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ENST 202/CORE 274
Exam 3
Due at the start of class 4/16—No late submissions and no exceptions
Record your answers on the last page.
1. True or False Minerals are solids.
2. True or False. The difference between high grade vs. low grade ores is basically the concentration of the
sought after mineral in the rocks.
3. All of the following would be characteristics of metals except
A. malleable
B. lustrous
C. poor conductor of heat
D. good conductor of electricity
E. shapeable and shiny
4. Magmatic concentration of minerals is related to
A. hot groundwater seeping through the cracks of rocks
B. the cooling and solidification of magma deep in the Earth’s crust
C. the breakdown and transport of rock as sediment
D. mineral concentration by the removal of water
E. all of the above
5. Hydrothermal processes resulting in the concentration of minerals is related to
A. hot groundwater seeping through the cracks of rocks
B. the cooling and solidification of magma deep in the Earth’s crust
C. the breakdown and transport of rock as sediment
D. mineral concentration by the removal of water
E. all of the above
6. Which type of mining involves removing overburden?
A. surface mining
B. subsurface mining
7. What are tailings?
A. the usable mineral extracted from a mine
B. the waste material produced when gangue is separated from ore
C. the pollution that results from smelting ore
D. the waste material separated from the metal
8 . Depletion time is:
A. How long it takes to use up a certain proportion of reserves
B. How long it takes to use up a resource completely
9. True or False New technology does not yet permit us to extract lower grade ores at reasonable prices.
10. ______________ may allow us to create products without depleting nonrenewable resources.
A. Biotechnology
B. Subsurface mining
C. Seawater mining
D. Nanotechnology
11. All of the following are used by geologists to locate or discover mineral deposits except
A. sound waves
B. gravitational fields
C. magnetic fields
D. geologic formations
E. solar cycles
12. Smelting is the process where heat is used to separate metals from
A. lava in rock
B. impurities in ore
C. water in ore
D. air that can form bubbles in the ore
E. the oreo cookie and its creamy center
13. The tool primarily used for the smelting process is known as a
A. blast furnace
B. hydrothermal separator
C. mineral reduction furnace
D. metal evaporator
E. smelting tool
14. Soil horizons refer to
A. distinct zones or layers that can be observed in soils.
B. the cross-sectional views that can be observed in soils.
C. the nutrient variations that can be observed in soils.
D. the different textures that can be observed in soils.
E. the different formation rates of soils from parent materials.
15. True or False. In general, as you move from a deeper layer of soil layer to a layer that is closer to surface
level you are moving from younger material (at the bottom) to older material (at the top).
16. Soil characteristics such as texture, acidity, and nutrient levels are determined by
A. weather B. atmospheric inputs C. fertilization D. parent material E. water
17. As a result of the Dustbowls of the 1930’s, the U.S. government created the Shelterbelt Program which
A. planted millions of trees to decrease wind speed in open areas
B. supplemented dry farms with irrigation systems
C. recommended the planting of drought resistant crops
D. infused farmers with bailout money to compensate their losses
E. removed millions of trees to allow farmers to heat their homes with wood
18. Most soil erosion is caused
A. wind
B. water
C. humans
D. cattle
E. hurricanes
19. True or False. Humanity’s focus on soil occurred primarily after the Industrial Revolution.
20. True or False. Small rocks like pebbles are actually a part of what constitutes soil.
21. An agronomist digs a large hole with a backhoe to examine the cross-sectional view of the soil in an area.
This view is referred to as the soil
A. hemisphere
B. profile
C. horizon
D. striation
E. steppe
21. True or False. Soils from harder parent materials like granite form faster than those from softer materials
like limestone.
22. Fossil fuels and ________ are nonrenewable types of energy.
a. biomass
b. wind
c. none of the choices
d. hydropower
23. ____________ is/are used as the raw material(s) in the production of cleaning fluids, pesticides, plastics,
medicines, and synthetic fibers.
a. Gasoline
b. Petrochemicals
c. Natural gas
d. Coal
24. The thick, gooey liquid consisting of hundreds of different hydrocarbon molecules that is pumped out of the
ground is called
a. all of the choices
b. conventional oil.
c. crude oil.
d. light oil.
25. Refining crude oil
a. increases its net energy yield.
b. separates different components based on boiling point and volatility.
c. all of the choices
d. produces light oil.
26. Oil prices in 2008 were about
a. $10.00 per barrel.
b. $200.00 per barrel.
c. $100.00 per barrel.
d. $50.00 per barrel.
27. Saudi Arabia has the world’s largest crude oil reserves at 25%. The nation with the second-largest crude oil
reserves is
a. Iraq.
b. Canada.
c. Kuwait.
d. Venezuela.
28. In the U.S., the projected trend of automakers is
a. increased production of SUVs to meet consumer demand.
b. a steep decline in sales of cars and trucks that get less than 40 miles per gallon.
c. a shift toward cars that run on diesel fuel.
d. a shift toward cars that carry many people to accommodate carpooling.
29. The United States produces 9% of the world’s oil but consumes
a. 24%.
b. 85%.
c. 1%.
d. 39%.
30. Oil recovery is not 100% efficient. Typically, ________ barrel(s) of oil is/are extracted for every
________ barrels of oil found.
a. 1, 3
b. 1, 2
c. 2, 5
d. 3, 10
31. Bitumen is a material found in
a. oil sand.
b. heavy oil.
c. oil shale.
d. petroleum.
32. The solid combustible mixture of hydrocarbons called kerogen is found in
a. oil sand.
b. shale oil.
c. oil shale.
d. bitumen.
33. Which of the following is true?
a. Conventional gas deposits often from beneath deposits of crude oil.
b. Natural gas is most often solidified for transport using high pressure at a very low temperature.
c. Natural gas is almost pure methane.
d. Of the three fossil fuels, natural gas releases the least carbon dioxide when burned.
34. Which statement regarding natural gas is false?
a. Natural gas is considered a bridge fuel to help make the transition to a more sustainable energy future.
b. Natural gas is less polluting than other fossil fuels.
c. Natural gas is more expensive to extract than petroleum, however it is more versatile.
d. At the current rate of consumption, conventional natural gas should last at least 50 years.
35. Which statement is true?
a. all of the choices
b. Coal is the least polluting fossil fuel.
c. Coal is the most abundant fossil fuel.
d. Coal is the most efficient fossil fuel.
36. Heat is the potential enemy of nuclear reactors. Excess heat is prevented and/or controlled by
a. the cooling tower.
b. a coolant (water).
c. all of the choices
d. control rods.
37. Nuclear power plants
a. can last virtually forever if properly maintained.
b. have a lifespan of about 15-60 years, after which they must be decommissioned.
c. have a lifespan of about 200 years, after which they must be decommissioned.
d. have a lifespan of about 15-60 years, after which they may be renovated for additional use.
38. A significant disadvantage of nuclear energy is that
a. uranium-containing ore will run out within a couple of decades.
b. there have been, and probably will continue to be, many nuclear power plant failures.
c. highly radioactive wastes cannot be completely and permanently disposed of at this time.
d. we lack the expertise to make power plant facilities a safe operating environment.
39. Nuclear power plants produce a significant amount of radioactive wastes that must be appropriately
disposed of/contained. These wastes remain radioactive (and deadly!) for
a. millions to tens of millions of years.
b. decades.
c. thousands to hundreds of thousands of years.
d. hundreds of years.
40. Which of the following is not considered an appropriate option for the decommissioning of a nuclear power
plant?
a. The plant is enclosed in a tomb that must be monitored for leaks for several thousand years.
b. The plant is dismantled, with its components stored in a high-level nuclear waste storage facility.
c. The plant is demolished using standard explosives, then covered with concrete, then clay, and finally
soil.
d. The plant has a physical barrier built around it, with fulltime security for 30-100 years.
41. The process used to join two smaller atomic nuclei, releasing energy in the process, is called
a. the nuclear fuel cycle.
b. nuclear fission.
c. radiation.
d. nuclear fusion.
42. Explain how economic depletion is different than looking only at the remaining reserve of a resource.
43. Why is it so difficult to estimate remaining mineral reserves?
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Soil
Can you dig it?
…see what I did there?
Soil
The “skin” forming a thin layer around the
Earth.
Soil
The “skin” forming a thin layer around the
Earth.
– All agriculture depends on this small fraction…
– Human survival depends upon it.
– Determines the vigor and stability of nations.
• Fall of the Roman Empire?
• Most simply refer to it as “dirt”, but it is really a
complex mixture…
The components of soil:
• Inorganic materials
– clay, pebbles, sand, silt
• Decaying organic material
– dead organisms
• Water
• Air
• Living Organisms
– bacteria, fungi, insects…(perhaps billions/tsp.)
In mature soils we see…
• Soil horizons – distinct zones or layers
– these reveal much about the history and usefulness
of soil.
– The thickness, color, texture, and composition of
each horizon are used to classify the soil.
“Uhh, Tara, what’s mature soil?”
• Parent materials are loose materials
weathered from rocks.
• Exposure to wind, rain, sun, and fluctuating
temperatures combine to push soils through
four stages of development: parent material,
immature soil, mature soil, and old-age soil.
It takes about 500 years for 1 inch of topsoil to form.
So, anyway, in mature soils we see…
• Soil horizons
• And a cross-sectional view of the horizons
in a soil is called the soil profile.
Soil
Profile
Soil Profile
• Soil profile is produced by the action of
vegetation, temperature, rainfall, and soil
organisms, on parent rock over long
periods of time (thousands of yrs)
• The parent material determines many of
the soils characteristics like texture,
nutrient levels, and acidity.
Soil Profile
• Parent materials also determine the speed
at which soils form.
– Granite weathers very slowly, so soil from this
takes a long time to develop (plus it’s acidic).
– In places like central Canada, 1 inch of topsoil
from granite takes 10,000 yrs to develop, vs.
limestone soils that can develop much faster.
How many types of soil are there?
• Many–Thousands in the U.S. alone.
• To help categorize them, the U.S. Soil
Conservation Service (1975) published a
classification system that groups soils into ten
major orders based on:
a) parent material
b) horizon pattern
c) texture
d) chemical content
An example of this system would be our soil called…
Alfisols
• Named after the chemical symbols for aluminum (Al)
and iron (Fe).
• This is the soil of deciduous forests, upon which
America’s pioneer farmers depended.
• Alfisols actually lose their nutrients quickly, but
farming remained here due to favorable climate.
There are other types of soil that are identified by the type of
climate in which they’re found and how they’ve been weathered.
Australian Ultilisol
Oxisol
Minnesota Alfisol
German Spodosol
What are some problems facing our
soil resources?
1. Erosion
2. Salinization
3. Desertification
What are some problems facing our
soil resources?
1. Erosion: the movement of soil (especially
topsoil) from one place to another.
– from the L. word erodere “to gnaw out.”
-Erosion can be from wind (1930’s
Dustbowls); during drought great amounts
of soil can be carried by the wind.
1983 Dust Storm, Lubbock, TX
The Power of Wind…
Erosion
Feds fought this with a Shelterbelt Program
• A belt of trees can slow wind from 30 to 8
mph.
• Planted 218 million trees on 30,000 farms to
decrease wind velocity.
• Unfortunately, 25% of these trees were
removed for planting crops and firewood…
Shelterbelt
Erosion
Most erosion is from flowing
water.
The amount of soil lost this
way is anyone’s guess.
– One estimate is 3 million
tons per year.
What are some of the factors
affecting the rate of soil erosion?
1) Rainfall and Runoff: volume per unit time.
What are some of the factors
affecting the rate of soil erosion?
2. Soil Erodibility: soils low in organics are
easier to erode.
What are some of the factors
affecting the rate of soil erosion?
3. Topography: steeper slopes increase the
intensity of runoff, which increases erosion.
Erosion
Some controls include:
• Contour farming
• Filter strip (Biofilter)
• Strip cropping
• Terracing
• Gully reclamation
• Remove cropland from production
• Conservation tillage
Contour farming: farming across slopes.
Filter Strip (Biofilter): area of grass or other permanent
vegetation used to reduce sediment, organic particulates,
nutrients, pesticides, and other contaminants from runoff
and to maintain or improve water quality.
Filter strips intercept undesirable contaminants from runoff
before they enter a water body. They provide a buffer between
contaminant source, such as crop fields and water bodies, such as
streams and ponds.
Strip cropping: alternating types of crops in
strips across the slope (water barriers).
Terracing: build flat areas (steps) on slopes to slow water.
Chinese rice terraces
Gully reclamation: dam them with organic matter
Using vegetation to dam a gully and stop erosion…
Remove cropland from production–especially the
vulnerable & marginal lands (land retirement).
What are some problems
facing our soil resources?
1. Erosion
Erosion controls include:
Conservation tillage –
Conservation tillage (reduced disruption)
or no-till
No-till farming (also called zero tillage or direct drilling) is a way
of growing crops or pasture from year to year without disturbing
the soil through tillage.
*
What are some problems facing our
soil resources?
2. Salinization: salt accumulation in soil
– Occurs primarily in hot, arid climates
where soil is irrigated.
– Salts stunt plant growth, decrease yields,
and eventually kill crops and make land
unproductive.
– 25% of irrigated croplands worldwide
suffer this.
Irrigation of Arid Areas in the
U.S. Southwest
What are some problems facing our
soil resources?
3. Desertification: denuding and degrading a
once-fertile land, initiating a desertproducing cycle.
– causes long-term changes in soil, climate,
and biota of an area.
– United Nations Environment Program
reports that about half of Africa has become
significantly drier over the past 50 yrs
Outlook
We need to work towards sustainable
agriculture.
– Practice soil conservation.
– Use public policy to encourage fair and
ecologically sound farming systems.
There are some alarming trends on the horizon…
Cropland Area
The area of land devoted to crop (grain)
production is shrinking.
Due to:
– land used for non-farm uses
– abandoned because of erosion
– shifted to other crops like soybeans
Cropland Area
Between 1950-1998, the grain harvested area per
person worldwide shrank from 0.23 ha to 0.12 ha.
– Wasn’t a problem for most countries though
because rises in land productivity offset the
shrinkage (and then some).
– But given the loss of momentum in increasing land
productivity since 1990, there is doubt that
productivity will continue to offset cropland per
person shrinkage.
Some projection…
Grain Harvested Area Per Person in Selected Countries and the World in 1950 and 2000,
with Projection to 2050
Country
Canada
Australia
United States
Ethiopia
Nigeria
India
Bangladesh
Mexico
Pakistan
China
Grainland Per Person
Hectares
1950
2000
1.42
0.73
0.51
0.26
0.26
0.22
0.20
0.19
0.18
0.17
0.59
0.97
0.21
0.11
0.15
0.10
0.09
0.10
0.09
0.07
2050 (proj.)*
0.45
0.70
0.15
0.04
0.06
0.06
0.04
0.07
0.04
0.06
www.earth-policy.org/…/xls/book_wote_ch5_2.xls
Source: U.N. FAO, compiled by Woldwatch Institute, 2000
Results
• Countries like India will have many more
people, but not much more farmland.
Bottom Line
• Many feel that we cannot count on increased
land productivity to offset human population
growth.
• The great technological leaps experienced in
this century are unlikely to be matched-many agronomists and plant breeders feel
that we are already pushing the physiological
envelope.
Climate Change
global warming
“ We are embarked on the most colossal
ecological experiments of all time—doubling
the concentration in the atmosphere of an
entire planet of one of its most important
gases—and we really have little idea of what
might happen.”
Paul A. Colinvaux
What is climate change?
Measured atmospheric levels of certain gases –CO2, CFCs, methane (CH4),
and nitrous oxide (N2O), have risen substantially in recent decades.
• These are projected to enhance the earth’s natural greenhouse effect,
leading to a significant warming of the planet.
• Greenhouse effect: the trapping of infrared radiation to the earth by
water vapor and certain gases.
• Most of the increased levels of the greenhouse gases since 1958 have
been caused by human activities.
• These include burning fossil fuels, agriculture, deforestation, and use of CFCs.
• CO2 is responsible for 50-60% of the warming produced by human activities.
• Molecules of CFCs, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) trap much more heat per
molecule, but CO2 is much greater in volume.
Global CO2 Emissions from Fossil-Fuel Burning, Cement
Manufacture, and Gas Flaring: 1752-2006
(From the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency after data from the Carbon
Dioxide Information Analysis Center)
Carbon dioxide (CO2) is one of the greenhouse gases. The carbon
dioxide molecule can absorb infrared radiation, and when it does
the molecule starts to vibrate. Eventually, the vibrating molecule
will emit the radiation again, and it will likely be absorbed by yet
another greenhouse gas molecule. This absorption-emissionabsorption cycle serves to keep the heat near the surface,
effectively insulating the surface from the cold of space.
Carbon dioxide, water vapor, methane, nitrous oxide, and a few
other gases are greenhouse gases.
What is climate change?
CO2 is responsible for 50-60% of the warming
produced by human activities.
• Molecules of CFCs, methane (CH4), and nitrous
oxide (N2O) trap much more heat per molecule,
but CO2 is much greater in volume.
• Developed countries account for about 60% of
current emissions; developing for the other 40%.
• Main source: combustion (transportation,
industry, electricity generation, he …
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