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: Unit 1: Understanding Bilingualism and Language PolicyThe purposes of these two assignments are: 1) to develop your understandings of language use and translanguaging, linguistic diversity, first and second language development, and bilingual education, and 2) to provide you with opportunities to explore some of the methodologies used to study bilingualism and bilingual education. You are NOT expected to have prior research experience to complete these assignments, nor are you expected to conduct a formal study. Rather, your investigation should inform your understanding of course concepts and theories.Part 1: Language Observation (15 points)For this assignment, you will conduct a 10-minute observation in a setting that allows you to attend closely to how people use language(s) in their everyday lives. This setting could be a classroom, a playground or park, a coffee shop or restaurant, a city bus, a church, or any other setting in which several people are present and using language in various ways. You could also explore language use in a movie or television show. In order to develop an understanding of the dynamic nature of language and bilingualism, and the fluid ways in which languages are used in the 21st century, you will spend some time noticing how people “language” in this setting. Your observation should consider:· Who is present in the setting? What activities are they engaged in? How do you know? Be careful to delineate what you see from your assumptions about what you’re observing.· In what languages and/or language practices are people engaged? How do they use language for different purposes or with different individuals? Consider the use of receptive (listening, reading) and productive (speaking, writing) language skills, standard and non-standard languages, registers, translanguaging, as well as the use of technology.We will review how to conduct the language observation in more detail in class.Your final assignment should consist of the Your final assignment should consist of the following components:Introductory paragraph: Where did you observe? Why did you select this setting? Analysis (1.5-pages): ○ What did you notice in terms of the languages and/or language practices being used? How did the people you observed use language to make meaning or otherwise communicate with one another? How do you know? Be sure to share how people used language(s) to engage in various activities or interactions, with some description of dynamic uses of language.○ How did attuning to the use of language help you “see” different language practices? What did you notice that surprised you? ○ How did what you observed highlight concepts from at least two of the readings or other materials from this course?
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Language Varieties
_____________________________
EDS 125
Tricia Gallagher-Geurtsen
Opener: Review

With your partner, review the
following concepts:
Monoglossic, diglossic,
heteroglossic

Language as a Problem, right,
or resource

Subtractive, additive, dynamic
approaches to bilingual
education
Language Varieties
With your table please discuss
the following questions:
1. Which language varieties did
you explore?
2. Are they languages or
dialects? How do you
know?
3. How is the variety you
explored languaged (i.e.,
used in practice)?
Non-Dominant Varieties
(aka Dialects)
Dialect (AAVE) and
Register (Academic English)
“A language is a dialect with an
army and a navy” (Romaine,
1994, p. 12).
Register
The type of language used in
particular social situations when
communicating with a particular set of
people.
Register tells what you’re trying to
accomplish.
Register
At your table group, come up
with an example of language
that you might use in each
setting.
Pair Share
Discuss with your partner:
What influences your decisions to
use language in one way or
another (e.g., people, places,
purpose)?
Linguistic Awareness
Linguistic Awareness




All language is equally valuable.
No language is inherently better
than another.
Effective communicators use the
register expected based on a
given context.
Students benefit when they’re
aware of register and variety
(dialect) differences and
resources.
Language and Education
“It is essential that efforts be made to incorporate…features of
people’s languaging in policy, curriculum, and instructional planning. It
is most important to understand the role different language varieties
and language practices, including pidgins and creoles, have in
education.”
– García, p. 39
Speaking in Tongues
Julian:
Language
majority student
immersed in
Mandarin
Durrell:
Language
majority
student
immersed in
Cantonese
Kelly:
Heritage language learner
immersed in Cantonese
Jason:
First generation
Mexican-American
immigrant enrolled in
dual language
Spanish-English
Language Observation
“Close your eyes and listen with your
‘inner ear’ as Patricia Carini (2000) has
taught us to do, to children talking to
each other in a classroom, in a
playground. Or open your eyes and see
Deaf school children signing. Bring to
your mind’s eye the words of characters
in a movie, a television show, a play, or
the words of Shakespeare, Cervantes,
and Proust on a page, or even those of a
person you love, or of the email you
have just exchanged. Or hear the words
of a prayer uttered in a Native American
language. People language for many
purposes.”
– Garcia, 2009, p. 31
Language Observation
10-minute observation in which you will attend closely to how people use
language(s) in their everyday lives
• Who is present in the setting? What activities are they engaged in? How do you
know? Be careful to delineate what you see from your assumptions.
• In what languages and/or language practices are people engaged? How do they
use language for different purposes or with different individuals? Consider the
use of receptive (listening, reading) and productive (speaking, writing) language
skills, standard and non-standard languages, registers, translanguaging, as well
as the use of technology.
Double EntryJournal
Concept
Languaging:
Use of languages, language
varieties, dialects, registers (e.g.,
academic language)
Translanguaging:
Use of multiple discursive
practices to facilitate meaning
making
Receptive language use:
Listening, reading
Productive language use:
Speaking, listening
Other practices of interest
Observations
Interpretations or reflections
Language Observation
Paper
Introductory paragraph: Where did you observe? Why did you select this
setting?
Analysis (1.5-2 pages): What did you notice during from the observation? What
surprised you? How does what you observed compare with at least two of the
readings or other materials assigned for the course? Be sure to address how
people used language(s) to engage in various activities or interactions, with
some descriptions of their dynamic uses of language.
Format: 2-2.5 page paper, 12-point font, 1” margins, double-spaced, APA or
MLA style citations in text, reference list in APA or MLA style.
See assignment description & rubric on Turnitin.
Language Observation due 11:59 PM, Sunday, April 21st, 2019 on TritonEd,
Turnitin under Assignments.
Next Class
April 16: How do people
translanguage?


Read Garcia, Ch. 3
Complete the language
observation graphic organizer,
print, and bring to class.
Closure/Quickwrite
On the back of your graphic
organizer:

Write a sample of dialogue
between 2 people that uses 2
different registers.

Label the different registers.

Include your name and the
date.
Translanguaging
_____________________________
EDS 125
Tricia Gallagher-Geurtsen
Opener

Watch the video.

Talk at your table:

What is different about
this classroom?

How do the students
respond to
translanguaging?

Do you think
translanguaging would
have helped or did help
you or your peers in
school?
Languaging
Languaging
Social practices that we
perform (varieties/dialects,
registers)
Often judged against an
arbitrary standard
“..social practices that are actions performed by our meaning-making
selves. What we have learned to call dialects, pidgins, creoles, and
academic language are instances of languaging: social practices that
we perform.”
(García, 2009, p. 32-33)
Variety and Register
Oral
Formal
Written
Standard
Oral
Formal
Informal
Standard
Written
English
Formal
AAE
Informal
Chicano
English
Formal
Informal
Informal
ASL
Formal
Black ASL
Informal
Languaging
Languaging
Social practices that we
perform (varieties/dialects,
registers)
Often judged against an
arbitrary standard
Turn & Talk
What receptive
and/or productive
languaging
practices did you
observe?
Languaging and
Translanguaging
Turn & Talk
What receptive
(reading/listening)
and/or productive
(speaking/writing)
translanguaging
practices did you
observe?
Languaging
Translanguaging
Social practices that we
perform (varieties/dialects,
registers)
Multiple discursive practices
used by bilinguals and
multilinguals
Often judged against an
arbitrary standard
Often the norm in bilingual
communities, as a result of
language contact
Code-switching
Zulema:
Caroline:
Zulema:
Caroline:
Zulema:
Caroline:
Zulema:
Caroline:
Page what?
Um.
Twenty-something, no?
Intersentitial
Wait. This one? ¿Como ésta?
Sí, circle. ¿Cuál es?
Como ésta, mira. Como ésta. Esta está bien bonita.
Sí, pero ¿qué page?
Intrasentitial
A ver, ¿qué page? Twenty-one.
(Martínez, 2010)
Code-Switching in the
Classroom
Students used code-switching as a “crutch” 2% of the time
Students used Spanglish to:
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
6.
clarify and/or reiterate utterances
quote and report speech
joke and/or tease
index solidarity and intimacy
shift voices for different audiences
communicate subtle nuances of meaning
(Martínez, 2010)
Language Brokering
Orellana (2009): the many ways in which
children of immigrants “use their
knowledge of two languages to speak,
read, write, listen and do things for
others.”
Language brokering may not involve direct
forms of translation or interpretation, but
more of a pooling of linguistic resources.
In the video we see a father and son (Vin
Vin) work together to decipher and
respond to a series of questions on a
form that was required by the school for
participation in a field trip.
What receptive and/
or productive
translanguaging
practices do you
observe?
Dynamic Bilingualism



The linguistic repertoire
is complex and
integrated.
There are no definitive
boundaries between
languages.
It cannot be compared to
monolingual use or
studied from a
monolingual perspective.
Bilingualism is not 1+1=2
The myth of the “balanced bilingual”
Bilingual Acquisition
“‘Milestones of bilingual development and their timing are the
same as those for monolingual children….There is no evidence
that the fact that children growing up with two languages have
to process more variation in the input has an effect on the rate
of acquisition” (De Houwer, 2006, as cited in García, 2009).
The only difference is in language production, where bilingual
children translanguage from an early age.
Language Learning Vs.
Language Acquisition
Language Learning in
Children vs. Adults
Babies and older children/adults
use different parts of their
brains to acquire language.
But, there are no age-related
differences in the process of
language learning.
Learning a second language as a
child is not sufficient for
becoming bilingual.
Development of bilingualism
among older children and
adults has more to do with
societal, individual, and
pedagogical factors.
Factors Influencing
Language Learning
Think/Share:
Identify a factor that
influenced your language
learning and share it with
your table.
Societal
Individual
Social status of a language
Length of time in country
Family and community language use
L1 proficiency and literacy
Socioeconomic status
Home language use
Immigrant generation
Prior schooling
Historical circumstances
Immigration circumstances
Instructional quality
Motivation
Access to speech communities
Age
Language Observation
Paper
Introductory paragraph: Where did you observe? Why did you select this
setting?
Analysis (1.5-2 pages): What did you notice during from the observation? What
surprised you? How does what you observed compare with at least two of the
readings or other materials assigned for the course? Be sure to address how
people used language(s) to engage in various activities or interactions, with
some descriptions of their dynamic uses of language.
Format: 2-2.5 page paper, 12-point font, 1” margins, double-spaced, APA or
MLA style citations in text, reference list in APA or MLA style.
See assignment description & rubric on Turnitin.
Language Observation due 11:59 PM, Sunday,
Next Class
García, chapter 4
Can Dying Languages be
Saved?
Quickwrite

What did you learn today?

Please include your name and
the date.

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