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You are required to provide detailed answers for the assigned case questions. For the purposes of case studies (where the facts are given to us) we will not conduct a formal situation analysis, but this is a critical first step since marketers must know their market! Your task is to provide an approximate 2-page, single-spaced PACADI critique (there is a 3 page maximum, excluding appendices; a single page will not get it done). Use each part of the PACADI as a header/section for your paper (i.e. Section 1 will be Problem Definition). Also note that any figures or tables shown in an appendix of your paper should be original material or analysis not an exhibit extracted from the case. In completing any case analysis, DO NOT conduct any outside research on the company, its history, or its progress since the case was written. Only use the information presented in the case. Due date and Submission Instructions Submit paper as a Word file via uploading it using the assignment function in Bb by the assignment due date posted in the syllabus. Also, don’t forget to include HCBE Cover Page (see syllabus if you need one). PACADIApproach This approach normally begins with a Situation Analysis (including SWOT), and initial market research. However, given the abbreviated strategic analysis, we will skip this step* Problem definition – major challenge or key opportunity Alternatives – identification and discussion (generally 3-5 alternatives) Criteria – list of key factors, rationale, and weights that are used in the analysis, and impact how the decision is made Analysis – how you made/will make your decision (brief analysis) Decision – your proposed solution to the problem Implementation plan – recommendations, expected competitive reaction, budget (if needed), actions, timetable, other useful metrics Attached is the break down of what is required for each section of the PACADI Approach and the article that needs to be used for the case study. I will also provide an example the professor provided for what he is looking for.
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MKT 5125: Marketing Decisions for Managers
Expanded Information on PACADI Approach
Problem Definition
The problem statement should be a clear, concise statement of exactly what needs to be addressed. Many
times the problem(s) is/are given in the case. Therefore, this section should not be that difficult, since (for
the most part) you should be able to restate the problem(s) facing the organization. However, if the
problem is not that obvious, asking yourself the following questions may help:
1. What appears to be the problem(s) here?
2. How do I know that this is a problem? Note that by asking this question, you will be helping to
differentiate the symptoms of the problem from the problem itself. Example: while declining sales or
unhappy employees are a problem to most companies, they are in fact usually symptoms of underlying
problems that need to addressed.
3. What are the immediate issues that need to be addressed? This helps to differentiate between issues that
can be resolved within the context of the case, and those that are bigger issues that needed to addressed at
another time.
4. Differentiate between importance and urgency for the issues identified. Some issues may appear to be
urgent, but upon closer examination are relatively unimportant, while others may be far more important
(relative to solving our problem) than urgent. You want to deal with important issues in order of urgency to
keep focused on your objective. Important issues are those that have a significant effect on:
1. profitability,
2. strategic direction of the company,
3. source of competitive advantage,
4. morale of the company’s employees, and/or
5. customer satisfaction.
The problem statement may be framed as a question, (e.g. What should the company do regarding? or
How can the brand improve market share?). The problem statement may have to be rewritten during the
analysis of a case, as you peel back the layers of symptoms or causation.
Additional questions regarding Problem Definition:
1. Who is affected most by this issue? You are trying to identify who are the relevant stakeholders
to the situation, and who will be affected by the decisions to be made.
2. What are the constraints and opportunities implicit to this situation? It is very rare that
resources are not a constraint, and allocations must be made on the assumption that not enough
will be available to please everyone.
3. What do the numbers tell you? You need to take a look at the numbers given in the case study
and make a judgment as to their relevance to the problem identified. Not all numbers will be
immediately useful or relevant, but you need to be careful not to overlook anything. When deciding
to analyze numbers, keep in mind why you are doing it, and what you intend to do with the result.
Alternatives
This section deals with different ways in which the problem can be resolved. Typically, three to five
alternatives should be given in this section. Many times a few alternatives are already given in the case.
Usually these are stated as something like “The company is considering ____ or ____”. Feel free to use
these and to name one or two extra alternatives of your own, if any relevant ones become noticeable to
you. Things to remember at this stage are:
1
1. Be realistic! Keep in mind alternatives should be realistic and fit within the constraints of the situation.
2. Waiting to make decision pending further investigation is not an acceptable alternative/decision for
any case study that you will analyze. The whole point to this exercise is to learn how to make good
decisions, given the imperfect information that we have (which is normal for most business decisions).
3. Doing nothing as in not changing your strategy can be a viable alternative, provided it is properly justified
and being recommended for the correct reasons (as will be discussed below).
4. Avoid providing clearly undesirable alternatives to make a reasonable alternative look better by
comparison.
5. Keep in mind that any alternative chosen will need to be implemented at some point, and if serious
obstacles exist to successfully doing this, then this alternative thus becomes unrealistic.
Criteria
Once the alternatives have been identified, a method of evaluating them and selecting the most appropriate
one needs to be used to arrive at a decision. The concept of Criteria is very important concept to
understand. It answers the question of how you are going to decide which alternative(s) is/are the best
one(s) to choose. Other than choosing randomly, managers employ some criteria in making any decision.
Think about the last time that you made a purchase decision for an article of clothing. Why did you choose
the article that you did? The criteria that you may have used could have been:
1. fit
2. price
3. fashion
4. color
5. approval of friend/family
6. availability
Note that any one of these criteria could appropriately finish the sentence; “The brand/style that I choose
to purchase must…”. These criteria are also how you will define or determine that a successful purchase
decision has been made. For a business situation, the key decision criteria are those things that are
important to the organization making the decision, and they will be used to evaluate the suitability of each
alternative recommended. The criteria should be brief and direct. Some key criteria could be:
1. improves (or at least maintains) profitability
2. increases sales, market share, or return on investment
3. improves/maintains customer satisfaction or corporate image
4. is consistent with the corporate mission or strategy
5. is within our present (or future) resources and capabilities
6. has acceptable risk parameters (i.e. is not too risky)
7. ease or speed of implementation
8. accounts for employee morale, safety, or turnover
Key decision criteria should also be:
1. Measurable: at least to the point of comparison, such as alternative A will improve profitability
more that alternative B.
2. Be related to your problem statement, and alternatives: If you find that you are talking about
something else, that is a sign of a missing alternative or key decision criteria, or a poorly formed
problem statement.
2
People tend to find the concept of key decision criteria a little confusing, so you may need to rewrite them
as you analyze the case. Also, it may help to think of criteria as similar to that of constraints or limitations
that you are using to evaluate your alternatives.
Analysis
If you have done the above properly, this should be straightforward. You measure the alternatives against
each key decision criteria. A method that can be used is to list the advantages and disadvantages
(pros/cons) of each alternative, and then discussing the short and long term implications of choosing each.
Note this implies that you have already predicted the most likely outcome of each of the alternatives. Some
students find it helpful to consider three different levels of outcome, such as best, worst, and most likely,
as another way of evaluating alternatives.
Decision
You must have a decision/recommendation based on your analysis! Marketing managers are decisionmakers; this is your opportunity to practice making decisions. Give a justification for your decision. Check
to make sure that it is one and only one of your Alternatives and that it does resolve what you defined as
the Problem. Be sure to explain why the decision made is the best fit to the criteria (i.e. why the alternative
you choose was the most best one for the company in this case).
Implementation
This is an important step to bring your recommendation to life. Many decisions fail on the basis of poor
implementation rather than a poor decision. What are the key steps to implement your recommendation?
Do you need to add more sales people, change the advertising message, focus sales efforts against a
particular customer segment, increase advertising expenditures, restructure the marketing department, etc?
You need to outline your implementation plan including sequence and timetable, expected competitive
reaction, metrics to measure success, unplanned for costs, and any risks in the plan.
3
MKT 5125: Marketing Decisions for Managers
Case Analysis Framework – PACADI Approach
PACADI Approach
This approach normally begins with a Situation Analysis (including SWOT), and
initial market research. However, given the abbreviated strategic analysis, we
will skip this step*
Problem definition – major challenge or key opportunity
Alternatives – identification and discussion (generally 3-5 alternatives)
Criteria – list of key factors, rationale, and weights that are used in the analysis,
and impact how the decision is made
Analysis – how you made/will make your decision (brief analysis)
Decision – your proposed solution to the problem
Implementation plan – recommendations, expected competitive reaction, budget
(if needed), actions, timetable, other useful metrics
*Note – For the purposes of case studies (where the facts are given to us) we will not conduct a
formal situation analysis, but this is a critical first step since marketers must know their market!
Your task is to provide an approximate 2-page, single-spaced PACADI critique (there is a 3 page
maximum, excluding appendices; a single page will not get it done). Use each part of the
PACADI as a header/section for your paper (i.e. Section 1 will be Problem Definition).
Also note that any figures or tables shown in an appendix of your paper should be original
material or analysis not an exhibit extracted from the case.
In completing any case analysis, DO NOT conduct any outside research on the company,
its history, or its progress since the case was written. Only use the information presented in
the case.
Due date and Submission Instructions
Submit paper as a Word file via uploading it using the assignment function in Bb by the
assignment due date posted in the syllabus. Also, don’t forget to include HCBE Cover Page (see
syllabus if you need one). *Note – no email or digital drop box submissions please
How to name your files
Name – MKT 5125 – Case Name
For Example: Ricky Fergurson – MKT 5125 – Marketing at Nyassa Case
Improper File Names or Submissions = 5pts taken off assignment
The Guide to Writing A Case Analysis (see link in Blackboard) may also have some useful
information regarding cases in general. See rubric on next page.
Case Grading Rubric Scale
Evaluative
Criteria
(Possible Points)
ProblemAlternativesCriteria (35)
Proficient
Very Good
Exemplary
Does not
provide an
analysis of
P-A-C (0)
Inadequate
Provides a
limited
analysis of
P-A-C (15)
Developing
Provides a
basic analysis
of
P-A-C
(20)
Provides a
comprehensive
analysis of
P-A-C (27)
Analysis-Decision
(35)
Does not
provide a
strategic
analysis (0)
Provides a
limited
strategic
analysis (15)
Provides a
basic strategic
analysis (20)
Provides a
comprehensive
strategic
analysis based
on relevant
data (27)
Implementation (20)
Does not
provide an
implementation
plan (0)
Provides a
limited
implementation
plan (10)
Provides an
implementation
plan (14)
Provides a
thoughtful and
reasonable
implementation
plan (17)
Writes at the
graduate level (10)
Does not use
designated
format or
standard. (0)
Does not write
clearly or in an
organized
format.
Numerous
errors in
grammar and
spelling. (4)
Occasional
errors in
grammar and
spelling. (6)
Uses effective
format and
writes at the
graduate level.
(8)
Provides a well
written,
comprehensive
and insightful
analysis of
P-A-C (35)
Provides a well
written,
comprehensive,
data-based, and
insightful
strategic
analysis (35)
Provides a well
written, indepth, and
strategically
sound
implementation
plan (20)
Writes clearly
and concisely
at a very high
graduate level
throughout the
paper. (10)
Scores
Total
Writing Help – NSU Tutoring and Testing Center
I would encourage everyone (even if you’re already a good writer) to use the NSU Tutoring and Testing Center,
which offers free writing tutoring, both online and in-person. They are happy to look over drafts of your work and
offer suggestions for writing improvements. Here is a link with more info: http://www.nova.edu/tutoring-testing
For the exclusive use of T. Henderson, 2019.
W16335
KRAFT FOODS CANADA: TARGETING THE MILLENNIALS 1
R. Chandrasekhar wrote this case under the supervision of Professor Allison Johnson solely to provide material for class discussion.
The authors do not intend to illustrate either effective or ineffective handling of a managerial situation. The authors may have
disguised certain names and other identifying information to protect confidentiality.
This publication may not be transmitted, photocopied, digitized or otherwise reproduced in any form or by any means without the
permission of the copyright holder. Reproduction of this material is not covered under authorization by any reproduction rights
organization. To order copies or request permission to reproduce materials, contact Ivey Publishing, Ivey Business School, Western
University, London, Ontario, Canada, N6G 0N1; (t) 519.661.3208; (e) cases@ivey.ca; www.iveycases.com.
Copyright © 2016, Richard Ivey School of Business Foundation
Version: 2016-06-06
In September 2014, Kraft Foods Canada was working on an action plan for Kraft Singles, the company’s
brand of processed cheese slices. Although Kraft Singles had thus far been targeted at Canadian families, it
now needed to be marketed to a new segment—Canadian millennial moms (born between 1981 and 2000).
The company was in the middle of developing a marketing plan aimed at attracting millennial moms.
During the five decades since its launch, Kraft Singles had acquired an iconic status in the foods and
beverages industry. An entire generation of consumers, in the developed world in particular, consisting of
both baby boomers (those born between 1946 and 1964) and Generation Xers, or Gen Xers, (those born in
the years 1965 through 1980), had grown up watching Kraft Singles melting into grilled cheese
sandwiches and atop barbecued burgers. Peeling off an individual slice of Kraft Singles cheese and
layering it on bread toast was a breakfast ritual in many families. The orange colour and the square shape
of each slice and the blue colour of the packaging had remained unchanged over time.
The need to reposition Kraft Singles had arisen because of reasons that were both external and internal. The
number of millennials had been progressively increasing in Canada. In 2014, millennials had outnumbered
baby boomers and Gen Xers. It was a tipping point. Millennials represented 36.8 per cent of the Canadian
workforce in contrast to 33.9 per cent of Gen Xers and 31.1 per cent of baby boomers (see Exhibit 1).
Internally, cheese was an important category for Kraft Canada (and for Kraft Food Group, of which it was
part), generating 25 per cent of sales revenue. But overall sales volumes for cheese were falling by
approximately 1 per cent every year, while annual sales value was growing at about 2 per cent. The
market for unprocessed cheese was expanding, whereas the market for processed cheese was falling.
Kraft Singles, a processed cheese product, needed revival. Canada’s per capita consumption of cheese had
been static since 2008, at approximately 12 kilograms, which showed signs of market maturity. In
contrast, per capita consumption of cheese was 17 kilograms in Europe and 15 kilograms in the United
States, which indicated some room for growth in Canada. 2
1
This case has been written on the basis of published sources only. The interpretations and perspectives presented in this
case are not necessarily those of Kraft Canada Inc. or any of its employees.
2
Government
of
Canada,
“Global
Cheese
Consumption,”
accessed
November
13,
2015,
www.dairyinfo.gc.ca/pdf/consumption_global_cheese_e.pdf.
This document is authorized for use only by Twila Henderson in MKT 5125 Case Study taught by RICKY FERGURSON, Nova Southeastern University from Apr 2019 to Jul 2019.
For the exclusive use of T. Henderson, 2019.
Page 2
9B16A015
Kraft Canada was facing three dilemmas. How should it make the brand messaging of Kraft Singles
compelling to Canadian millennial moms? What product innovations should the company bring to Kraft
Singles, coinciding with the new messaging? How should Kraft Canada ensure that, in pursuing Canadian
millennial moms, it would not alienate its traditional customer group—Canadian families?
CANADIAN CHEESE MARKET
The Canadian cheese market had sales revenue of CA$3.8 billion 3 in 2014. The market was consolidated,
with the four largest players holding 84 per cent of the market share. The overall market was led by
Saputo, which had nearly 28 per cent market share (see Exhibit 2). While Saputo also led the unprocessed
cheese segment (which was growing but was largely undifferentiated), Kraft led the processed cheese
segment (which was witnessing slow growth but was sharply differentiated and competitive).4
Cheese was a staple product in Canadian households and in Canadian foodservices. Recently, cheese
consumption had undergone some noticeable trends. For example, food consumption outside of meals
was had previously trended toward snack food such as chips and snack bars (e.g., candy bars, granola
bars). But a growing trend in health-consciousness had led to cheese emerging as a preferred snacking
option for young Canadians, who were also inclined to try new flavours. As a result, flavour blends such
as jalapeno cheese were becoming popular.
The prices of dairy products in general were regulated in Canada. Manufacturers did not have much room
for price increases. To maintain the price point on the shelf, cheese manufacturers were seeking
alternatives such as reducing the size of cheese packaging. For example, a 500-gram pack of cheese
would gradually be reduced to 460 grams at the same price point. A major trend in packaging was
retailers’ demands for exclusive pack sizes, which was intended to avoid the phenomenon of “price
matching,” which was growing among competitive retailers for products with the same pack sizes.
In Canada, 99.8 per cent of cheese sales occurred through the store format. Grocery retailers, in particular,
accounted for 96.9 per cent of cheese sales. For retailers, cheese was a higher margin business compared
with other dairy categories such as milk. As a result, retailers were regularly strengthening their cheese
sections. In-store sampling displays were common, and some stores had appointed cheese ambassadors to
promote cheese and expand the occasions for its use.
MILLENNIALS
The interpretation of the term millennials differed by geography. In Canada, millennials were considered
in 2014 to be in the age group 14 to 33 years, whereas in the United States, they were considered to be in
the age group 18 to 34 years. In both countries, however, millennials were not only the single largest
demographic cohort but were on the way to their prime years of working and spending. Millennials
accounted for 6.3 million people in Canada5 and 68 million in the United States. 6
3
$ = CA$ = Canadian dollar; All currency amounts are in CA$, unless otherwise specified; US$1 = CA$1.06 on January 2,
2014.
4
“Cheese in Canada,” Euromonitor International, August 2015.
5
Statistics Canada, “Table 282-0002: Labour Force Survey Estimates, by Sex and Detailed Age Group,” accessed
November 15, 2015, www5.statcan.gc.ca/cansim/a26?lang=eng&id=2820002.
6
“Target: Millennials,” Ad Age, accessed April 28, 2014, http://brandedcontent.adage.com/cableguide2013/article.php?
id=355.
This document is authorized for use only by Twila Henderson in MKT 5125 Case Study taught by RICKY FERGURSON, Nova Southeastern University from Apr 2019 to Jul 2019.
For the exclusive use of T. Henderson, 2019.
Page 3
9B16A015
Millennials had come of age in an era characterized by disruptive phenomena (e.g., 9/11, pr …
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