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Fundamentals of Corporate
Finance, 2/e
ROBERT PARRINO, PH.D.
DAVID S. KIDWELL, PH.D.
THOMAS W. BATES, PH.D.
Chapter 17:
Dividends, Stock Repurchases, and Payout Policy
Learning Objectives
1. EXPLAIN WHAT A DIVIDEND IS, AND
DESCRIBE THE DIFFERENT TYPES OF
DIVIDENDS AND THE DIVIDEND PAYMENT
PROCESS. CALCULATE THE EXPECTED
CHANGE IN A STOCK’S PRICE AROUND AN
EX-DIVIDEND DATE.
2. EXPLAIN WHAT A STOCK REPURCHASE IS
AND HOW COMPANIES REPURCHASE THEIR
STOCK. CALCULATE HOW TAXES AFFECT THE
AFTER-TAX PROCEEDS THAT A
STOCKHOLDER RECEIVES FROM A DIVIDEND
AND FROM A STOCK REPURCHASE.
Learning Objectives
3. DISCUSS THE BENEFITS AND COSTS ASSOCIATED
WITH DIVIDEND PAYMENTS AND COMPARE
THE RELATIVE ADVANTAGES AND
DISADVANTAGES OF DIVIDENDS AND STOCK
REPURCHASES.
4. DEFINE STOCK DIVIDENDS AND STOCK SPLITS
AND EXPLAIN HOW THEY DIFFER FROM OTHER
TYPES OF DIVIDENDS AND FROM STOCK
REPURCHASES.
5. DESCRIBE FACTORS THAT MANAGERS
CONSIDER WHEN SETTING THE DIVIDEND
PAYOUTS FOR THEIR FIRMS.
Dividends
o The term payout policy is generally used to
refer to a firm’s overall policy regarding
distributions of value to stockholders.
o A dividend is something of value that is
distributed to a firm’s stockholders on a prorata basis—that is, in proportion to the
percentage of the firm’s shares that they own.
o A dividend can involve the distribution of
cash, assets, or something else, such as
discounts on the firm’s products that are
available only to stockholders.
Dividends
o When a firm distributes value through a
dividend, it reduces the value of the
stockholders’ claims against the firm.
o Reduces the stockholders’ investment in a
firm by returning some of that investment to
them.
o The value that stockholders receive through a
dividend was already theirs and so a dividend
simply takes this value out of the firm and
returns it to stockholders.
Dividends
o TYPES OF DIVIDENDS
• Regular Cash Dividend
The most common form, it is the cash dividend that is
paid on a regular basis.
Are generally paid on a quarterly basis and are a
common means by which firms return some of their
profits to stockholders.
The size of a firm’s regular cash dividend is typically
set at a level that management expects the company
to be able to maintain in the long run, barring some
major change in the fortunes of the company.
Dividends
o TYPES OF DIVIDENDS
• Extra dividends
Management can afford to err on the side of setting
the regular cash dividend too low because it always
has the option of paying an extra dividend if earnings
are higher than expected.
Extra dividends are often paid at the same time as
regular cash dividends and are used by some
companies to ensure that a minimum portion of
earnings is distributed to stockholders each year.
Dividends
o TYPES OF DIVIDENDS
• Special Dividend
A special dividend, like an extra dividend, is a one-time
payment to stockholders.
Special dividends tend to be considerably larger than
extra dividends and to occur less frequently.
They are used to distribute unusually large amounts of
cash.
Dividends
o TYPES OF DIVIDENDS
• Liquidating Dividend
Is a dividend that is paid to stockholders when a firm is
liquidated.
Distributions of value to stockholders can also take the
form of discounts on the company’s products, free
samples, and the like.
These noncash distributions are not thought of as
dividends, in part because the value received by
stockholders is not in the form of cash and in part because
the value received by individual stockholders does not
often reflect their proportional ownership in the firm.
Dividends
o THE DIVIDEND PAYMENT PROCESS
• The Board Vote
The process begins with a vote by a company’s board
of directors to pay a dividend.
As stockholder representatives, the board must
approve any distribution of value to stockholders.
• The Public Announcement
The date on which this announcement is made is
known as the declaration date, or announcement
date, of the dividend.
Dividends
o THE DIVIDEND PAYMENT PROCESS
• The Public Announcement
The announcement typically includes the amount of
value that stockholders will receive for each share of
stock that they own, as well as the other dates
associated with the dividend payment process.
The price of a firm’s stock often changes when a
dividend is announced because the public
announcement sends a signal to the market about
what management thinks the future performance of
the firm will be.
Dividends
o THE DIVIDEND PAYMENT PROCESS
• The Public Announcement
If the signal differs from what investors expected, they
will adjust the prices at which they are willing to buy
or sell the company’s stock accordingly.
This means that a dividend decision sends information
to investors and that information is incorporated into
stock prices at the time of the public announcement.
Dividends
o THE DIVIDEND PAYMENT PROCESS
• The Ex-Dividend Date
The ex-dividend date is the first date on which the
stock will trade without rights to the dividend.
An investor who buys shares before the ex-dividend
date will receive the dividend, while an investor who
buys the stock on or after the ex-dividend date will
not.
Before the ex-dividend date, a stock is said to be
trading cum dividend, or with dividend.
Dividends
o THE DIVIDEND PAYMENT PROCESS
• The Ex-Dividend Date
On or after the ex-dividend date, the stock is said to
trade ex-dividend.
The price of the firm’s shares changes on the exdividend date even if there is no new information
about the firm.
This drop simply reflects the difference in the value of
the cash flows that the stockholders are entitled to
receive before and after the ex-dividend date.
Dividends
o THE DIVIDEND PAYMENT PROCESS
• The Record Date
The record date typically follows the ex-dividend date
by two business days.
The record date is the date on which an investor must
be a stockholder of record (that is, officially listed as a
stockholder) in order to receive the dividend.
The reason that the ex-dividend day precedes the
record date is that it takes time to update the
stockholder list when someone purchases shares.
Dividends
o THE DIVIDEND PAYMENT PROCESS
• The Payable Date
The final date in the dividend payment process is the
payable date, when the stockholders of record
actually receive the dividend.
Exhibit 17.1: The Dividend Payment Process
Time Line for a Public Company
Dividends
o THE DIVIDEND PAYMENT PROCESS AT PRIVATE
COMPANIES
• It is not as well defined for private companies as it is for
public companies because
shares are bought and sold less frequently,
fewer stockholders and,
no stock exchange is involved in the dividend payment process.
• It is easy to inform all stockholders of the decision to
pay a dividend, and it is easy to actually pay it.
• There is no public announcement, and there is no need
for an ex-dividend date.
• The record date and payable date can be any day on or
after the day that the board approves the dividend.
Exhibit 17.2: Key Dates for Wal-Mart’s Q1
Dividend 2005
Stock Repurchases
o With a stock repurchase, a company buys
some of its shares from stockholders.
o HOW STOCK REPURCHASES DIFFER FROM
DIVIDENDS
• First, they do not represent a pro-rata
distribution of value to the stockholders,
because not all stockholders participate.
Individual stockholders decide whether they want to
participate in a share repurchase.
Stock Repurchases
o HOW STOCK REPURCHASES DIFFER FROM
DIVIDENDS
• Second, when a company repurchases its own
shares, it removes them from circulation.
This reduces the number of shares of stock that are
held by investors. Removing a large number of shares
from circulation can change the ownership of the firm.
Stock Repurchases
o HOW STOCK REPURCHASES DIFFER FROM
DIVIDENDS
• Third, stock repurchases are taxed differently
than dividends.
The total value of dividends is normally taxed.
Conversely, when a stockholder sells shares back to
the company, the stockholder is taxed only on the
profit from the sale.
Stock Repurchases
o HOW STOCK REPURCHASES DIFFER FROM
DIVIDENDS
• Fourth, the way in which we account for
dividends and stock repurchases on a
company’s balance sheet is also different.
When the company pays a cash dividend, the cash
account on the assets side of the balance sheet and
the retained earnings account on the liabilities and
stockholders’ equity side of the balance sheet are
reduced.
Stock Repurchases
o HOW STOCK REPURCHASES DIFFER FROM
DIVIDENDS
In contrast, when a company uses cash to repurchase
stock, the cash account on the assets side of the
balance sheet is reduced, while the treasury stock
account on the liabilities and stockholders’ equity side
of the balance sheet is increased (becomes more
negative).
Stock Repurchases
o HOW STOCK IS REPURCHASED: 3 WAYS
• Open-market Repurchase
First, they can simply purchase shares in the market,
much as you would. These kinds of purchases are
known as open-market repurchases which are a very
convenient way of repurchasing shares on an ongoing
basis.
Open-market repurchases can be cumbersome
because the government limits the number of shares
that a company can repurchase on a given day.
Stock Repurchases
o HOW STOCK IS REPURCHASED: 3 WAYS
• Open-market Repurchase
These limits, which are intended to restrict the ability
of firms to influence their stock price through trading
activity, mean that it could take months for a company
to distribute a large amount of cash using openmarket repurchases.
Stock Repurchases
o HOW STOCK IS REPURCHASED: 3 WAYS
• Tender Offer
When the management of a company wants to
distribute a large amount of cash at one time and does
not want to use a special dividend, it can repurchase
shares using a tender offer, which is an open offer by a
company to purchase shares.
There are two types of tender offers: fixed price and
Dutch auction.
Stock Repurchases
o HOW STOCK IS REPURCHASED: 3 WAYS
• Tender Offer
With a fixed-price tender offer, management
announces the price that will be paid for the shares
and the maximum number of shares that will be
repurchased.
Interested stockholders then tender their shares by
letting management know how many shares they are
willing to sell.
Stock Repurchases
o HOW STOCK IS REPURCHASED: 3 WAYS
• Tender Offer
With a Dutch auction tender offer, the firm announces
the number of shares that it would like to repurchase
and asks the stockholders how many shares they
would sell at a series of prices, ranging from just above
the price at which the shares are currently trading to
some higher number.
Stockholders then tell the company how many of their
shares they would sell at the various offered prices.
Stock Repurchases
o HOW STOCK IS REPURCHASED: 3 WAYS
• Targeted Stock Repurchase
Is through direct negotiation with a specific
stockholder. These targeted stock repurchases are
typically used to buy blocks of shares from large
stockholders.
Can benefit stockholders because managers may be
able to negotiate a per-share price that is below the
current market price since the stockholder who owns
a large block of shares might have to offer the shares
for a below-market price in order to sell them all in the
open market.
Exhibit 17.3: Descriptive Statistics
Dividends and Firm Value
o Dividend policy can affect the value of a firm.
o The general conditions under which capital
structure policy does not affect firm value are:
• There are no taxes.
• There are no information or transaction costs.
• The real investment policy of the firm is fixed.
Dividends and Firm Value
o Dividend policy does not matter under the above
conditions because a stockholder can
“manufacture” any dividends he or she wants at
no cost when these conditions hold.
o A stockholder could also undo a company’s
dividend policy by simply reinvesting the
dividends that the company pays in new shares.
o If investors could replicate a company’s dividend
policy on their own at no cost, they would not
care whether or not the company paid a
dividend.
Dividends and Firm Value
o BENEFITS OF DIVIDENDS
• It attracts investors who prefer to invest in
stocks that pay dividends.
• While it is true that the investor could simply
sell some stock each month to cover expenses,
in the real world it may be less costly—and it is
certainly less trouble—to simply receive regular
cash dividend payments instead.
Dividends and Firm Value
o BENEFITS OF DIVIDENDS
• Recall that under the M&M conditions, there
are no transaction costs.
• In the real world, though, the retiree or
institutional investor will have to pay brokerage
commissions each time he or she sells stock.
• The dividend check, in contrast, simply arrives
each quarter.
Dividends and Firm Value
o BENEFITS OF DIVIDENDS
• Of course, the retiree will have to consider the
impact of taxes on the value of dividends versus
the value of proceeds from the sale of stock; but
it is quite possible that receiving dividends
might, on balance, be more appealing.
• Other investors have no current need for income
from their investment portfolios and prefer not
to receive dividends.
Dividends and Firm Value
o BENEFITS OF DIVIDENDS
• Some argue that a large regular dividend
indicates that a company is financially strong
because the “signal” of strength can result in a
higher stock price.
• The problem with this line of reasoning is that it
ignores the possibility that a company might
have more than enough money for all its future
investment opportunities because it does not
have many future investment opportunities.
Dividends and Firm Value
o BENEFITS OF DIVIDENDS
• If the board of directors of a company votes to
pay the stockholders dividends that amount to
more than the excess cash that the company is
producing from its operations, then the money
to pay the dividends will have to come from
selling equity periodically in the public markets.
• The need to raise equity in the capital markets
will help align the incentives of managers with
those of stockholders because it increases the
cost to mangers of operating the business
inefficiently.
Dividends and Firm Value
o COSTS OF DIVIDENDS
• There are costs to the firm associated with
dividends.
• Taxes are among the most important costs.
• Owners of stocks that pay dividends often have
to pay brokerage fees if they want to reinvest the
proceeds.
Dividends and Firm Value
o COSTS OF DIVIDENDS
• To eliminate this cost, some companies offer
dividend reinvestment programs (DRIPs).
Through a DRIP, a company sells new shares,
commission free, to dividend recipients who
elect to automatically reinvest their dividends in
the company’s stock.
• To the extent that a company uses a lot of debt
financing, paying dividends can increase the
cost of debt.
Dividends and Firm Value
o STOCK PRICE REACTIONS TO DIVIDEND
ANNOUNCEMENTS
• Using the cash flow identity of sources and uses
of cash, we can see that an expected increase in
the cash flow from operations is a good signal,
and investors will interpret it as suggesting that
cash flows to stockholders will increase in the
future.
Dividends and Firm Value
o STOCK PRICE REACTIONS TO DIVIDEND
ANNOUNCEMENTS
• The cash flow identity suggests that managers
change dividend polices when something
fundamental has changed in the business and it
is this fundamental change that causes the stock
price to change.
Dividends and Firm Value
o We can think about the market’s reaction to a
dividend announcement in the context of the
cash flow identity
Dividends and Firm Value
o DIVIDENDS VERSUS STOCK PURCHASES
• Stock repurchases are an alternative to dividends as
a way of distributing and they have some distinct
advantages over dividends.
• They give stockholders the ability to choose when
they receive the distribution, which affects the
timing of the taxes they must pay as well as the cost
of reinvesting funds that are not immediately
needed.
• Stockholders who sell shares back to a company pay
taxes only on the gains they realize, and historically
these capital gains have been taxed at a lower rate
than dividends.
Dividends and Firm Value
o DIVIDENDS VERSUS STOCK PURCHASES
• From management’s perspective, stock
repurchases provide greater flexibility in
distributing value.
• Even when a company publicly announces an
ongoing open-market stock repurchase
program, as opposed to a regular cash dividend,
investors know that management can always
quietly cut back or end the repurchases at any
time.
Dividends and Firm Value
o DIVIDENDS VERSUS STOCK PURCHASES
• This means that if future cash flows are not certain,
managers are likely to prefer to distribute extra cash
today by repurchasing shares through open-market
purchases because this enables them to preserve
some flexibility.
• Since most ongoing stock repurchase programs are
not as visible as dividend programs, they cannot be
used as effectively to send a positive signal about
the company’s prospects to investors.
Dividends and Firm Value
o DIVIDENDS VERSUS STOCK PURCHASES
• A more subtle issue concerns the fact that
managers can choose when to repurchase shares
in a stock repurchase program.
• Just like other investors, managers prefer
purchasing shares when they believe that the
shares are undervalued in the market.
Dividends and Firm Value
o DIVIDENDS VERSUS STOCK PURCHASES
• The problem is that since managers have better
information about the prospects of the company
than do other investors, they can take advantage
of this information to the detriment of other
investors.
• Management is supposed to act in the best
interest of all its stockholders.
Exhibit 17.4: Dividend Payments and Stock
Repurchases
Stock Dividends and Stock Splits
o STOCK DIVIDENDS
• One type of “dividend” that does not involve the
distribution of value is known as a stock
dividend.
• When a company pays a stock dividend, it
distributes new shares of stock on a pro-rata
basis to existing stockholders.
Stock Dividends and Stock Splits
o STOCK DIVIDENDS
• The only thing that happens when the stock
dividend is paid is that the number of shares
each stockholder owns increases and their value
goes down proportionately.
• The stockholder is left with exactly the same
value as before.
Stock Dividends and Stock Splits
o STOCK SPLITS
• A stock split is quite similar to a stock dividend,
but it involves the distribution of a larger
multiple of the outstanding shares.
• We can often think of a stock split as an actual
division of each share into more than one share.
Stock Dividends and Stock Splits
o STOCK SPLITS
• Besides their size, a key distinction between
stock dividends and stock splits is that stock
dividends are typically regularly scheduled
events, like regular cash dividends, while stock
splits tend to occur infrequently during the life
of a company.
Stock Dividends and Stock Splits
o REASONS FOR STOCK DIVIDENDS AND SPLITS
• The most-often cited reason for stock dividends
or splits is known as the trading range argument
which proposes that successful companies use
stock dividends or stock splits to make their
shares more attractive to investors.
• It has historically been more expensive for
investors to purchase odd lots of less than 100
shares than round lots of 100 shares.
Stock Dividends and Stock Splits
o REASONS FOR STOCK DIVIDENDS AND SPLITS
• Odd lots are less liquid than round lots because
more investors want to buy round and it is relatively
expensive for companies to service odd-lot owners.
• Researchers have however found little support for
this explanation.
• The transaction costs argument no longer carries
much weight, as there is now little difference in the
costs of purchasing round lots and odd lots.
Stock Dividends and Stock Splits
o REASONS FOR STOCK DIVIDENDS AND SPLITS
• One real benefit of stock splits is that they can
send a positive signal t …
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