all instructions in the link below. this assignments need the outline and essay with APA Format. you have read two ebooks in the both files: psy and howislove to do this assignment.https://eagleonline.hccs.edu/courses/78952/assignments/1020076
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Written Assignment – Milestone Two
This assignment walks you through creating an outline that will form the basis of the rough draft
you will complete in the next module. All my guides follow the APA 6th edition style guide.
Instructions – Checklist for Success!
Create a title and put it in the placeholder on the template provided.
Write out your ideas on how you plan to introduce your topic.
Include a thesis statement based on your topic and focus from the last assignment.
For this assignment, a thesis statement is a sentence that expresses the main idea
or topic that you are discussing throughout your paper.
Identify THREE main ideas you will discuss about your topic and put them in the
placeholder sections in the template provided.
For EACH of the main ideas, identify at least three pieces of supporting evidence
from the sources you selected. Put those in the placeholder sections in the
template provided. You will end up with nine total (3 Main Ideas with 3 Pieces of
Make sure you include the in-text citations with the pieces of supporting
evidence. All three sources should be cited at some point in your outline. I
included examples of this in the template provided. Citing page numbers is
encouraged in APA, but only required if you are using direct quotes. They should
always be included if you are using MLA.
Restate your thesis statement from your introduction.
Summarize the three major main ideas (add nothing new!).
Leave reader with lasting impression of your essay.
Be sure the reference list is updated with your sources in proper format. Remove the
examples I provided in the outline, and insert your three references in APA (or MLA)
format on the last page of the template.
Use the checklist above to modify the outline I provided. Most of this outline should be
in complete sentences, but I should not see full fleshed-out paragraphs at this stage. An
outline is not a rough draft. An outline is a framework of what you plan to go into
more detail on later.
It is very important that what you turn in for this assignment is a true
outline and not a rough draft (don’t get too detailed yet).
Dr. Matt Webster
Faith, Hope, and Love in Psychotherapy
Harold H. Mosak and Marina Bluvshtein
This article is the last known authored by Dr. Harold Mosak, Adler University cofounder and Distinguished Service Professor, Adlerian scholar, and a fellow of the
American Psychological Association. It was recorded as a conversation during the
last several months of his life. The article reveals Mosak’s thoughts on what theories
and practices work in psychotherapy, illustrated by examples of what worked for him
and his clients in the decades of his own clinical practice. Although the term com
mon factors is not speciﬁcally used, this article may be considered a contribution to
a contemporary discussion about common factors in psychotherapy. Yet factors may
sound too technical, too mechanistic for what this article offers—the idea of faith,
hope, and love not as common factors, but as a powerful and necessary common
feeling in psychotherapy. This article discusses Adlerian therapy as uniquely positioned to successfully bring faith, hope, and love into therapeutic encounters and to
carry these feelings beyond therapy and into our everyday lives.
Keywords: Adlerian, hope, faith, love, psychotherapy
This article was recorded over several different occasions from late 2017
to early 2018. The days on which it was recorded matched the recording
topics in ways I could not understand until later. The “faith” day was one
of those bad-weather, bad-news days in late fall. As Dr. Mosak and I were
sitting at the table in a common area of his care facility, it was nearly impossible to not be distracted by loud local TV station newscasters making sure
that we had good audio and even better visual for all the murders, robberies,
and falls on train tracks in the Chicago area that day. In addition, near us was
a group of people playing bingo, as if trying to ﬁx all the TV-reported mis
fortunes with a quick and light draw of random bingo luck. Victorious exclamations of “Bingo!” were constantly mixing with sounds of nursing calls and
bits of social conversations among people going into and exiting elevators.
Dr. Mosak seemed to be the only one unaffected by all of this, as he carried
on with his talk, brieﬂy glancing at his notes and occasionally checking with
me or testing my students or me on how well we were learning from him.
The second recording took place a couple of months later. It was snowy and
cold outside: a very long winter, as he and I both agreed. Dr. Mosak was
recovering from a bout with pneumonia and was wearing an oxygen mask.
He said that he was happy the illness was over, mostly because the ban on
The Journal of Individual Psychology, Vol. 75, No. 1, Spring 2019
©2019 by the University of Texas Press
Editorial office located in the College of Arts and Sciences at Lynn University.
Published for the North American Society of Adlerian Psychology.
76 Harold H. Mosak and Marina Bluvshtein
visitors had been lifted. He planned to have more people come to see him.
On that day, we recorded his talk about hope. The ﬁnal talk—on love—
was recorded right before Valentine’s Day. On that day, someone brought
Dr. Mosak a box with a huge Hershey’s chocolate kiss inside it. Harold asked
me to ﬁnd a plate and cut the chocolate, so he and I could share as we were
recording. He wanted only a few crumbs, and he joked that this was all the
sweetness he could have until his next Valentine’s Day.
I am sharing these details, as Harold wanted me to, so you can experience this article on more than one level. Dr. Mosak loved to teach. In those
last couple of years of his life, he would ask me to bring more students. He
would have them sit around him or on his bed, and he would always start his
conversations with one question: “What do you want me to tell you today?”
In the same way, as he dictated this article to me, he was looking at me and
teaching me. So, if you are reading this article, he is now teaching you, too.
The three main lessons I have learned from Harold are to carry the faith,
to breathe hope, and to share love. You will now learn your lessons from
Dr. Mosak, the Adlerian, the teacher.
Faith, Hope, and Love in Psychotherapy
I call this article “Faith, Hope, and Love in Psychotherapy.” I am not
a prophet. I am not a theologian either. I do not propose to do what other
people have done when they have discussed similar topics, attempting to
reconcile Adlerian psychology and psychotherapy with various religious
principles. I am not going to do that. Saint Paul in I Corinthians writes, “And
now abide faith, hope, love, these three; but the greatest of these is love.”
Saint Paul was an observant Jew before his sudden conversion on the road
to Damascus, but he must have known, being an Orthodox Jew, the Hebrew
equivalents: emunah, tikvah, and ahavah. In 1974, I wrote on this topic—
about two sentences’ worth. It appears in Corsini’s Current Psychotherapies
(Mosak & Maniacci, 2010), and I indicated that the necessary but not
sufﬁcient conditions in psychotherapy are faith, hope, and love. But editorial space limitations prevented my expanding on the subject. The following
is my return to the topic.
References to faith often abound with terms like transcends, invisible,
supernatural, and similar terms congenial to religion and philosophy. They
shall not be used here. Operationally, to have faith in somebody or something centers on the ability to count on someone or something. If people
Faith, Hope, and Love in Psychotherapy 77
have faith in God, they are expressing the notion that they can count on
God for whatever they subjectively count on him for. It’s similar when they
have faith in others or character traits such as honesty and loyalty to one’s
country (for example, Steven Decatur’s quote, “Our country . . . but right
or wrong, our country”). And in Adlerian psychology, and whatever else
Adlerians have faith in, they all subscribe to the basic assumption of holism,
teleology, phenomenology, ﬁeld theory, the uniqueness of the individual,
and the unity of the personality. By subscribing to these assumptions, they
are expressing faith.
Therapists of various orientations follow many explanations of why their
therapy works or works better than other therapies. There are literally hundreds of therapies. Some therapists allege that the superiority of their theory
is what gives their therapy the edge. They describe their theories as deep,
intensive, and intrapsychic, whereas others are scorned as superﬁcial, supportive, repressive, regressive, inspirational, and commonsense. Freudian
psychology of the previous century has had almost a monopoly in their
therapeutic activity and teaching in the United States with this claim. One
French analyst, Jacques Lacan, who came up with an exciting theory, once
wrote that sometimes his theory was so complex that even he had trouble
in understanding it. Other therapists attribute success to the personality of
the therapist—for example, the therapist had to maintain anonymity, or the
therapist had to be authentic, or the therapist had to be warm and accepting
and demonstrate unconditional positive regard. And still others felt that the
change agent resided in the therapist–patient relationship, so they began to
study what was going on between patient and therapist. The Freudians were
ﬁrst at this, and they discussed the transference. Of course, they did not
know about transference any more than I know about social interest. Still
others found that the technique facilitates change. Whatever else may be
said of the advocates of these theories and practices, all of them have had
successes and failures. It would seem that there are some underlying common factors that make therapy work—when it indeed works. These ingredients are faith, love, and hope.
One factor is faith. Some have faith in the type of therapy (“My doctor
told me CBT is the best”). Others express faith in the therapist (“You treated
my neighbor who says you perform miracles”). There could be faith in the
therapist’s education and experience (“I see you went to Harvard—great
school”) or faith in the therapist’s fame and reputation (“I came to you after
reading your chapter in a book”). Sometimes, it is faith in the therapist’s
astrological sign, and here I have trouble. I’ve lost several patients because
I am a Scorpio. There could also be faith in the therapy methods (“Everyone
is talking about eye-movement desensitization and reprocessing”) or faith in
some other attributes. Faith does not have to have any evidence. It may or
may not move mountains, but it does move therapy.
78 Harold H. Mosak and Marina Bluvshtein
So therapy moves when a therapist is having faith in what she or he
is selling and when the patient has faith enough to buy it. A therapist may
be “selling” relationships or techniques or theory, but no matter what the
therapist is selling, it is important for therapy to be a faith-enhancing experience. We hang out a zillion diplomas to impress the patient. We may put
our names on TV. We set a practice in a prestigious location, like “Couch
Canyon.” Do you know where Couch Canyon is? It is in Los Angeles, and
this is where many Freudians are practicing. And this is impressive for the
patients who want to be impressed by this.
Now, I have a couch which I sometimes use for me. But I do not have
a couch for therapy purposes. I do not invite the patient to lie down on a
couch, and so on. I let them know; if they ask, I tell them the couch is a
piece of furniture; that’s all it is. And do you know where I learned that from?
Freud! Freud explained why he used a couch and sat behind the patient. He
said it had no meaning therapeutically; he just did not like people staring at
him eight hours a day (Kunst, 2014). So, every therapist has things that are
faith enhancing. If I do this, it’s going to have the person up and around very
quickly. And if I do not use these things, then the patient is not going to be
cured. There is a big debate among analysts as to whether you use a couch
or do not use a couch. In my day, everybody used a couch. These days,
not every therapist uses a couch. So, we hang our diplomas on our wall,
establish practices in prestigious locations. We keep shelves full of professional books, speak in words the patient does not understand to demonstrate
our intellect, or speak in commonsense terms to inspire the patient to have
faith in us. One of my patients thought I was a good therapist but couldn’t
place complete faith in me because she had always thought that a therapist
“should wear a beard, have hard-rimmed glasses, and speak with a German
accent.” Well, if you have those qualities, how can you be a bad therapist?
But all these things constitute faith in externals.
Existing concurrently with this faith in externals, at least in Adlerian
therapy, patients have a lifelong faith in their lifestyles. It is something they
honestly believe in. Lifestyles make sense of their world, their subjective
ﬁelds. The lifestyle explains who they are and where they stand in the world.
It explains what people are like and their own interpersonal expectations.
Objectively, these things may not be true and may not be working, but patients believe they are true. And they worked until they did not work this
time. Indeed, the convictions within the lifestyle are apperceptively biased
and consequently contain basic mistakes. In spite of these errors, the patients view lifestyle as if it were all true, every word of it; and because of
this intense faith in their lifestyles, the patients have a hard time dropping
or modifying the things that they have had faith in all their lives. We have
faith in it; we can count on our lifestyle. It helps us to understand experience, to predict experience, and to control experience. The lifestyle thus
Faith, Hope, and Love in Psychotherapy 79
provides a certain degree of security because if a patient acts on the basis of
a lifestyle, everything will be OK, and therefore the patient will make every
effort to hang on to it. Modifying or eliminating convictions of a lifestyle is
generally not an easy task unless a patient has an immediate conversion
experience, like, for example, Saint Paul had. No wonder patients display
resistance when therapeutic interventions aim to have them do so. Such attempts threaten their security.
Every psychotherapy is an ideological conversion experience. You try to
change the person’s way of looking at and experiencing life. Even after trying
a new way, a client relapses because he has a feeling that his old faith was at
least as good as the new faith is, and he is still deciding whether he should
hang out with one or hang out with the other faith experience. This is not
an easy decision for patients to make unless there is a sudden conversion
experience, as I talked about. Immediate conversion experiences happen
in and out of therapy. The shortest therapy I ever did was about ten minutes
long. The woman came to me and immediately started sobbing. She told me
that she was a Depression-era child and that she did not have many things
as a child. And then, without my asking her for an early recollection, she
gave me one. In the recollection (of the Depression era, something like the
1920s or 1930s), the girls were hanging out and somebody got a bright idea:
“Let’s go home and ask our mothers for two cents so we can go to a candy
store and get candy.” So, all the girls go home and they ask their mothers for
two cents, and my patient is greeted with “No! It’s frivolous! Your teeth will
rot.” And her most vivid part of the memory was her standing on the corner,
watching all the other girls, all the other girls going into that candy store to
get candy. And now she really begins screaming, “Two goddamn cents! Two
goddamn cents!” And I reached into my pocket and put two pennies in her
hand, and closed her ﬁst around it, and I said, “Now, as you have gone up
with the rest of us, what are you going to do with the rest of your life?” And
she got out of her chair, came over to me, stopped sobbing, and said, “You
know, I do not think I am going to need you!” Most therapies do not go that
easily, of course.
Strategically, we must help the patient to at least consider that what
the therapist is selling is superior to what the patient currently has faith in
and will buy them more security in life. I sometimes tell patients who hang
on tightly to their convictions, who are not going to listen to anything, that
therapy, unlike other games, is not a zero-sum game. In a zero-sum game,
and this is what I tell a patient, if you win, I lose. If I win, you lose. The
sum is zero. I tell them, “In therapy, if I win, you win, but if you win, you
lose. So why don’t you throw the game to me?” And some decide to at least
consider the things that I am trying to sell. In selling them anything, you
must sell them on one notion: that what they are getting is better than what
they will have if they do not change. But even if a patient buys an entirely
80 Harold H. Mosak and Marina Bluvshtein
new lifestyle from us, this will be another apperceptive bias. It will still be a
subjective way of looking at the world. So why change at all? Adler had an
answer. He said that in therapy, we do not try to change a patient from the
inside out. The goal of therapy is not to reconstruct the entire lifestyle but
instead to replace large errors with smaller ones (Adler, 1988).
Understood among people is that therapy may be seen as an ideological
conversion experience, with the therapist serving as, to use Freud’s term, a
“secular priest” (Gelfand, 2000; Wehner, 2012). Its aims are to help patients
switch from their faith, what they count on, to another—to count on life and
themselves, to pursue self-actualization, as Rogers puts it, or self-realization,
as Maslow puts it, or social interest, as Adlerians say. Next, there is faith in
self, which the patient may not have to a very large degree when he enters
therapy. We constructed a therapy along those lines because not having faith
in self is the inferiority feeling.
To help the patient have faith in self, there are a good number of techniques. Let’s assume that your head, at least symbolically, is divided into two
parts. Now in one part, you have memories and thoughts about all the good
things that you are, all the positive things, all your successes in life. With
that part, you manage to solve all problems that come up. The other part of
your head contains memories of all your failures, things that you did wrong.
With that other part, you do not solve problems that come up. Now, if you
set up the situation that way, and you are smart, which side of your head are
you going to work with? Let’s think of a neurological example. This part of
your brain knows that 2 plus 2 equals 4. The other part of your brain feels
that 2 plus 2 is who knows what. Maybe 5. Now I present you with a problem in your arithmetic class: 2 plus 2. The idea is to use your head in a way
that works. In fact, if you do not use your head in a way that works, with as
simple a problem as that, you are going to wind up very unhappy. And that
will be your choice—to work with the wrong side of your brain. Well, even
with complex problems, there’s no point in going for the wrong answers, but
some people do. It is your choice, and it has nothing to with evidence.
Next is acting as if. Do you know what acting as if is? There is a nice
story that goes along with acting as if. Dreikurs told that story, and the story
was b …
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