary
The Idea in Brief—the core idea
The Idea in Practice—putting the idea to work
4 Evidence-Based Management
15 Further Reading
A list of related materials, with annotations to guide further
exploration of the article’s ideas and applications
Product 298X
page 2
This document is authorized for use only by hetham Almehmadi in Applied Strategic Marketing-1 taught by PHILLIP FRANK, Missouri Western State University from Jan 2019 to Jul 2019.
For the exclusive use of h. Almehmadi, 2019.
Evidence-Based Management
The Idea in Brief
The Idea in Practice
Managers have tough jobs: Under intense
pressure to make decisions with incomplete
information, even the best among us make
mistakes. The good news? Evidence
abounds to help us make the right choices.
The bad? Many of us ignore it—relying instead on outdated information or our own
experiences to arrive at decisions. Some of
us fall victim to hype about “miracle” management cures, or we adopt other companies’“best practices” without asking whether
they’ll work just as well for our organizations.
To start an evidenced-based management
movement in your firm:
COPYRIGHT © 2005 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
Result? Poor-quality decisions that waste
time and money (at best) and risk your
company’s future (at worst).
To avoid this scenario, start an evidencedbased management movement in your
company: Every time someone proposes a
change, ask for evidence of its efficacy. Clarify
the logic behind that evidence—looking for
faulty reasoning. Encourage managers to experiment with new ideas—rewarding those
who learn from these efforts, even if an experiment itself fails. And insist that managers
stay current in their field—and provide continuing professional education opportunities
to help them do.
Your reward? You and your colleagues face
the hard truths about what works and what
doesn’t. You expose the dangerous halftruths that mar much conventional business
wisdom. And you make smart decisions
on the most pressing issues facing your
company.
Demand Evidence
Whenever someone makes a seemingly compelling claim, ask for supporting data.
Example:
At DaVita, an operator of kidney dialysis
centers, facility administrators use disciplined measures to evaluate patient care
quality and operational efficiency—and to
make confident claims about DaVita’s performance. Reports and meetings begin
with data on patient health as well as operational efficiency—as measured by metrics
such as treatments per day and employee
retention. Formerly teetering on the edge
of bankruptcy, DaVita now lays claim to the
best patient care quality in the industry.
Examine Logic
Parse the logic behind evidence presented
to you, looking for faulty cause-and-effect
reasoning.
Example:
A manager who has benchmarked topperforming companies’ best practices recommends adopting a particular practice.
You ask him: 1) Does the benchmarked
company’s success clearly stem from the
practice you want us to emulate? 2) Are our
strategy, business model, and workforce
similar enough to the benchmarked firm
to enable us to learn from that company?
3) Precisely how did this practice make a
difference? 4) What are the downsides to
implementing this practice, and how might
we mitigate them?
Example:
Gaming giant Harrah’s offered one control
group of customers the company’s typical
promotional package worth $125 (a free
room, two steak dinners, and $30 worth of
free gambling chips). It offered customers
in an experimental group just $60 worth of
free chips. The $60 offer generated more
gambling revenue than the $125 offer
did—demonstrating that Harrah’s didn’t
have to spend nearly as much as it believed
was needed to boost revenues.
Reinforce Continuous Learning
When managers constantly expand their
knowledge, they acquire increasingly more reliable evidence with which to make decisions.
Encourage use of inquiry and observation to
gather evidence about causes and potential
cures for business problems. And provide resources for the continuing professional education of managers.
Example:
At one computer manufacturer beleaguered by poor sales, top managers initially
blamed the firm’s corporate sales staff—initially dismissing their claims that weak revenues were a result of poor product quality.
Then senior managers were encouraged to
further investigate the problem. When
managers posed as customers at retailers
who carried their computers, store salespeople dissuaded them from purchasing
their company’s product—citing the computer’s excessive price, weak features, and
clunky appearance. By practicing inquiry
and observation, company managers
learned that they needed to reexamine
product quality.
Encourage Experimentation
Invite managers to conduct small experiments to test the viability of proposed
strategies.
page 3
This document is authorized for use only by hetham Almehmadi in Applied Strategic Marketing-1 taught by PHILLIP FRANK, Missouri Western State University from Jan 2019 to Jul 2019.
For the exclusive use of h. Almehmadi, 2019.
Executives routinely dose their organizations with strategic snake oil:
discredited nostrums, partial remedies, or untested management
miracle cures. In many cases, the facts about what works are out
there—so why don’t managers use them?
Evidence-Based
Management
COPYRIGHT © 2005 HARVARD BUSINESS SCHOOL PUBLISHING CORPORATION. ALL RIGHTS RESERVED.
by Jeffrey Pfeffer and Robert I. Sutton
A bold new way of thinking has taken the
medical establishment by storm in the past
decade: the idea that decisions in medical
care should be based on the latest and best
knowledge of what actually works. Dr. David
Sackett, the individual most associated with
evidence-based medicine, defines it as “the conscientious, explicit and judicious use of current best evidence in making decisions about
the care of individual patients.” Sackett, his
colleagues at McMaster University in Ontario,
Canada, and the growing number of physicians joining the movement are committed to
identifying, disseminating, and, most importantly, applying research that is soundly conducted and clinically relevant.
If all this sounds laughable to you—after all,
what else besides evidence would guide medical decisions?—then you are woefully naive
about how doctors have traditionally plied
their trade. Yes, the research is out there—
thousands of studies are conducted on medical
practices and products every year. Unfortunately, physicians don’t use much of it. Recent
harvard business review • decision making • january 2006
studies show that only about 15% of their decisions are evidence based. For the most part,
here’s what doctors rely on instead: obsolete
knowledge gained in school, long-standing but
never proven traditions, patterns gleaned from
experience, the methods they believe in and
are most skilled in applying, and information
from hordes of vendors with products and services to sell.
The same behavior holds true for managers
looking to cure their organizational ills. Indeed, we would argue, managers are actually
much more ignorant than doctors about which
prescriptions are reliable—and they’re less
eager to find out. If doctors practiced medicine
like many companies practice management,
there would be more unnecessarily sick or
dead patients and many more doctors in jail or
suffering other penalties for malpractice.
It’s time to start an evidence-based movement in the ranks of managers. Admittedly, in
some ways, the challenge is greater here than
in medicine. (See the sidebar “What Makes It
Hard to Be Evidence Based?”) The evidence is
page 4
This document is authorized for use only by hetham Almehmadi in Applied Strategic Marketing-1 taught by PHILLIP FRANK, Missouri Western State University from Jan 2019 to Jul 2019.
For the exclusive use of h. Almehmadi, 2019.
Evidence-Based Management
Jeffrey Pfeffer (pfeffer_jeffrey@gsb
.stanford.edu) is the Thomas D. Dee II
Professor of Organizational Behavior
at Stanford Graduate School of Business in California. Robert I. Sutton
(robert.sutton@stanford.edu) is a
professor of management science
and engineering at Stanford School
of Engineering, where he is also a
codirector of the Center for Work,
Technology, and Organization. Pfeffer
and Sutton are the authors of The
Knowing-Doing Gap: How Smart
Companies Turn Knowledge into
Action (Harvard Business School Press,
1999) and Hard Facts, Dangerous
Half-Truths, and Total Nonsense:
Profiting from Evidence-Based
Management (Harvard Business
School Press, forthcoming in March
2006).
weaker; almost anyone can (and often does)
claim to be a management expert; and a bewildering array of sources—Shakespeare,
Billy Graham, Jack Welch, Tony Soprano,
fighter pilots, Santa Claus, Attila the Hun—
are used to generate management advice.
Managers seeking the best evidence also face
a more vexing problem than physicians do:
Because companies vary so wildly in size,
form, and age, compared with human beings,
it is far more risky in business to presume that
a proven “cure” developed in one place will be
effective elsewhere.
Still, it makes sense that when managers act
on better logic and evidence, their companies
will trump the competition. That is why we’ve
spent our entire research careers, especially
the last five years, working to develop and surface the best evidence on how companies
ought to be managed and teaching managers
the right mind-set and methods for practicing
evidence-based management. As with medicine, management is and will likely always be a
craft that can be learned only through practice
and experience. Yet we believe that managers
(like doctors) can practice their craft more effectively if they are routinely guided by the
best logic and evidence—and if they relentlessly seek new knowledge and insight, from
both inside and outside their companies, to
keep updating their assumptions, knowledge,
and skills. We aren’t there yet, but we are getting closer. The managers and companies that
come closest already enjoy a pronounced competitive advantage.
What Passes for Wisdom
harvard business review • january 2006
If a doctor or a manager makes a decision that
is not based on the current best evidence of
what may work, then what is to blame? It may
be tempting to think the worst. Stupidity. Laziness. Downright deceit. But the real answer is
more benign. Seasoned practitioners sometimes neglect to seek out new evidence because they trust their own clinical experience
more than they trust research. Most of them
would admit problems with the small sample
size that characterizes personal observation,
but nonetheless, information acquired firsthand often feels richer and closer to real
knowledge than do words and data in a journal article. Lots of managers, likewise, get
their companies into trouble by importing,
without sufficient thought, performance man-
agement and measurement practices from
their past experience. We saw this at a small
software company, where the chair of the
compensation committee, a successful and
smart executive, recommended the compensation policies he had employed at his last firm.
The fact that the two companies were dramatically different in size, sold different kinds of
software, used different distribution methods,
and targeted different markets and customers
didn’t seem to faze him or many of his fellow
committee members.
Another alternative to using evidence is
making decisions that capitalize on the practitioner’s own strengths. This is particularly a
problem with specialists, who default to the
treatments with which they have the most experience and skill. Surgeons are notorious for
it. (One doctor and author, Melvin Konner,
cites a common joke amongst his peers: “If you
want to have an operation, ask a surgeon if you
need one.”) Similarly, if your business needs to
drum up leads, your event planner is likely to
recommend an event, and your direct marketers will probably suggest a mailing. The old
saying “To a hammer, everything looks like a
nail” often explains what gets done.
Hype and marketing, of course, also play a
role in what information reaches the busy
practitioner. Doctors face an endless supply of
vendors, who muddy the waters by exaggerating the benefits and downplaying the risks of
using their drugs and other products. Meanwhile, some truly efficacious solutions have no
particularly interested advocates behind them.
For years, general physicians have referred patients with plantar warts on their feet to specialists for expensive and painful surgical procedures. Only recently has word got out that
duct tape does the trick just as well.
Numerous other decisions are driven by
dogma and belief. When people are overly influenced by ideology, they often fail to question whether a practice will work—it fits so
well with what they “know” about what makes
people and organizations tick. In business, the
use and defense of stock options as a compensation strategy seems to be just such a case of
cherished belief trumping evidence, to the detriment of organizations. Many executives
maintain that options produce an ownership
culture that encourages 80-hour workweeks,
frugality with the company’s money, and a
host of personal sacrifices in the interest of
page 5
This document is authorized for use only by hetham Almehmadi in Applied Strategic Marketing-1 taught by PHILLIP FRANK, Missouri Western State University from Jan 2019 to Jul 2019.
For the exclusive use of h. Almehmadi, 2019.
Evidence-Based Management
What Makes It Hard to Be Evidence Based?
You may well be trying to bring the best
evidence to bear on your decisions. You
follow the business press, buy business
books, hire consultants, and attend seminars featuring business experts. But evidence-based management is still hard to
apply. Here’s what you’re up against.
There’s too much evidence. With
hundreds of English-language magazines and journals devoted to business
and management issues, dozens of business newspapers, roughly 30,000 business books in print and thousands more
being published each year, and the Webbased outlets for business knowledge
continuing to expand (ranging from online versions of Fortune and the Wall
Street Journal to specialized sites like
Hr.com and Gantthead.com), it is fair to
say that there is simply too much information for any manager to consume.
Moreover, recommendations about management practice are seldom integrated
in a way that makes them accessible or
memorable. Consider, for instance, Business: The Ultimate Resource, a tome that
weighs about eight pounds and runs
2,208 oversize pages. Business claims that
it “will become the ‘operating system’ for
any organization or anyone in business.”
But a goo …
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