Chat with us, powered by LiveChat Healthcare Delivery and Systems Discussion Post | Abc Paper
+1(978)310-4246 credencewriters@gmail.com
  

After reading previous chapters and chapter 10 of your textbook, discuss the following:What government agencies affect the delivery of public health initiatives? What are the main laws that influence the delivery of healthcare in the US? List and explain at least 3.Your original post of 150-175 words is due by 11:59 PM, EST, Thursday of this week.One peer reply of 75 words is required by 11:59 PM, EST Sunday of this week.Before posting, check for spelling and grammatical errors. If I cannot evaluate your content, you will not receive points.No quotes are permitted in this course in the discussion forums; use of quotes will result in loss of points.Plagiarism is not tolerated. You must cite any sources you use to support your work. APA format is used in most health-related courses and professions. The SPC online library has a guide to assist you with your use of citations and referencing.
austin3_ch10_lecture_accessible.pptx

Unformatted Attachment Preview

The United States Health Care System:
Combining Business, Health, and Delivery
Third Edition
Chapter 10
The Public Health System:
The Government’s Role
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Learning Objectives (1 of 2)
10.1 Define the concept of public health and give examples
of public health activities.
10.2 Explain the role of government in public health.
10.3 List two or more national (federal) public health
agencies.
10.4 Explain the role of boards of public health and
licensing/regulatory boards.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Learning Objectives (2 of 2)
10.5 Describe at least one major government initiative to
protect the public’s health.
10.6 Identify the key reporting obligations that health
professionals are mandated to uphold.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Introduction
• The health of the nation is the responsibility of the public
health system in the United States.
• The public health system is not a single system.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
What Is Public Health? (1 of 3)
• The WHO defines health
– “a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being
and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity”
• Being healthy is more than just not being sick.
• It is a state of well-being in our bodies, our minds, and our
lives.
• Public health is the well-being of everyone in neighborhoods,
communities, states, and countries.
• The goal of public health is to protect the community from the
hazards of group life.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
What Is Public Health? (2 of 3)
• Curative medical care focuses on making us feel better
when we are already ill.
• Public health focuses on prevention efforts to keep us
from getting sick in the first place.
• Public health impacts policies and laws and helps
promote well-being on a societal and often global level.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
What Is Public Health? (3 of 3)
• Public health is the way a society reaches out to protect
the health of its most vulnerable members.
• Widespread illness affects not only people but also
communities and economies.
• The lack of a strong public health system can be the
downfall of a society.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The History of Public Health (1 of 2)
• Public health is not a completely new concept in human
society.
• Recorded over 4,000 years ago in India and in the
classical era of the Greek and Roman civilizations.
• Quarantine was instituted in the Middle Ages.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The History of Public Health (2 of 2)
• 1700s and 1800s in the U.S.
– Creation of boards of health for containing disease
• National institutes of Health (NiH) traces its roots to 1887.
– Setting sanitary standards
– Protecting from infectious diseases
– Health departments began in Massachusetts
– Seamen taxed to provide care
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Table 10.1 Abbreviated Historical Development—
National Institutes of Health (1 of 5)
1978
President John Adams signed “an Act for the relief of sick and disabled
Seamen,” which led to the establishment of the marine Hospital Service.
1803
The first permanent marine Hospital authorized to be built in Boston,
Massachusetts.
1836
Library of the Office of Surgeon General of the Army established.
1870
President Grant signed a law establishing a “Bureau of the U.S. marine
Hospital Service,” Treasury Department, which created central control over
the hospitals, and a Supervising Surgeon (later Surgeon General).
1887
Laboratory of Hygiene established at marine Hospital, Staten Island, New
York, for research in cholera and other infectious diseases.
1891
Rocky mountain Spotted Fever Laboratory established in Hamilton, Montana,
as field station of Public Health Service.
1922
Congress authorized National Cancer Institute (NCI) and the awarding of
research grants. Rocky mountain Laboratory became part of NIH.
Source: http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/historical/chronology_of_events.htm
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Table 10.1 Abbreviated Historical Development—
National Institutes of Health (2 of 5)
1949
Mental Hygiene Program of Public Health Service transferred to NIH and
expanded to become National Institute of mental Health.
1950
“Omnibus medical Research Act” authorized the establishment of the National
Institute of Neurological Diseases and Blindness and the National Institute of
Arthritis and Metabolic Diseases, and the latter absorbed the Experimental
Biology and Medicine Institute.
1957
The Center for Aging Research established.
1961
The Center for Research in Child Health established in Division of General
Medical Sciences.
1964
Division of Computer Research and Technology established.
1966
Division of Environmental Health Sciences created.
1970
National Institute on Aging created.
1990
National Center for Research Resources was created by consolidating the
Division of Research Services and the Division of Research Resources.
Source: http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/historical/chronology_of_events.htm
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Table 10.1 Abbreviated Historical Development—
National Institutes of Health (3 of 5)
1991
National Center for medical Rehabilitation Research established within
the National Institute of Child Health and Human Development.
1992
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism, National Institute on
Drug Abuse, and National Institute of Mental Health were transferred to
NIH from the Alcohol, Drug Abuse, and mental Health Administration.
1993
National Center for Nursing Research was retitled as the National
Institute of Nursing Research.
1994
The Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act of 1993 mandated
establishment of an Office of Dietary Supplements within NIH to conduct
and coordinate NIH research relating to dietary supplements and the
extent to which their use reduces the risk of certain diseases.
]
2000 to
present
The international Human Genome Project public consortium—funded by
NIH, the Department of Energy (DOE), and others—assembled a
working draft of the sequence of the human genome.
Source: http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/historical/chronology_of_events.htm
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Table 10.1 Abbreviated Historical Development—
National Institutes of Health (4 of 5)
2003
The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium, led in the United States
by the National Human Genome Research Institute and the DOE, completed the
Human Genome Project.
2000 to
present
The international Human Genome Project public consortium—funded by NIH, the
Department of Energy (DOE), and others—assembled a working draft of the
sequence of the human genome.
2003
The International Human Genome Sequencing Consortium, led in the United States
by the National Human Genome Research Institute and the DOE, completed the
Human Genome Project.
The complete genetic blueprint of Bacillus anthracis—the microbe that gained
notoriety during the 2001 anthrax mail attacks—has been completed by NIAIDfunded researchers.
2004
President George W. Bush visits NIH on Feb. 3 to unveil Project BioShield, a $6
billion, 10-year effort to protect the public from various weapons of bioterrorism.
NIH opens the mark O. Hatfield Clinical Research Center, a 240-bed successor to
the NIH Clinical Center, which opened in 1953.
Source: http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/historical/chronology of_events.htm
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Table 10.1 Abbreviated Historical Development—
National Institutes of Health (5 of 5)
2008
Through legislation enacted by Congress,
NICHD was renamed the Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of
Child Health and Human Development at the institute’s 45th
anniversary celebration. In the early 1960s, Shriver persuaded her
brother, President John F. Kennedy, to include the proposal for an NIH
institute focusing on child health and human development in his first
health message to Congress. NICHD was then established in 1963.
2010
President Obama signed the Patient Protection and Affordable Care
Act.
2013
Antimalarial drug deemed safe for human use.
2014
The John Edward Porter Center for Neuroscience was opened.
Source: http://www.nih.gov/about/almanac/historical/chronology_of_events.htm
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
The History of Public Health
• in 1850, Lemuel Shattuck published the Report of the
Sanitary Commission of Massachusetts.
• By 1900, there were 40 state health departments.
• Today, every state has a health department and a public
health laboratory.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Key Public Health Functions (1 of 5)
• Institute of Medicine released a report called The Future
of Public Health.
• Three key functions of public health:
– Assessment of the health of the community
– Policy development
– Assurance of the public health
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Key Public Health Functions (2 of 5)
• Assessment
– Determining the health needs of the community
• Policy development
– The collective decision about what actions are most
appropriate for the health of the state or nation
• Assurance
– Making sure the necessary actions are actually taken
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Key Public Health Functions (3 of 5)
• Epidemiology
– The study of the history of a disease and its
distribution throughout a society
• Epidemiologists
– Investigate where a disease outbreak occurred, who it
affected, and how and when
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Key Public Health Functions (4 of 5)
• In public health, surveillance refers to the continuous
search for and documentation of disease
• Monitoring
– The use of surveillance data to determine changes in
the number of infected persons
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Table 10.2 Key Terms In Public Health
Measurement
Incidence
Number of new cases of a disease or event such as a motor vehicle
accident in a specific population.
Morbidity
Number of cases of a specific disease in a specific period of time
per unit of population, usually expressed as a number per 1,000.
Mortality rates
Number of people who have died from a given disease or event.
These rates are collected and analyzed from death certificates.
Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report is published by the CDC
and reports illness and death rates for a variety of diseases.
Prevalence
Total number of infected/affected people (cases) over a given period
of time.
Relative risk
How an individual’s risk may change relevant to a specific factor
(e.g., a smoker has a higher relative risk of getting lung cancer than
a person who does not smoke).
Risk
Likelihood that someone will become infected/affected.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Key Public Health Functions
(5 of 5)
• State health departments are required by law to report on
cases of specific diseases or conditions.
• As of 2012, 91 diseases had to be reported at the
national level.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Role of Government in Public Health (1 of 8)
• Federal government has the ability to tax people to
provide for the “general welfare” of society.
– Allows for the collection of money to be used in
support of health programs.
• The federal government has the ability to regulate
commerce.
– Only the government can enforce policies that limit
the personal and property rights of individuals or
businesses.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Role of Government in Public Health (2 of 8)
• Federal Government
– Department of Health and Human Services (DHHS)
is the U.S. government’s principal department
protecting the health of the nation.
– Key agencies:
▪ The Food and Drug Administration (FDA)
▪ The Centers for Disease Control (CDC)
▪ The Health Resources and Services Administration
(HRSA) The Centers for Medicare and Medicaid
Services (CMS)
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Role of Government in Public Health (3 of 8)
– Public health is the way a society cares for its most
vulnerable citizens.
– A government’s investment in public health is a
symbol of how much it supports and cares for its
citizens.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Role of Government in Public Health (4 of 8)
• State Government
– At the state level, there are two kinds of public health
bodies:
▪ Boards of health
▪ State health departments
– Boards of health are the policymaking bodies.
– State health departments promote the public’s health
and implement public health laws.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Role of Government in Public Health (5 of 8)
– Two models of a state health department:
▪ In most states, the health department is a
freestanding agency that reports directly to the
state governor.
▪ In others, they are part of a larger institution, such
as the state’s Department of Health and Human
Services.
– Licensing and regulatory boards help protect the
public’s health by basic standards of care,
cleanliness, and safety.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Role of Government in Public Health (6 of 8)
• Local Health Departments
– Local health departments serve an individual county,
city, or region.
– Most common programs and services include:
▪ Adult and child immunizations
▪ Communicable disease control
▪ Community assessment
▪ Community education
▪ Environmental health services
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Role of Government in Public Health (7 of 8)




Epidemiology and surveillance
Food safety
Restaurant inspections
Tuberculosis testing
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Role of Government in Public Health (8 of 8)
• Environmental health services
• Epidemiology and surveillance
• Food safety
• Restaurant inspections
• Tuberculosis testing
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Other Public Health Partners
• Organizations like the Red Cross, March of Dimes, and
the American Cancer Society play an important role.
• Foundations are not-for-profit organizations that raise
money in support of their programs.
• Community-based organizations often go directly to the
person needing services.
• Nongovernmental efforts help complete and strengthen
the public health system.
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Past Successes and Future Challenges (1 of 3)
• According to the CDC, the life expectancy of persons
living in the United States has increased by 30 years
since 1900.
• Achievements:
– Vaccination
– Safer workplaces
– Healthier mothers and babies
– Control of infectious diseases
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Past Successes and Future Challenges (2 of 3)
– Coronary heart disease and stroke prevention
programs
– Safer and healthier foods
– Family planning
– Motor vehicle safety
– Fluoridation of drinking water
– Recognition of tobacco as a health hazard
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Past Successes and Future Challenges (3 of 3)
• Public health challenges
– Changing patterns of disease
– Increasing numbers of chronic conditions
– New and emerging infections
– Injuries
– Violence
– Curable genetic diseases
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved
Copyright
Copyright © 2017, 2012 Pearson Education, Inc. All Rights Reserved

Purchase answer to see full
attachment

error: Content is protected !!