1. RQ1: Which of the eight groupness factors are present within our group at this point in the season?Distinctiveness from other similar groups, Members explicitly share and genuinely buy into 1+ common goals, Belief in a shared common fate among group members, Regular and meaningful interactions between members, Members exert mutual influence on each other, Members genuinely believe they are a group2. RQ2: Of the groupness factors that are present, how effectively has our group made use of each of those factors?
Table 4. Jenny’s ABC changes for our use of “Distinct and meaningful roles”. • See my role description, below in Table 3 (Students, I don’t provide the table in this example, FYI) Page 4 of 5 • Increased my role clarity/decreased my role ambiguity and increased my role performance. I knew exactly what I was supposed to do to help my team play better, and I actually did play better – more catches, better decision making, way less freezing on the court. (Behavior and Cognition changes) • Knowing the specific voluntary behaviors I have do every game helps keep my arousal from going past (or too far past) my arousal threshold, which has greatly reduced the state anxiety symptoms I feel while playing dodgeball (my cognitive symptoms are negative thoughts and a general feeling that things are going to go badly; my somatic state anxiety symptoms are increased muscle tension and reduced coordination, especially for catching). This has also helped me play a lot better and more consistently! For example, since we cleaned up our roles, I have caught at least 4 dodgeballs every game day – I used to barely ever catch any! (Behavior and Cognition changes) • Having high role clarity also increased my MI and enjoyment. Since we came up with evaluation and feedback components for my role, I had a way to get pretty immediate feedback on how I was doing in terms of helping my team play better. As a person that is highly motivated to play dodgeball by external regulation (I like when my teammates tell me I am doing a good job and tell me specifically what I am doing well), and by intrinsic regulation (I actually like the challenge of trying to get better at things, I find that really fun and stimulating – even if I don’t get much better or take a long time to get better), getting feedback between games really increased my MI; I have found myself trying much harder, and trying that hard consistently during games, and I am also enjoying the games much more! (Affect and Behavior changes)
Unformatted Attachment Preview
Group Dynamics I:
WHAT IS A GROUP, AND WHY YOU SHOULD CARE
ABOUT UNDERSTANDING THEM?
What is a group?
Discuss with 2 or 3 others around you.
◦ Share your thoughts with each other.
Group = At minimum, 2+ people working together to
pursuing the same goal at the same time.
◦ Groups that only satisfy this minimum requirement are called
“aggregates”; this is the lowest form of group (e.g., ?). Note, the
“goal(s)” can change as your group evolves.
◦ The most effective groups meet this minimum requirement and are
also very highly developed relative to 8 known “groupness” factors.
These types of groups are called “true teams” (e.g., ?).
◦ Most groups fall somewhere in between these two ends of the
*Where a group lies on this continuum is
dependent on the presence and quality of 8
groupness factors within a given group.
All new groups start with exceptionally low
groupness and most mature groups fall in the
moderate range of groupness
Who cares? You should, groups
Groups are a pervasive characteristic of society.
In addition, KIN professionals (all movement teachers) will
work in groups their entire careers!
◦ The movement teacher is the formal leader of the group and thus,
your effectiveness as a movement teacher is evaluated on your
ability to get your group to learn and/or perform to, at least,
…is putting in the time and effort required to
facilitate group development really worth it for
movement teachers? What does the movement
teacher get out of doing so?
Influence of higher groupness on
ABCs of learning and performance
Need to belong and desire for interpersonal attachments are
fundamental human motivations (e.g., Baumeister & Leary, 1995), if
one is more satisfied in a group experience, when learning or
performing they will experience:
• More frequent positive Affect (feelings),
• Increased effort in, commitment to, & selection of Behaviors
that will help goal pursuit, and,
• More positive Cognitions (thoughts) about one’s skills &
abilities doing that activity.
If one is less/not satisfied in a group experience → negative and
less facilitative ABCs = less/slower learning and lower
Movement teachers will always work in, and
Movement teachers are evaluated based on
their ability to get others to learn and
↑Percep on of groupness = faster learning
and better performance
High value for you, in understanding how
to influence groups in a positive manner
is a matter of
HOW DO WE MEASURE GROUPNESS?
The 8 groupness factors (for a summary, see
Carron et al., 2005)
1. Distinctiveness from other similar groups,
2. Members explicitly share and genuinely buy into 1+
3. Belief in a shared common fate among group members,
4. Use of structured patterns of communication and
established modes for communication,
5. Regular and meaningful interactions between members,
The 8 groupness factors (for a summary,
see Carron et al., 2005)
6. Each member has a distinctive role that is critical to
group performance and success,
7. Members exert mutual influence on each other, and,
8. Members genuinely believe they are a group.
To ↑ groupness, apply groupness factors such that they
better align with group dynamics research and theoretical
◦ This is what we will focus on during your lab experience!
Determining degree of groupness: Evaluate
presence and effectiveness of each factor
(for a summary, see Carron et al., 2005)
For each factor, two levels of evaluation:
Level 1: Is this factor present,
Yes or No.
Level 2: If “Yes”, at what level
of effectiveness (i.e., how
much is it positively affecting
group learning and
How do you determine how “positive” the effect on group
learning and performance (Level 2 evaluation step)?
◦ Examine whether ABCs of one or more members are being positively
influenced by the application of a given factor.
◦ If ABCs are being positively affected, learning and performance will
be positively affected, as well. There more members affected, the
more “positive” the effect.
The prescribed goal for each student group
in the KIN 308 lab experience is to develop
groupness as much as possible throughout
the semester. This is meant as “practice” for
the real world!
Take home messages
1. All groups are, qualitatively, not the same (aggregates
through true teams).
2. Groups with higher groupness have various groupness
factors functioning to positively influence groupness.
3. Degree of groupness can fluctuate, even day‐by‐day.
Fluctuations are dependent on the combined state of the
various groupness factors.
4. Higher groupness leads to more positive and facilitative
ABCs among group members.
5. Degree of groupness can be evaluated.
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