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Discussion
The discussion this week is based around an ethics audit and is probably the easiest discussion assignment in the course. 250-word (not including in-text citation and references as word count) count minimum with two scholarly sources in APA format. For the two scholarly sources, one from the textbook that’s posted below and the other one from an outside source. Let’s be sure to write it in own work 100% and give credit appropriately when using someone’s else work.
Unit Five asks learners to identify and discuss the specific ethical issue/dilemma that they believe will have an impact in the future.  Choose from the “Ethical Issues and Dilemmas in Business,” that we looked at in Unit 2 (pp. 65-85).  Additional guidance is on the discussion board.
Reflect on the major ethical issues and dilemmas we have covered in this course. Using the categories in “Ethical Issues and Dilemmas in Business,” (Unit Two, pp. 65-85) identify the area of ethics you believe will have the greatest impact in the future.
1) Briefly describe/define that issue. Using evidence from the text or from outside sources, discuss

why the      issue is important,
the impact      you expect it to have on the competitive landscape, and
the impact      the issue will have on your own attitudes and behaviors.

The initial post should be a minimum of 250 words and should be supported with evidence from at least two sources including the book. As always, everyone should update the subject line of the initial post so that it reflects the topic of the post.
Complete
1,300 word count and there is a total of 4 questions (not including in-text citation and references as the word count), a minimum of three scholarly sources are required in APA format. For the three scholarly sources, one from the textbook that’s posted below and the other two from an outside source. Let’s be sure to write it in own work 100% and give appropriately when using someone’s else work.
The Complete assignments are all based on the assigned material, focusing on globalization, the economic foundations of business ethics, multinational corporations, and several global ethics issues.
Q1, Q2, and Q3 will all probably need the use of outside sources.
An article for Q1 is suggested in the Complete section. That article is posted in the Unit 5 Course Materials. 
For Q2, note that the library has made some changes to its website. Use Gale Group Datebase Then scroll down the page and click on the “Criminal Justice” tab.  Select “Opposing Viewpoints in Context,” and search for “cybersecurity” or “cybersecurity threats” or “cybersecurity risks.”  Then select “News” and sort the results by date. 
Q3 is about health care.  Current news should be a good source of material for that topic. Try to avoid getting caught up in the politics of health care reform and focus on the ethical issues.
Q4 can be answered fully using information from the Read and Attend sections of the course.
1 Economic Systems
 
Review the material on economic systems in Chapter Ten.  Look at Figure 10.2 and answer the following:
 
1)    What are the differences between capitalism and socialism?
2)    What are the differences between rational economics and behavioral economics?
3)    Explain the US shift from the 1950s-90s rational economics to the 2010 behavioral economics?
 
For additional information on this question, see the article, The End of Rational Economics, from Harvard Business Review (https://hbr.org/2009/07/the-end-of-rational-economics). 
 2Economic Systems
 
Internet security is often in the news. The Carnegie Council identifies it as a risk that “require[s] organizations to make ‘fundamental ethical choices’ when doing business globally” (Ferrell, Fraedrich & Ferrell, 2013, p. 289). Review the material on internet security in Chapter Ten and answer the following:
 
1)    Research a recent incident related to internet security and privacy that has a global or international component. Describe the incident, identify the ethical issues involved, and propose a solution (this doesn’t have to be technical solution). Try to avoid politics unless there is also a clear link to business ethics.
 
Hint: Go Gale Group Datebase. Select “opposing viewpoints in context,” and search for “cybersecurity.” Select “news” and sort the results by date. 
3 Health Care
 
Read the Chapter Ten debate issue on page 296.  Clearly state whether you think
 
1)    Health care is a fundamental right. It protects life, and should be ensured by government, or
2)    Health care is a privilege and should not be provided by government because of the high costs.  
 
Explain your answer.
4 Resolving Ethical Business Challenges – CornCo
 
Read the CornCo scenario on pp. 304-305. Pay particular attention to the global issues and the fact that law is not necessarily a static concept in business because it varies across nations. Answer the following:
 
1)    What should George do? Identify the relevant issues that affect your decision, along with an ethical interpretation of those issues.
Extra Credit
1) Watch one of the following documentaries. Both look at the global components of a large US corporation and some of the ethics issues they have experienced:
a) Watch the documentary “Mark Thomas on Coca Cola.”  It is about an hour long and details some of the broader historical context and global events surrounding the company. Little has changed since the video was produced.  Here’s the link:
https://freedocumentaries.org/documentary/channel-4-dispatches-mark-thomas-on-coca-cola
OR
b) If you didn’t complete the Unit 1 extra credit, watch the documentary “Is Walmart Good for America?”  The documentary is about an hour long and was produced by Frontline in 2004. Like the Coca-Cola story, little has changed since the documentary was produced.  Here’s a link to the video:
http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/pages/frontline/shows/walmart/view/
2) Write a one page response (300-400 words) indicating how the video helps (or doesn’t help) create a better understanding of economics, globalization, and global ethics issues.  All of those topics are part of the Unit 5 Complete assignments. Follow APA requirements for a cover page and reference page.
ol3245_uni5.pdf

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CHAPTER 10
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© Paul Aniszewski, Shutterstock
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GLOBALIZATION OF ETHICAL
DECISION-MAKING
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
CHAPTER OBJECTIVES
CHAPTER OUTLINE
t To discuss global values, goals, and
Global Culture, Values, and Practices
business practices within ethics
Economic Foundations of Business Ethics
Economic Systems
t To understand the role of capitalism and
economics as factors in business ethics
t To assess the role of multinational
corporations in business ethics
t To assess the role of the International
Monetary Fund in business ethics
t To assess the role of the United Nations
Global Compact in business ethics
t To assess the role of the World Trade
Organization in business ethics
t To explore and discuss common global
business practices
t To gain awareness of global ethical issues
AN ETHICAL DILEMMA*
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At the Dun and Ready (D&R) Company, Sid was
responsible for monitoring the Japanese stock
market to determine patterns and identify stocks
that could become active. One of 10 company
representatives in Japan, Sid, who was of Japanese
descent and fluent in the language, had been
assigned to Tokyo. Being relatively new to the firm,
he was told to gather information for his boss,
Glenna. Glenna had been with D&R for 10 years,
but because of the cultural barriers, she was not
Multinational Corporations
Global Cooperation to Support Responsible
Business
International Monetary Fund (IMF)
United Nations Global Compact
World Trade Organization (WTO)
Global Ethics Issues
Global Ethical Risks
Bribery
Foreign Corrupt Practices Act
U.K. Antibribery Act
Antitrust Activity
Internet Security and Privacy
Human Rights
Health Care
Labor and Right to Work
Compensation
A Living Wage
Executive Compensation
Consumerism
The Importance of Ethical Decision Making
in Global Business
enthusiastic about her Tokyo assignment. Glenna
encouraged Sid to get to know the Japanese
brokers, traders, and other key people in the
business. Thanks to his background, he found that
he blended easily into the culture.
In Japan, ceremony and giving favors is a way of
life. Sid learned that, by observing Japanese customs
and perfecting his Japanese, he became not only an
information resource on the Japanese stock market
and its players for his company but also a resource
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
274
Part 4: Implementing Business Ethics in a Global Economy
for the Japanese who wanted to invest in the U.S.
market. He found that the locals would talk to him
about important investments rather than coming into
the office to see Glenna.
Sid’s duties included taking key customers
to bars, restaurants, and vacation spots for
entertainment. One day a government official in the
group that Sid was entertaining hinted that he and
the others would like to play golf on some famous
U.S. courses. Sid understood what the government
official wanted and relayed the request to Glenna,
who told him that granting a favor of this kind would
normally be against policy, but because such favors
seemed to be the custom in Japan, they could do
some “creative bookkeeping.” “When in Rome,
right, Sid?” was Glenna’s response to the whole
situation. By pulling some strings, Glenna managed
to enable these officials to play at 10 of the most
exclusive U.S. golf courses. Later, several officials
passed the word to people in Japan’s elite financial
circle about Sid’s helpfulness.
Six months later, Glenna was transferred back
to the States. Rumor had it that expenses were too
high and revenue too low. Her replacement, Ron,
didn’t like being sent to Japan either. In his first
week on the job, he told the staff that he would
shorten his tour in Tokyo by slashing expenses
and increasing productivity. Ron was a “by-thebook” person. Unfortunately, company rules
had not caught up with the realities of cultural
differences. After two months with Ron, seven of
the original 10 company representatives had quit
or been fired.
Sid was barely surviving. Then one of his
contacts in the government repaid a favor by
recommending several stocks to buy and sell.
The information paid off, and Sid gained some
breathing room from Ron. Around the same time,
some of Sid’s Japanese clients lost a considerable
amount of money in the U.S. markets and wanted a
“discount”—the term used for the practice in some
large Japanese brokerage houses of informally
paying off part of their best clients’ losses. When
Glenna was still in Tokyo, she had dipped into
the company’s assets several times to fund such
discounts. Because everything required Ron’s
approval, Sid and his colleagues believed that this
practice would not be tolerated. However, late one
afternoon Sid and a few others provided the proper
forms, and Ron signed them without realizing what
he had done.
Several months passed, and the three survivors
resorted to lowering their expenses by using their
own funds. This in turn led to Sid “churning”
some of his accounts; that is, he bought and sold
stocks for the express purpose of increasing his
own revenues. Churning was tolerated in Japan,
R with other practices that would be deemed
along
questionable in the United States. Ron was oblivious
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to what Sid was doing because his focus was on
C expenses.
reducing
AThe previous month, a group of important
D&R clients had thrown a party for a few of their
R brokers at one of their local haunts. After the
favorite
customary
toasts and small talk, it was suggested
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to Sid that a Japanese cartel might be interested
, Sid was cautious and nothing else was
in D&R.
mentioned. Several weeks later at another party,
Sid and the two remaining D&R people were told
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that a takeover was imminent. But to make the
takeover
D painless, the cartel needed certain sensitive
information. Sid’s reward for providing it would be a
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high position in the new, reorganized company and a
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“wink/nod”
agreement that he could go anywhere in
the world for his next assignment.
EThat week Ron announced that headquarters
wasNpleased with the productivity of the Tokyo group.
“It’sNonly a matter of time before I get transferred, and
I want out of Tokyo,” he told them. The office knew
thatEif Ron succeeded, his next position would be that
of vice president. Ron also informed the group that
corporate representatives would be coming to Tokyo
the2following week.
4“It seems they’ve heard rumors of a possible
hostile takeover attempt on D&R from someone in
7 and they want us to check it out,” Ron said,
Japan,
with
9a tight smile. “There will be some changes next
week.”
TSid suspected that this meant there would be
even
S fewer people working even harder. It might
also mean, however, that someone knew that Sid
and the other two representatives had been talking
to the wrong people. Or maybe one of the three
had sold out the other two. If Sid was to gather the
information sought by the cartel, he would have to
act quickly.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Chapter 10: Globalization of Ethical Decision-Making
QUESTIONS | EXERCISES
1. What are the ethical issues in this situation?
2. Identify the pressures that have caused the ethical
issues to develop.
275
3. Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of
each decision that Sid could make.
*This case is strictly hypothetical; any resemblance to real persons,
companies, or situations is coincidental.
A
dvances in communication, technology, and transportation have minimized the
world’s borders, creating a new global economy in which more and more counR
tries are industrializing and competing internationally. These transactions across
national boundaries define global business, a practice
that brings together people from
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countries that have different cultures, values, laws, and ethical standards. Therefore, the inC
ternational businessperson must not only understand the values, culture, and ethical standards of his or her own country, but must also beA
sensitive to those of other countries.
In this chapter, we explore the ethical complexities
and challenges facing businesses
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that operate internationally. We try to help you understand how global business ethics has
D The global business environment, if
more complexity than business in a domestic context.
not understood, can destroy the trust companies,need to be successful. To transition from
one well-understood culture or country to the global arena requires additional knowledge.
Our goal in this chapter is to help you avoid, or at least become aware of, the many ethical quagmires that lurk in this domain. To help you
A become more ethically sensitive to the
global environment of business ethics, we start with the basics, discussing global values and
D to help modify their business practices
cultural dimensions that can be used by companies
to different countries. Next, we examine the economic
R foundations of business ethics. In addition, we help you understand that there are global entities that do not necessarily conform
to your country’s view of the world or the way to Ido business. In this chapter we also examine multinational corporations and the ethical problems
they face. We move on to discuss
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the International Monetary Fund, the United Nations Global Compact, and the World Trade
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Organization. We conclude with an analysis of current and future ethical problems facing
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global businesses, including global ethical risks, bribery,
antitrust activity, Internet security
and privacy, human rights, health care, labor and right to work issues, compensation, and
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consumerism. Our goal is to help you understand how international business activities can
create ethical conflicts and help you improve your ethical decision-making ability.
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GLOBAL CULTURE,VALUES,AND PRACTICES
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Country cultural values are subjective, are based on the
9 social environment, and are used to develop norms that are socially and legally enforced. These values can be specific to countries,
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regions, sects, or groups. National culture is a much broader concept than organizational culture.
It includes everything in our surroundings that are S
made by people—both tangible items, such
as artifacts, and intangible entities, such as concepts and values. Language, law, politics, technology, education, social organizations, general values, and ethical standards are all included
within this definition. Each nation contains unique cultures and, consequently, distinctive beliefs about what business activities are acceptable or unethical. Subcultures can also be found
within many nations, ethnic groups, and religious groups. Therefore, when transacting international business, individuals encounter values, beliefs, and ideas that may diverge from their own
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
276
Part 4: Implementing Business Ethics in a Global Economy
because of cultural differences. When someone from another culture mentions “integrity” or
“democracy,” most Americans might feel reassured that these are familiar concepts. However,
these concepts mean different things to different people, depending on their culture. Moreover,
you must keep in mind that organizational culture is different from national culture, though
often organizational cultures are derived from—and influenced by—national cultures.
Most cultures need auditors, directors, or other entities associated with corporate governance to provide independent oversight of the operations of an organization. In the Japanese banking system, the concept of “independent oversight” has been blurred by the fact
that retired Japanese bureaucrats often become auditors and directors. They are trusted simR
ply because of their status. When those providing
oversight also have relationships within
and/or a vested interest in the success of theI company, a truly independent relationship does
not exist and there could be conflicts of interest or corporate governance oversight failure.
Different cultural values and how theyCaffect business have intrigued management experts for years. Many have developed frameworks
for classifying cultural behavior patterns
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that can help businesspeople who work in different countries. One of the most well-known
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frameworks was proposed by Dutch management
professor Geert Hofstede. Hofstede identified four cultural dimensions that can have
D a profound impact on the business environment: individualism/collectivism, power distance, uncertainty avoidance, and masculinity/
femininity.1 We will discuss the first three ,in the following paragraphs.
The individualism/collectivism dimension of culture refers to how self-oriented members of a culture are in their behavior. Individualist cultures place a high value on individual
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achievement and self-interest. The United States is an example of an individualistic culture.
Collectivist cultures value working towardD
collective goals and group harmony. Mexico and
several countries in Asia adhere to more collectivistic principles. Collectivist cultures tend to
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avoid public confrontations and disagreements.2 In Thailand, for instance, negatives such as
I By understanding this cultural dimension, you
“no” tend to be avoided in business settings.
will be more likely to maneuver correctly within
E different cultural business settings.
The power distance dimension refers to the power inequality between superiors and
Nelements of both a higher and a lower power
subordinates. The United States has some
distance culture. Over the years, the U.S. business
environment has adopted forms of manN
agement, such as participative management, that place supervisors and subordinates on a
more equal footing. In some businesses, E
employees address their superiors by their first
names and have the power to make decisions that are normally reserved for management.
Arab countries score higher on the power distance dimension. Cultures with high power
2 for (or fear of) supervisors may be so great
distance tend to be more hierarchal, and respect
that managerial misconduct could become4hard to pinpoint.3
Uncertainty avoidance refers to how members of a society respond to uncertainty or
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ambiguity. Cultures that score high on the uncertainty avoidance dimension, such as Great
Britain, tend to want to avoid risk-taking.9Organizations within these cultures may have
more rules in place to ensure that employees do not deviate from accepted standards.
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Cultures with less uncertainty avoidance, such as Canada, believe that risk-taking and inS outcomes.4 Businesses from either culture
novation are important in achieving successful
will need to be aware of how a particular culture views uncertainty avoidance. For instance,
if a businessperson from the United States is giving a sales presentation to a business in
Uruguay—a culture with higher uncertainty avoidance—the American businessperson
might try to reassure the Uruguayan company by attempting to mitigate the risks involved.
As Hofstede’s dimensions suggest, businesspeople who travel to other countries quickly
perceive that other business cultures have different modes of operation. The perception
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed content does not materially affect the overall learning experience. Cengage Learning reserves the right to remove additional content at any time if subsequent rights restrictions require it.
Chapter 10: Globalization of Ethical Decision-Making
277
exists that American companies are different from those in other countries, and some people perceive U.S. companies as being superior to their foreign counterparts. This implied
perspective of ethical superiority—“us” versus “them”—is also common in other countries.
Figure 10.1 indicates the countries that businesspeople, risk analysts, and the general public have perceived as the most and least corrupt.
In business, the idea that “we” differ from “them” is called the self-reference criterion
(SRC). The SRC is the unconscious reference to one’s own cultural values, experiences, and
knowledge. When confronted with a situation, we react on the basis of knowledge we have
accumulated over a lifetime, which usually is grounded in our culture of origin. Our reactions are based on meanings, values, and symbolsR
that relate in a certain way to our culture
but may not have the same relevance to people ofI other cultures.
Walmart’s foray into Germany is one example of how the SRC can cause problems.
C code of Walmart Stores, Inc., includA German labor court ruled that parts of the ethics
ing a ban on relationships between employees, violate
A German law. The same court also
ruled against a proposed hotline for employees to report on colleagues’ violations of the
R German Walmart stores sued the retail
code of conduct. Labor representatives from the 91
giant over the code after it was introduced withoutDtheir prior approval. Under German law,
employee–management councils must sign off on a wide range of workplace conditions.5
,
These, as well as other cultural differences, led Walmart
to close its German stores. Walmart
FIGURE 10.1 Transparency International’s Corruption Index Rankings by Country.
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The 2010 Corruption Perceptions Index measures the perceived levels of public-sector corruption
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in 178 countries around the world.
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Very Clean
9.0 – 10
8.0 – 8.9
7.0 – 7.9
6.0 – 6.9
5.0 – 5.9
4.0 – 4.9
3.0 – 3.9
2.0 – 2.9
1.0 – 1.9
0 – 0.9
No Data
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Highly Corrupt
Source: Reprinted from Corruption Perceptions Index 2010. Copyright 2010 Transparency International: the global coalition against corruption.
Used with permission. For more information, visit http://www.transparency.org.
Copyright 2011 Cengage Learning. All Rights Reserved. May not be copied, scanned, or duplicated, in whole or in part. Due to electronic rights, some third party content may be suppressed from the eBook and/or eChapter(s).
Editorial review has deemed that any suppressed conten …
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