You have been tasked with convincing a local business of the importance of emergency management and identify what measures they should take in order to be truly prepared for a disaster. This includes identifying actions they should take during all phases of emergency management. Using the knowledge you’ve gained over the semester, write a 2 page essay with your argument. Use the book and any other reading materials provided throughout the semester to support your work along with any reliable sources that you think appropriate. You must cite your sources including in-text citations using APA format. You will need to include a References page which does not count towards your 2 page count. Work must be double-spaced using 12-point font and one-inch margins.
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The book is
introduction to emergency management 6th edition
The Historical Context of Emergency Management
Slide 3: Emergency management has its roots in ancient history. There are many records of historical
disasters and people trying to handle them. Emergency management has evolved over the years and
there have been significant events and people that have helped shape the discipline.
Slide 4: The definition of emergency management can be extremely broad due to all the parts that make
up the discipline. For the purpose of this class, we will use a simple definition from your textbook.
Emergency management is a discipline that deals with risk and avoidance. Disasters begin and end
locally. While state and federal government agencies may become involved, the disaster will always
begin & end locally.
Slide 5: There are 4 phases of emergency management. We will cover each phase throughout this
course. The four phases are mitigation, preparedness, response, and recovery.
Slide 6: Now let’s talk about the early history of emergency management. In 1802 a series of fires swept
through the city of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Congress passed the Congressional Act of 1803 to
provide relief for merchants. This was the first piece of national disaster legislation to ever be passed by
a United States Congress.
In the 1930s the Reconstruction Finance Corporation and the Bureau of Public Roads were given
authority to provide disaster relief. The Reconstruction Finance Corporation was created after the start
of the Great Depression in order to boost morale and the economy. Its primary purpose was to help
banks resume daily operations after the Great Depression and eventually given authority to provide
The Tennessee Valley Authority was created to not only produce hydroelectric power but to also reduce
flooding in the region.
The Flood Control Act of 1936 allowed the US Army Corps of Engineers to build flood-control projects. It
established a federal responsibility to assist in flooding mitigation programs along the Mississippi River
and other major rivers (INSERT). This act reflected the philosophy that humans could control nature
which we all know to be incorrect.
Slide 7: During the Cold War years, civil defense administrators worked with the public to help them
prepare against a possible nuclear attack. After World War II, Hiroshima and Nagassaki left a fresh
imprint on the minds of American citizens and people began to install bomb shelters. Many public
buildings during the Cold War would have placards displayed with the Civil Defense logo and words
“Fallout Shelter” to notify the public of safety locations.
Slide 8: In the 1960s, there were a series of natural disasters that hit the United States. The Ash
Wednesday Storm lasted 3 days and is reported by the US Geological Survey as the largest East Coast
Winter Storm in history. Snow was reported as far as Alabama. It caused more than $300 million in
The Prince William Sound Earthquake in 1964 is also known as the Good Friday Earthquake. It registered
as a 9.2 on the Richter scale and is the 2nd most powerful earthquake ever recorded. It caused numerous
tsunamis, one of them being the 2nd largest tsunami ever recorded. There were 131 deaths.
In 1965, Hurricane Betsy, also known as Billion Dollar Betsy caused $1.42 billion in damage ($9.8 billion
in 2010 USD). Betsy was a Category 4 hurricane and hit the US Gulf Coast. Betsy was retired from the
Hurricane List and replaced with Blanche.
In 1969, Hurricane Camille was one of the only 3 Category 5 hurricanes in history to make landfall on the
US. It was the 2nd most intense hurricane to hit the US. The actual max sustained winds of Camille will
never be known as she destroyed all the wind-recording instruments in the area. F
Slide 9: During all of the disasters in the 1960s, there was ad hoc legislation for funding disasters. Ad hoc
means that something is formed or done for a particular purpose only. This meant that there wasn’t any
funding or acts in place for future disasters. Hurricane Betsy’s flooding finally raised discussions on
disaster insurance against future flooding. There wasn’t any flood insurance available on a standard
homeowner policy or if there was, it was extremely expensive. This led to the passage of the National
Flood Insurance Act of 1968 which created the National Flood Insurance Program. In exchange for
making federally subsidized low-cost flood insurance available to a community, the community had to
pass an ordinance restricting future development in floodplains.
Slide 10: By the 1970s, the responsibility for emergency management functions were evident in more
than 5 federal agencies. The Disaster Relief Act of 1974 was passed and gave Housing & Urban
Development (HUD) the most authority for natural disaster response & recovery while the Defense Civil
Preparedness Agency and US Army Corps of Engineers retained military emergency management
Slide 11: In the 1970s, states and governors become frustrated with the fragmentation in emergency
management with more than 100 federal agencies involved in disasters. Lobbying began for
consolidation and with the election of President Carter, a proposal of consolidation for federal agencies
involved in emergency management was proposed. In the midst’s of those discussions, the 3 Mile Island
accident occurred which brought the media’s attention to the lack of adequate preparedness in the role
of the federal government. This brought about the Reorganization Plan Number 3 which consolidated
emergency preparedness, mitigation, response, and recovery. This established the Federal Emergency
Slide 12: FEMA was officially established by Executive order 12127 on March 31, 1979. This mandated
the reassignment of agencies, programs, and personnel under FEMA. President Carter tapped John
Macy who was the head of Office Personnel Management to become the first director of FEMA. Macy
had the task to unify an organization which was not easy. He developed a new concept called the
Integrated Emergency management System which was an all-hazards approach system.
Slide 13: In the 1980s, there were no significant disasters so FEMA was not tested on their capabilities.
President Reagan appointed General Louis O. Guiffrida as the director of FEMA who had a background in
training and terrorism preparedness. He reorganized FEMA and placed top priority on national nuclear
preparedness. With a focus on national preparedness, budgets and resources were realigned and since
the states had no role in the national security activities, they saw their funding decline.
Slide 14: With the election of President Clinton came the nomination of James Lee Witt as FEMA
director. Witt was the first FEMA director with prior emergency management experience. He is from
Arkansas and was actually the director of the Arkansas Department of Emergency Management while
Clinton was governor. Witt had great leadership styles and reached out to employees for input. He
supported new technologies and strengthened the relationships with the states. With a successful
response to the Midwest Floods of 1993, Witt proved he had changed FEMA. The 1992 World Trade
Center bombing and the Oklahoma City bombing presented a new focus on terrorism in emergency
management during this era.
Slide 15: After the 9/11 terrorist attacks, President Bush signed Homeland Security Presidential
Directive-3 which created the Homeland Security Advisory System. He then signed the Homeland
Security Act of 2002 into law which created the Department of Homeland Security. This was the greatest
federal reorganization since President Truman created the Department of Defense joining 22 agencies,
179,000 employees. FEMA was moved under Homeland Security.
Slide 16: Katrina provided many learned lessons to FEMA. There were several factors that impacted
FEMA’s failure to respond to Katrina. First, when FEMA was reorganized under Department of Homeland
Security, funds for preparedness & mitigation were redistributed to support other higher priorities in
DHS. The federal response plan was restructured into the National Response plan to accommodate DHS
and a new level of bureaucracy was added. Previously, the director of FEMA had maintained a clear line
of authority and the creation of a new position titled “principle federal officer” created confusion over
who would be in charge during a disaster. FEMA also failed to work with the governors on how to use
the National Guard during a disaster. Also, after 9/11, the focus had shifted to terrorism and not natural
disasters. All of these factors led to a failed response to Hurricane Katrina.
Slide 17: After Katrina, the Post-Katrina Emergency Management Reform Act of 2006 reorganized FEMA
and required that DHS reconsolidated all emergency management functions under FEMA. It added
FEMA to a National Advisory Council and provided autonomy for the FEMA director to communicate
directly with Congress. The FEMA director during Katrina, Mike Brown resigned, David Paulison become
the new director.
Slide 18: President Obama appointed W. Craig Fugate as the director of FEMA. Fugate believed in a
culture of preparedness and was the former state director of emergency management from Florida.
Fugate focused on incorporating all elements of social media to communicate with the public before,
during, and after disasters. He also worked on promoting a whole community approach to emergency
Slide 19: A whole community approach is a means by which all community stakeholders can collectively
understand and assess the needs of their respective communities / determine ways to organize and
strengthen their assets, capacities, and interests. It is a more effective path to societal security and
resilience is built. Whole Community approach engages the full capacity of the private and nonprofit
sectors in conjunction with local, tribal, state, territorial, and Federal governmental partners.
Chapter 3: Mitigation
Slide 2: The discipline of mitigation provides the means for reducing disaster impacts. Mitigation is
defined as a sustained action to reduce or eliminate hazard risk to people and property. Mitigation
science and solutions continue to evolve. Oftentimes, successful mitigation applications for natural
hazard risk reduction are also useful for technological hazards, and vice-versa.
Slide 3: Mitigation has been effective in reducing the impacts of disasters through building codes,
warning systems, and public education. Intentional disasters, such as acts of terrorism, are not as easy
to mitigate for but improved intelligence and security can help prevent such incidents. We are now
going to cover mitigation tools which you can see on the slide.
Slide 4: Hazard identification & mapping is a primary mitigation tool. It allows for the analysis of the
hazards in a particular area. The resources for identification and mapping are numerous, and are
available from several government agencies.
Slide 5: Design and construction applications provide a cost-effective means of addressing risk. Building
codes, architecture, and design criteria are examples of design and construction applications. There are
costs associated with these mitigation tools, though and so they are not always implemented.
Slide 6: According to the National Research Council’s Board on Natural Disasters (Board 1999)
‘‘Communities can often achieve significant reductions in losses from natural disasters by adopting landuse plans. Land-use planning is one of the earliest tools to encourage mitigation. In 1968, Congress
passed the National Flood Insurance Act that required local governments to pass a floodplain
management ordinance in return for federally backed, low cost flood insurance. You can find case
studies in your book on land-use planning and I encourage you to look them over.
Slide 7: Financial incentives are an emerging area for promoting mitigation. Areas such as Tulsa,
Oklahoma and Napa, California have passed tax increases to pay for flood-mitigation activities. Another
example of a financial incentive is impact fees. Impact fees are assessed to generate revenue to meet
local infrastructure and public facility demands. Municipalities will assess impact fees upon the
construction of new developments. These fees are usually paid at the time of the building permit or
certificate of occupancy and are based upon the characteristics of the specific parcel. Relocation
assistance and tax assessments are other examples of financial incentives.
Slide 8: Congress created the National Flood Insurance Program, also known as NFIP, in response to the
damages from multiple hurricanes and inland flooding. At the time, flood insurance wasn’t really
available or affordable through the private insurance market. Since so many flooding areas impacted
low-income residents, Congress agreed to subsidize the cost of insurance so it could be affordable.
Congress thought if insurance was offered, it would reduce the cost of disaster assistance in the future.
Then, in 1993, the Midwest had severe flooding which triggered a major reform to the NFIP. It enhanced
compliance procedures and made it where if communities didn’t join the program, they would only be
eligible for disaster assistance one time. Any further assistance would be denied.
Slide 9: Structural controls are a controversial mitigation tool. They are usually used to protect existing
development. The controversy about structural controls is that they are used to control the hazard and
not reduce it. They can also have negative effects on the areas they are not protecting. Levees are the
most common form of structural controls. Other structural controls such as seawalls, bulkheads,
breakwaters, and other controls are used to protect coastal areas. The reason they are controversial is
because they protect one area and increase damage in another.
Slide 10: There are several factors why mitigation programs have not been more widely applied. These
include denial of risk, political will, costs and lack of funding, and the taking issue. Despite the best
technical knowledge, historical occurrence, public education, and media attention, many individuals
don’t want to recognize that they or their communities are vulnerable. Mitigation serves long-term
goals, which are often opposed to the short-term focus of politics. Mitigation requires available capital,
which can exceed the resources of local governments. Finally, many mitigation programs involve the use
of private property, which the Constitution prohibits without just compensation.
Slide 11: FEMA is responsible for most of the programs that support mitigation. There are many and we
will discuss a few. First let’s talk about the Disaster Mitigation Act of 2000. It amended the Robert T.
Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (also known as the Stafford Act). The amendment
encouraged mitigation planning at state & local levels and required that states maintain mitigation plans
in order to receive federal mitigation funding and disaster assistance
. Slide 12: Now we are going to discuss another federal program. The Hazard Mitigation Grant Program
(HMGP) is the largest source of funding for state and local mitigation activities, providing grants to
implement long-term hazard mitigation programs after the President has declared a major disaster.
Slide 13: The Pre-Disaster Mitigation Program provides mitigation funding not dependent on a disaster
declaration. This program grew out of the Clinton administration’s ‘Project Impact’ initiative, which
tasked communities with building a community partnership, assessing their risks, prioritizing riskreduction actions, and building support by communicating their actions. The program was changed in
2007, and includes an eligibility requirement that local applicant communities maintain an approved
FEMA Hazard Mitigation Plan.
Slide 14: Other federal programs include the Flood Mitigation Assistance Program which provides
annual funding for communities to act to reduce or eliminate the risk of flood damage to buildings
insured under the NFIP. The National Earthquake Hazard Reduction Program (NEHRP) seeks to reduce
the risks of life and property from future U.S. earthquakes through the establishment and maintenance
of an effective earthquake hazards reduction program. NEHRP provides funding to states to establish
programs that promote public education and awareness, planning, loss estimation studies, and some
minimal mitigation activities. The National Hurricane Program supports activities at the federal, state,
and local level that focus on the physical effects of hurricanes, improved response capabilities, and new
mitigation techniques for the built environment. The Fire Prevention and Assistance Act addresses the
needs of the nation’s paid and volunteer fire departments and supports prevention activities. The
program provides competitive grants to fire companies throughout the United States.
Slide 15: In May of 2013, FEMA released the National Mitigation and Prevention Frameworks. The
National Mitigation Framework is designed to establish an approach for coordinating how the Nation
addresses risk and manages mitigation capabilities. The Framework identifies four guiding principles for
mitigation includes Resilience and Sustainability, Leadership and Locally Focused Implementation,
Engaged Partnerships and Inclusiveness, and Risk-conscious Culture.
Slide 16: While the most significant mitigation funding comes from Federally-funded grant programs, all
States have established State Hazard Mitigation Officers (SHMO’s) to manage the programmatic and
financial matching requirements of the Federal programs and to produce a State-wide hazard mitigation
plan. There are non-governmental programs that provides the monetary, material, and technical
assistance that individuals, businesses and communities require to mitigate their hazard risks, with The
Institute for Business and Home Safety (IBHS) an example. Two other entities are focusing on mitigation
and related issues. The Association of State Flood Plain Managers (ASFPM) is a strong proponent of
mitigation at all levels and the newly formed National Hazard Mitigation Association (NHMA) exists to
promote mitigation nation-wide and within the international community. Arkansas has one of the few
state-led mitigation programs in the nation. The State of Arkansas Mitigation Grant’s goal is to assist
local jurisdictions that have suffered repetitive disaster losses. This grant is a 50/50 match where the
state reimburses 50% of the project cost to the local jurisdiction up to $150,000.00. The remaining
project cost must come from local funds. This program will fund permanent, longterm solutions to
Slide 17: Resiliency is “a measure of the sustained ability of a community to utilize available resources
to respond to, withstand, and recover from adverse situations”. Nongovernmental organizations have
become more active in promoting resilience. It remains to be seen whether this is mitigation under a
new name or a new concept entirely.
Slide 18: Disasters have staggering costs. If we are proactive instead of reactive and begin to mitigate,
perhaps we can not only save lives, but reduce the costs of disasters. With emerging technology, trends,
and a new focus on mitigation, perhaps we can make changes
Chapter 4: Preparedness
According to your textbook, preparedness is a state of readiness to respond to a disaster, crisis, or any
other type of emergency situation. Preparedness is a theme throughout all Emergency Management.
The origins of modern emergency management stem from the Civil Defense era during the Cold War.
While emergency management is still a fairly new discipline, preparedness efforts have advanced
throughout the years.
Slide 3: As I sta …
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