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**HINT Kolasa’s Lecture notes, Cobbs’ Chapter 4 and On-line Textbook will be helpful in answering this questionWorks should be cites another example on how to answer the question:American Diplomacy was during the second half of the 19th century imperialism. In Chapter 4 of the Cobbs textbook, it is revealed that the United States employed numerous techniques in order to heighten United States immigration control while also adopting a variety of immigration laws. “The United States achieved that through two new arms of imperialism in modern America: border diplomacy and border policing” (Cobbs, 91). Later on, other agreements would be made in addition to these immigration laws. One of these later agreements “placed more border controls on Chinese immigrants exclusively” (Cobbs, 92) and because of this, CPR (Canadian Pacific Railway) officials “agreed to deliver all Chinese passengers seeking admission into the United States under guard directly to U.S. inspectors stationed at four designated ports along the Canadian border” (Cobbs, 92). In the on-line textbook, the topic of “triangular diplomacy” is discussed in detail, with specific regard to the United States, the USSR, and China.The website states that Nixon “initiated several new trends in American diplomatic relations” (ushistory.org). The website continues to explain how Nixon and his adviser, Henry Kissinger, went on to create the policy known as triangular diplomacy. The authors of ushistory.org explain how no one would come forward to challenge Nixon’s anticommunist credentials, as his “overtures were chiefly accepted by the American public” (ushistory.org). Through these various facts, we can see that American Diplomacy was an occurrence during the second half of the 19th century imperialism, rather than colonialism.
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history_17__progressivism___wwi_lecture.pdf

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World War II
I.
“December 7th…a date which will live in infamy…”
a. Planning of Operation Z
i. Japan has only 1 yr of oil left when Am. Places its embargo and so has a choice to retreat
from land acquired in China, attack other lands or negotiate more with the US
ii. Admiral Yamamoto begins planning an attack on Pearl Harbor in spring 1941.
b. Attack at Pearl Harbor (video of the USS Arizona??? Exploding)
i. Defense of HI Navy Admiral Kimmal and Army General Short
ii. Short puts all of the airplanes on runway. (WHY??) fear of sabotage but easy targets!
1. Kimmal when asked if Japan would attack Pearl Harbor said, “I don’t think they’d
be such Damn fools!”
2. Japan knew American culture and so attack at dawn on a Sunday
iii. In the next few hrs., Japan attacks HI but Singapore, the Philippines, Guam, Wake Island
and Hong Kong.
c. Results of the Attack
i. Japan strikes a strategic success as they bomb an American territory so close to the
US=raise moral in Japan.
ii. Problem=it was a tactical failure. Japan failed to hit…
1. dry-docks
2. oil depots
3. US aircraft carriers
4. Another failure was that the US now wanted revenge and mobilized all of its
massive resources to defeating Japan and making them pay for Pearl Harbor
II.
Key Battles & Diplomacy—“Never before have we had so little in which to do so much.”—FDR
a. European Theater
i. Battle of Britain (1942-43)
ii. El Alamein (10>11-1942)—turning pt in Africa
iii. Stalingrad (8-21-1942>1-31-1943)—turning point on the Eastern Front (stop Nazi
advance in the USSR)
iv. Kursk (7-43)—largest tank battle won by the USSR
v. Rome Liberated (6-4-1944)
vi. D-Day Landings—Invasion of Normandy and Stalin’s 2nd Front (6-6-1944)
1. Paris Liberated 8-25-9144
vii. Battle of the Bulge—12-44>1-45—Nazi espionage and last offensive on the Western
front fails
viii. Berlin falls May 2nd 1945
b. Nazi Holocaust on the European Jewry
1. Total Lost6 million Jews + 6 million Poles, Slavs, Gypsies, homosexuals and
other “undesirables”
2. US responsibility???
c. Pacific Theater
i. Bataan Death March (1942)—Americans and Filipinos
ii. Coral Sea (5-1942)—stop Japanese advance
iii. Midway (6-1942)—first US victory
iv. Leyte Gulf (10-1944)—largest naval battle
v. Iwo Jima (2>3-1945)—famous flag raising photograph
vi. Okinawa—(4>6-1945)—mass Japanese citizen suicides
vii. Tokyo—Firebombing kills over 100,000
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viii. Atomic Blasts& the Manhattan Project
1. Cost=$2 billion, employed 120,000 secretively
2. Robert Oppenheimer leads scientists + some have second thoughts…
3. Test on July 16th, 1945.
4. Hiroshima (8-6-45)
a. 100,000 die
b. Surprise, no warning (had been dropping leaflets in other cities but to no
avail…)
5. Nagasaki (8-9-45)
a. No warning
b. 60,000 die (geography an issue and not #1 target)
c. Both cities have exposure deaths over time ranging into the 1,000s (one
book said 10,000 and another said 100,000)???
ix. Soviets enter the Pacific War on 8-8-45
x. VJ-Day
1. Emperor Hirohito’s unprecedented radio address on 8-15
2. Surrender signed on 9-2-45 on deck of the Missouri in Tokyo harbor
d. Diplomacy of WWII
i. Atlantic Charter
1. August 1941, meet secretly with Churchill off the coast of Newfoundland
2. Free Trade, national self-determination and the principle of collective security
(eventually the UN)
ii. Yalta (Feb 4>11-1945)
1. Located…Crimean Peninsula on the Black Sea, USSR
2. USSR will enter Pacific war 3-4 mo. after Euro war ends and get Kurile Islands,
and an occupation zone in Korea and was granted other rights in Manchuria.
3. Eastern Poland would be awarded to USSR (1940 boundary Red Army already
there anyway). Poland’s eastern boarder fixed at the Curzon Line and Poland
would get German land in the West and North.
4. Polish Gvt would be broadened to include democratic basis but the Lublin (Polish
Poles) not the London (exiled Poles) would be the standard.
5. Free elections in liberated states
6. Reparations…$20 billion wanted by USSR undecided but FDR thinks it is ok
7. UN voting in the Security Council undecided but other Russian states (Ukraine
and White Russia ok).
8. First meeting of the UN on April 25>June 26-1945 in San Francisco
iii. Potsdam (July 17>Aug 2-1945)—War in Europe is over!
1. Location…Suburb of Berlin at Frederick the Great’s Palace
2. Keys of Conference
a. Unconditional Ultimatum surrender issued to Japan (July 26)
b. Trail of war criminals to be held
c. Occupation zones drawn and demilitarized Germany
d. Both sides feel the other side violated earlier agreements…Both did!
III.
US Homefront
a. Mobilizing America
i. Costs of WWII—Federal budget was 10x higher in 1945 than 1939 ($95.2 billion) and
the debt was 6x higher ($258.6 billion)Keynesian econ acceptance
b. Mobilizing the TroopsChief of Staff George C. Marshall
i. Army grew from 200,000 (1939) to 8 million (1945)
ii. Total US armed forces was 15 million by 1945
3
iii. 70,000 Blacks in all branches but segregated units (even blood was segregated)about
16% of soldiers (make up 13% of US population)
1. Mexican-Americans were not segregated & 17 won Congressional Medals of
Honor
iv. Women350,000 enlistbarred from direct combat
c. Workers and the War Effort
i. Rosie the Riveter”Longing won’t bring him back any sooner…GET A WAR JOB!”
but just “filling in” while war is on then men get jobs back
ii. They make up 36% of the labor force in 1945 vs. 24% in 1940
d. Civil Rights During the War
i. ”Double V” campaignvictory over Nazism abroad and victory over racism at home
ii. A Philip Randolph demand more Black laborers in gvt defense plants
1. “March on Washington” planned for the summer of 1941 but canceled after
Executive Order 8802 declared “that there shall be no discrimination in the
employment of workers in defense industries or gvt because of race, creed, color
or national origin.”
2. FEPC (Fair Employment Practices Commission) in the Office of Production
Management
iii. Lay foundation for Civil Rights of the 1950s/60s
iv. Mexican Americans
1. Sleepy Lagoon Case (1942)
2. Zoot Suit Riots in LA in 1943
e. Life in America During the War
i. Family life Upset as women work and men fight”latchkey” kids
1. Migration to urban areas of minorities (CA, IL, MI, OH, PN)racial conflicts in
47 cities in 1943
ii. Japanese Relocation & Internment (see map)
1. Number totaled 120,000
2. Why them and not Italians and GermansRacism
a. Espionage and disloyaltyOFFICIAL REASON!!!
3. Executive Order 9022—FDR approved a War Dept to intern Japanese and created
the WRA (War Relocation Authority)
4. Despite the lack of evidence of sedition or espionage—few opposed the plan
5. 2/3s of the 112,000 ordered to internment camps were Americans by birth (Nisei)
They were children of Issei (foreign born)
6. Problems…
a. farm labor shortage even with the “bracero” program of migrating
Mexicans into the US to work
b. 442nd Infantry Combat Team—segregated unit serving in Europe were
Nisei volunteers and the most decorated unit in the armed forces in WWII
c. Supreme Court upheld the constitutionally of the internment
i. Hirabayashi v. US (1943)—Gordon Hirabayashi refused to register
deportation and deliberately violated an 8pm curfew imposed on
Japanese-Americans and was arrested and convicted of both.
ii. Korematsu v. US (1944)—SC rule that Japanese-Am were not
being denied their constitutional rights because of racial
discrimination but because of the requirements of military security
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Progressivism & WWI
I.
4 Goals of Progressive Reform (AN OVERVIEW)
a. Protecting Social WelfareSettlement Houses
b. Promoting Moral ReformTemperance (WCTUWomen’s Christian Temperance Union)
c. Creating Economic ReformTrust Busting & Muckraking
d. Fostering Efficiency”Taylorism,” & Ford’s assembly line
II.
Ideological Roots of Progressivism
a. Roots of DemocracyRobert La Follette (of Wisconsin) said, “Go back to the first principles of
democracy, go back to the people.”
b. Muckraking/Journalism
i. Begin (historians say) in October 1902 in a McClure’s article by Lincoln Steffens titled
“Tweed Days in St. Louis”
1. In a series of articles, Steffens wrote about the “shame of the cities”—corrupt ties
between business and political machines
a. Most politicians think they go too far…example Teddy Roosevelt
ii. Another example of muckrakingUpton Sinclair’s The Jungle
III.
State & Local Progressive Reform
a. Working Conditions/Reform
i. Triangle Shirtwaist Factory Fire (March, 1911)
1. Fire spread in factory and doors locked (to keep girls from leaving early), no fire
extinguishers, etc…plus fire dept ladders are too short to put blaze out!
2. 146 women killed (burnt or fall to death)
3. NY State Factory Commission est. after and passes 56 laws dealing with fire
hazards, unsafe machines, in-home workers, wages/hrs for women and children
b. State Reform
i. Initiative—allowed people to propose laws that interested them
ii. Referendum—allowed citizens to vote for laws
iii. Recall—allowed voters to recall a law OR remove from politicians
iv. Open, Direct Primaries—allowed voters to choose their representatives and elect senators
directly
IV.
Governmental Progressive ReformTeddy Roosevelt’s “Square Deal”
a. Trust Busting
i. 1890 Sherman Anti-Trust Act was virtually useless in controlling trusts
1. 19101% of the nation’s manufacturing produced 44% of the nation’s output
ii. United Mine Workers Strike in 1902-support arbitration by threatening to nationalize the
mine.
iii. TR took on 45 of the nation’s largest firms (Du Pont, Standard Oil, and American
Tobacco)
b. Conservation
i. TR added about 125 million acres to the national forests and brought mineral lands and
water power sites into the reserve system
c. Consumer Protection
i. Meat Inspection Act of 1906—enforced fed inspection and mandated sanitary conditions
ii. The Pure Food and Drug Act of 1906—Regulated Medical industry
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V.
Governmental Progressive ReformWilliam Howard Taft
a. Trustbusterbrought more suits against monopolies in 1 term (90) than TR did in 2 terms (44)
b. Mann-Elkins Act of 1910strengthened the ICC rate
c. 1st Tax on corporate profits passed
VI.
Governmental Progressive ReformWoodrow Wilson’s “New Freedom”
a. Election of 1912Taft-TR split Republican vote and allows Wilson Democrat to win
b. Clayton Anti-Trust ActProhibited various unfair trade policies and was stronger than Sherman
by being more specific of evils
c. Federal Reserve SystemEst. 12 reserve banks & Est. Federal Reserve Board to oversee $$
supply
VII.
Review of Progressive Amendments
a. 16thGraduated Income Tax (1913)
b. 17thDirect Election of Senators
(1913)
c. 18thProhibition (1919)
d. 19thWomen’s Suffrage (1920)
World War I
VIII.
World War I in Europe
a. US Neutrality—Proclaimed by Wilson on 8-4-1914
i. Most Americans favored the Triple Entente (Russia, France, England) vs. the Triple
Alliance (Germany, Austria-Hungary, Italy) Because of cultural and economic reason
IX.
US Involvement (1917-1918)
a. Three Reasons the US Declared War
i. Unrestricted Submarine Warfare Declared
1. Lusitania (May 7, 1915)1,198 lives lost. 128 Americans
ii. Economicconcerned about Russian Rev and Russia leaving WWI
iii. The Zimmerman Telegram (Feb 27, 1917)
1. Germany asks Mexico to declare war and attack USA in return for Texas, New
Mexico and Utah
2. seen as a stab in the back by USA
b. US Declares War
i. January 22, 1917 “Peace without victory” Speech. Only a negotiated peace without a
winner would be durable and successful after the war.
ii. Wilson’s War Message (April 2, 1917)—“The world must be safe for democracy.”
1. Congress Declares war on April 6, 1917
d. General John j. Pershing leads the American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
X.
The “Big Four,” Treaty of Versailles & Wilson Idealism
a. Wilson’s Idealistic “14 Points”—new diplomacy of openness falls into 3 broad areas
i. A set of 8 specific recommendations for adjusting postwar boundaries & est. new nations
ii. A set of 5 general principles to govern international conduct in the future…Freedom of
the Seas, Open Covenants of peace arrived at openly (no secret treaties), free trades…
iii. Proposal for a “League of Nations” to resolve future controversies
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b. Problem with the 14 PtsALL had made secret treaties during the war (except USA)
c. The Treaty of Versailles (signed in the Hall of Mirrors, Versailles, France on June 28, 1919)
i. Self-Determination and creation of new nations
ii. War Reparations—$33 billion (set in 1921)

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