Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Hormones and Schizophrenia Mental Illnesses Project Paper | Abc Paper

(This project paper is the continuation of the proposal. I’ve attached the proposal and the professor’s inputs for reference) PROJECT PAPERThe project paper should address the biological study of a specific behavioral or mental phenomenon (normal or pathological) covered in the course materials. You should select a behavioral or mental phenomenon (e.g., language, schizophrenia) and then select a biological strategy (e.g., hormones, neurotransmitters, physiology, imaging). As an example, the theme of your report might be imaging approaches to the study of schizophrenia. Your paper should summarize fundamental issues, questions, and controversies and provide a general overview of the topic. It should also elaborate on your understanding of the brain processes that are revealed through imaging research in schizophrenia. To accomplish this, you will have to use research articles to illustrate relevant points. You may use any of a number of resources to find research articles that deal with your topic, including the library and the Internet.This paper is not a “commentary” or “editorial” style paper, but rather a formal research review paper using scientific references as the basis for your topic. Personal experience, while sometimes relevant, should not be included for this assignment unless these experiences are linked to course concepts and the brain. Also, you should avoid using personal pronouns such as “I” or “myself” in this type of paper. The requirement for the research articles that you select is that they must have appeared in a peer-reviewed (i.e., refereed) scientific journal. (Please contact your instructor to confirm whether a particular journal is peer-reviewed.)You must use peer-reviewed scientific articles and they must be recent, i.e., have appeared in the literature no earlier than 2014. Ten to 20 is typically a good number of articles to use for your paper. You might use the online databases from MEDLINE and PSYCH ABSTRACTS as a source of full-text articles from refereed journals. Newspaper or magazine articles should not be used as your major reference, but can be useful if they lead you to the appropriate research article. You should avoid simply repeating the articles in summary form; rather, use them within the text of your paper to illustrate important points. To ensure that you are on the right track, you should discuss with your instructor the topic and the research articles that you have chosen.Your paper is to be 7 to 10 pages, or about 1,800 words in length. It must be typed, double-spaced, with one-inch margins, and fully referenced in APA format (see Check the course schedule for your due date. Your instructor will determine a late paper policy. The text of your paper should be preceded by an abstract (about 100 words) that summarizes the key points in the paper (i.e., statement of problem, major findings, and conclusion).The paper will be graded on (1) content and understanding, and (2) how effectively you have communicated your ideas in writing. You will receive a separate grade for each of these elements, weighted equally. Content and understanding are evaluated on the basis of whether the paper (a) identified important issues, questions, and controversies; (b) used recent and relevant research literature to illustrate the issues; and (c) demonstrated an understanding of brain processes and how brain research revealed an understanding of the behavior in question. Effective communication is evaluated on the basis of (a) organization and structure that help communicate the ideas (e.g., headings throughout the text), (b) use of your own language and style (no cutting and pasting), (c) connecting ideas in the text with research papers, and (d) correct usage of APA format in the text and references.Your paper is to be submitted in Microsoft Word format (.doc file) and formatted in APA style (please consult the APA Style Manual, sixth edition, for proper format).

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Final Project Proposal
Hormones and Schizophrenia
One of the mental disorders that has gained increased research attention is schizophrenia.
The research is focused on the large number of people around the world that the disorder affects.
It is estimated that about 1% of the world’s population is diagnosed with the disorder while 1.2%
of Americans representing 3.2 million people are diagnosed with schizophrenia. Furthermore, it
is estimated that the numbers will increase with at least 1 million people diagnosed with the
disorder every year (Marwaha, & Birchwood, 2017). The disease does not have a cure but it can
be treated and managed allowing individuals to live healthy and happy lives. However, research
on disorder has revealed that hormone changes can be used to treat the disease. This research
paper proposal will outline how hormones could completely change the perception of
schizophrenia and why they are important in addressing the issue.
Purpose of the Final Project
The endocrine system has many complex interrelationships with the nervous systems.
There are important connections between hormones and mental health that have been observed
over time. Recent studies have shown that individuals with schizophrenia could benefit a lot
from hormonal changes, especially in females. Schizophrenic females who get estrogen patches
alongside their antipsychotic medications showed to have fewer symptoms than women who did
not (Dogan Bulut et al, 2016). This has led to the belief that hormones may play a key role in
addressing issues related to schizophrenia. This means that hormones could play a key role in
better managing schizophrenia or even contributing to a cure. However, the available materials
are based on ongoing research with some major milestones having been made. The researches
will prove to be very helpful in the world.
Schizophrenia remains to be an untreatable disorder which causes fear and panic in
people diagnosed with the disorder. This has further led to the formation of stigma which leads
to other complications such as depression which is common in individuals diagnosed with
schizophrenia. Although depression is common throughout all the phases of the disorder, studies
show that people can succumb to it even after they have been diagnosed. Without a clear
treatment solution, many people still fear to get the disorder or even being diagnosed for the fear
that it will completely ruin their lives. Therefore, all solutions that may lead to long term
solutions when dealing with schizophrenia can be a welcome note for many individuals in the
world (Weickert, 2016). It might give hope to individuals who lost it due to the lack of a
probable cure that could help in changing their lives. Therefore, efforts need to be put in place to
make sure that there is enough research focused on addressing the issue.
Addressing the Issue
The application of hormones is still in initial stages and has not yet progressed to a viable
level in which they can be used in the treatment of schizophrenia. Schizophrenia is a fear factor
with most people even afraid of mentioning the name, let alone being diagnosed with it.
Negative perceptions that have led to the formation of a stigma against the disorder have led to a
low quality of life for individuals and could have further implications in the future. For instance,
it has been believed that it is better to get cancer rather than the disorder. The stigma has caused
hopelessness among patients who have derailed their progress under the disorder despite there
being different methods that can be put in place in an effort to improve the quality of life.
Research in the area seems to be bearing fruits as researchers have stated that the use of
hormones drastically improves the quality of life in individuals. Despite being associated with
hopelessness, the patients have something to believe in and also a solution that can improve their
lives drastically over time. As such, research in the area has intensified and has focused on
ensuring that the stigma is dealt with to allow for patients to have hope and also seek medical
help or attention when necessary. The process can be used to manage the disorder further, a feat
that has not been fully achieved through the already existing methods. Therefore, it would
improve the lives of the patients and allow them to conduct normal activities without any
problems. As such, research in the area is critical and could prove to have many benefits if
properly carried out.
What will be gained?
Schizophrenia remains to be one of the major mental disorders affecting people in the
world. At least 1% of the earth’s population is diagnosed with the disorder and more than 1
million can be diagnosed every single year. These numbers are presented by another challenge
whereby the disease has proven to be untreatable. There is no known cure to deal with the
disease which has raised a lot of concerns. Therefore, by conducting research in this area,
adequate results can be gained to determine how the disorder can either be managed or possibly
treated (Weickert, 2016). The information will play a critical role in future studies about the
disorder which is slowly becoming a major concern and problem in the world. The results can be
availed to relevant institutions that can test hypotheses and determine whether hormonal
treatment is a viable solution towards dealing with the disorder. Furthermore, it can open a link
that shows the relationship between mental illness and hormones which will help address other
major disorders such as depression which are fast rising in numbers.
Importance of Examining the Topic
Mental illnesses have become a major concern and affect a significant portion of the
human population. Despite their prevalence in society, they remain highly untreatable.
Furthermore, there is a stigma about mental illnesses which has seen many individuals shun the
topic and opt to focus on others that are not related. As such, studies and information in the area
try to address prevailing issues and new trends. They are meant towards increasing quality of life
by finding new ways in which victims can be helped (Green, Horan, & Lee, 2015). This is with
the hope that the stigma against mental illnesses can be reduced; hence, increasing support for
affected people.
Furthermore, the reviewwill address future developments associated with the disorder. So
far, the disorder remains untreatable with several viable solutions that can be tested. Hormonal
treatment has so far proven to be the most appropriate one and needs to be researched further to
determine how the healthcare community can come together and contribute towards addressing
the prevalent mental illness issue (Vancampfort et al, 2016). Results will be very important to
the whole field where new applications can be used to manage or treat mental illnesses within
Annotated Bibliography
Millan, M. J., Andrieux, A., Bartzokis, G., Cadenhead, K., Dazzan, P., Fusar-Poli, P., … & Kahn,
R. (2016). Altering the course of schizophrenia: progress and perspectives. Nature
Reviews Drug Discovery, 15(7), 485.
Researchers led by Mark Milan research on the progress that has been made by scientists
in understanding schizophrenia better. The authors concur that “disease-modifying strategies can
be used in altering the course to schizophrenia rather than just focusing on alleviating symptoms.
There are several methods which have been nominated to become a solution to the problem.
However, it is not known how they will fair or if the approaches are adequate and can help in
addressing the issue. The researchers discuss some of the methods that have been in use as well
as new ones that can be put in place. The article will add a lot of value to the research paper
through the introduction of various methods to treat or address schizophrenia. Hormonal
treatment will be compared against these methods to determine whether it is the best option and
whether scientists should put their focus on hormones as related to schizophrenia.
Kulkarni, J., Gavrilidis, E., & Worsley, R. (2016). Hormones and schizophrenia. In Handbook of
Behavioral Neuroscience (Vol. 23, pp. 463-480). Elsevier.
In their handbook, Kulkarni, Gavrilidis, and Worsley discuss hormones and the
relationship to schizophrenia. The text outlines past attempts and applications where hormones
were used to address schizophrenia. The authors focus on the different relationships between
hormones and schizophrenia by outlining various hormones and their relationship to the disorder.
The information provided in the text is sufficient to determine whether schizophrenia is in any
way related to hormones and whether treatment through the use of hormones is plausible. The
information provided is critical and will form the main basis for the rest of the research due to its
in-depth analysis of hormones and schizophrenia.
Guest, P. C. (2019). Insulin Resistance in Schizophrenia. In Reviews on Biomarker Studies of
Metabolic and Metabolism-Related Disorders (pp. 1-16). Springer, Cham.
In this text, Paul Guest tries to determine the relationship between insulin resistance and
schizophrenia. Insulin is a hormone released by the pancreas to regulate blood sugar levels.
Furthermore, schizophrenia use of hormones was first determined in diabetes patients. Therefore,
the author elaborates further on this relationship. The information contained in this article will be
helpful in determining whether hormone treatment is favorable or how the treatment might affect
other hormones in the body.
Seeman, M. V. (2019). Schizophrenia in Women as Compared to Men. Women & Psychosis:
Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 187.
Mary Seeman conducted research to determine how schizophrenia affects men and
women. The comparison is meant to understand the factors that lead to hormonal changes to
improve the quality of life in women with schizophrenia as compared to men where the results
were less favorable. Hormone treatment in the area has better effects on women than men.
Therefore, the information from the article will prove to be critical to understand how hormones
affect the treatment of the disorder in women and men where there have been discrepancies in
the past.
Fisher, A. D., Ristori, J., & Maggi, M. (2018). Pharmachosexology: Use of Sex Hormones in
Psychiatric Conditions. In Sexual Dysfunctions in Mentally Ill Patients (pp. 215-224).
Springer, Cham.
One of the areas of focus by the research is to determine whether hormones can be used
to treat or control psychiatric disorders. Fisher, Ristori, and Maggi conducted research to
elaborate on the use of sex hormones in psychiatry. The information provided will provide an
overview of how hormones work and whether sex hormones play a key role in the management
and treatment of mental disorders.
Project Outline
Introduction (Why is is important to study your topic?)
A. How do hormones relate to schizophrenia?
1. Results gained from the use of hormones
2. The viability of hormonal treatment based on the studies
Study for the use of hormones
1. Study forResults
2. Analysis of their conclusions
a) Determine whether the research followed set rules
b) Discuss the correlation of results with the conclusions
c) Does the conclusion answer the research question?
A. Study for
1. Method uses
2. Results
3. Analysis of their conclusions
a) The viability of the study
b) Does the conclusion answer the research question?
Research against
1. Method
2. Results
3. Analysis of the conclusions
1. Discussion of reasons against the results
2. Does it answer the research question?
3. Is new insight offered in the research?
1. Is hormonal treatment for psychiatric disorders viable?
2. Do the research methods fulfill all needed requirements?
3. The conclusion of the research
4. Recommendations
I think your topic will be fine. Include all parts of the introduction. (e.g., which specific
relevant biopsychological theories do you plan to examine in your paper, why did you
choose the topic, what do you hope to learn)? Provide more detail in your outline.
Please see my comments about your outline.
Be sure to follow the grading rubric for the final paper. In the introduction point out why it
is important to study your topic. In the summary, point out the limitations in the previous
research and suggest areas for new research. Check grammar/spelling. Good job with
APA format. Finally, please see my comments/corrections.
Dogan Bulut, S., Bulut, S., Görkem Atalan, D., Gökçer Tulaci, R., & Gürçay, E. (2016). The
effect of antipsychotics on bone mineral density and sex hormones in male patients with
schizophrenia. Psychiatria Danubina, 28(3), 255-262. doi:
Fisher, A. D., Ristori, J., & Maggi, M. (2018). Pharmachosexology: Use of sex hormones in
psychiatric conditions. In Sexual Dysfunctions in Mentally Ill Patients (pp. 215-224).
Place of publication: Springer, Cham.
Green, M. F., Horan, W. P., & Lee, J. (2015). Social cognition in schizophrenia. Nature Reviews
Neuroscience, 16(10), 620.
Guest, P. C. (2019). Insulin Resistance in Schizophrenia. In Reviews on Biomarker Studies of
Metabolic and Metabolism-Related Disorders (pp. 1-16). Springer, Cham.
Kulkarni, J., Gavrilidis, E., & Worsley, R. (2016). Hormones and schizophrenia. In Handbook of
Behavioral Neuroscience (Vol. 23, pp. 463-480). Elsevier.
Marwaha, S., & Birchwood, M. (2017). Depression and schizophrenia: cause, consequence, or
trans-diagnostic issue?. Schizophrenia bulletin, 43(2), 240-244.
Millan, M. J., Andrieux, A., Bartzokis, G., Cadenhead, K., Dazzan, P., Fusar-Poli, P., … & Kahn,
R. (2016). Altering the course of schizophrenia: progress and perspectives. Nature
Reviews Drug Discovery, 15(7), 485.
Seeman, M. V. (2019). Schizophrenia in Women as Compared to Men. Women & Psychosis:
Multidisciplinary Perspectives, 187.
Vancampfort, D., Rosenbaum, S., Schuch, F. B., Ward, P. B., Probst, M., & Stubbs, B. (2016).
Prevalence and predictors of treatment dropout from physical activity interventions in
schizophrenia: a meta-analysis. General hospital psychiatry, 39, 15-23.
Weickert, T. W. (2016). Hormone modulation improves cognition in schizophrenia.
Neuropsychopharmacology, 41(1), 384.

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