1. The toeory of this paper is not clear enough, please make sure it is logical to this paper. change it if it is nessasary. 2. Citation: The paper used only one souce for 80% of the context, you should use more than 6 citation totally based on instruction document. 3. You should heck every exisited sources, and most of the page number are not correct,4. Don’t foget that the paper has 14 pages minimum requirement. 5.I’ll add more tips if we can finish this at onece. 6.The structure of this paper is not clear either, please read it first and chang it. Souces and stucture is most important. i’ve attachemted some exisiting souces for you. thanks for helping me out!.
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ENVS-496-001 & ENVS-696-001–The Arctic: Exploring the World’s Last Frontier
RESEARCH PROJECT GUI DANCE
The research project for ENVS-496-001 and ENVS-696-001 consists of three graded components:
Research Paper outline and bibliography (20 percent of grade): Wednesday, March 6th
Research Paper, 14-18 pages (30 percent of grade): Monday, April 15th
In-class research presentation (15 percent of grade): Wednesday, April 17th and
Wednesday, April 24th
The overall project will improve each student’s ability to read critically, think conceptually, conduct
rigorous research, engage in critical analysis, gain mastery in his/her chosen topic, and communicate
effectively. The final paper should be of a quality/type suitable for publication in an undergraduate
or graduate journal, as applicable.
The research project requires you to conduct a rigorous study that is relevant to the themes explored
in the Arctic, thereby giving you the opportunity to become an expert on your chosen topic.
Ultimately, you should choose a topic that you find interesting and manageable.
Social scientists answer “why?” – type questions. Why did a particular event happen (or is
happening)? Why did we observe particular outcomes? Why did a country pursue a particular
policy? While it is always important to provide sufficient narrative of background information in
explaining why a particular event took place, this is not a primarily descriptive paper explaining what
happened or how it happened.
As such, the overall objective of the research paper is to conduct rigorous and in-depth
research in order to answer your “why” question. This will require extensive empirical research
on the details of your case as well as thorough theoretical research on the broader phenomenon to
which your case belongs. Doing so will allow you to write a research paper that is backed up with
strong empirics. Accordingly, you must use at least one theory (generally accepted in the social or
natural sciences, or law) to provide a needed framework/area for analysis in the paper.
PAPER PROPOSAL, OUTLINE, AND BIBLIOGRAPHY (20 PERCENT)
Your submission should be 5-6 pages in length (including bibliography) and must do the following:
Present your research topic in the form of a “why?” question.
Explain why this topic is generally important in the field of Arctic knowledge.
Discuss your tentative expectations of what you think the answer to your question is
Identify at least 5 scholarly sources you will use for your paper, including at least one general
theoretical source from outside the course readings.
This submission must additionally provide a detailed outline of your complete paper, along with a
bibliography, in hard and electronic copies. Be careful: outline does not mean a series of
phrases/bullets. You should have a well-ordered product written in paragraph form. Your grade will
be based on the completeness and level of detail provided. For each section, subsection, subsubsection, etc. of your paper, you should note which sources you will be using—and why you are
using them. The literature review in this submission should be done to such high quality and
completeness that the student would feel content with submitting it as a final paper.
RESEARCH PAPER (30 PERCENT)
The research paper should be 14-18 pages in length. A hard copy AND electronic copy (emailed)
must be submitted by the deadline in order to avoid substantial penalties for later papers.
Your paper should meet the paper objective outlined above. It will be evaluated on its content,
organization, style, and mechanics in assessing its success in meeting the paper objectives. Your
grade will also be dependent on the rigor of your research, as evidenced by a wide variety of
appropriate sources cited throughout your paper.
The formatting requirements are as follows:
12-point Garamond Font
Last name and page number in bottom right corner of every page
Statement on cover page acknowledging that the submission is your work: “My document
identifies all sources used and assistance received in completing this assignment.”
SOURCES AND CITATIONS
All sources, collaboration, or assistance must be properly cited in the paper and on a works cited
page. You should use a parenthetical in-text citation style (Chicago 16th B; MLA; APA) OR footnote
citations (Chicago 16th A). The Bluebook system of citations will also be accepted. Please do not
use endnotes for your citations. You must also include source page numbers for all in-text/footnote
citations. The Works Cited list at the end of the paper (not part of the page count) should list only
those sources cited in the paper.
Under no condition are Wikipedia or similar sources, blogs, encyclopedias, or non-scholarly web
pages acceptable. The following are acceptable outside sources:
Books: The most relevant books are generally scholarly books published by university
presses, or books in which the author provides citations for his/her evidence.
Additionally, Google Books or other such online book catalogs are not acceptable
sources as they do not provide access to the complete resource and you may only gain
partial context of the author’s argument, logic, or evidence. You should use the library
to access the actual book.
Academic journal articles: These articles should primarily come from political science,
public policy, or other academic discipline journals to be most relevant. Do not just
select the first article with the name of your theory or topic that comes up in a Google,
Google Scholar, or JSTOR search; some articles are more relevant and/or authoritative
than others. Good places to start your search for resources (books, journal articles,
primary sources, and news or magazine articles) are the citations in readings from the
Think tank papers: Major think tanks, such as the Council on Foreign Relations (CFR),
Brookings Institution, the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS), The
RAND Corporation, the Congressional Research Service (CRS), etc. publish scholarly,
topical articles or reports on contemporary international relations challenges. You
should be aware of potential political biases or agendas that may color the perspective of
some think tanks.
Primary sources: Some examples are government documents, memoirs, interviews, etc.
News or magazine articles: You should use major national papers, such as the New York
Times, Washington Post, and Wall Street Journal, and major magazines, such as The Economist,
Foreign Affairs, and Foreign Policy.
Failure to properly cite sources will significantly lower your paper grade. Suspected acts of
plagiarism will be handled as a violation of American University’s rules and procedures.
IN-CLASS RESEARCH PRESENTATION (15 PERCENT)
Students will prepare an approximately 15-minute presentation of their research project.
Presentations will be graded critically and rigorously based on the content and style of the
presentation. Each presentation should include the following:
Introduction of the talk
Presentation of the research question
Appropriate background of the topic
Presentation of the topic/answer to the research question
Consequences/implications/lessons learned from the topic
Good presentations should be well-organized and well-rehearsed. Students should avoid
excessive reliance on notes/outlines, and under no circumstances should you read information off
your slides. You should also avoid the common trap of including too many slides and putting too
much text/information on each slide. Slides should include only a few brief bullet points to help
focus the discussion.
China’s Strategy in the Arctic
The research paper explores China’s strategy in the Arctic. China has several ambitions
on the Arctic which have created international attention with countries like Canada getting
concern on the business strategies implemented by Chinese people. Recently, China has
expanded the economic and political systems to ensure they match with global demands.
Transforming business operations from regional to global standards was a step that had a great
impact on Chinese people. Change strategies in China are guided by the open-door policy which
supports foreign and internal affairs relevant to citizens of China. The peaceful international
environment created in China helps the country attain a better position in the Arctic(Whitney et
al., 27). In the Arctic region, China collaborates with citizens from Canada, Russia, Finland, and
Alaska to develop domestic trade and produce trade goods which are competitive in the Western
international market. In China, the economy is growing at a higher rate making the country
famous globally, but the government of China decided to focus on regional powers like the East
Asian Affairs rather than American and European economic interests. However, China has not
limited its business operations to East Asia alone but other polar regions like Latin America and
Why China Emerged with an Arctic Strategy
China decided to have an Arctic strategy that will protect her growing political economy
from the interference of international backdrop in the economy. China first considered the impact
of Arctic countries to her economy before exploring further investments in African regions. In
2013, China was seen staggering with her developments after incorporating the interests of the
Arctic region and the European region. Before the end of 2013, a survey was conducted and
indicated that GDP in China was $13.39 trillion. The population of China had increased up to
1.335 billion after the country recovered from the global economic crisis of 2008. After 2008
global economic crisis, China-focused on competing with the United States when still a member
of Arctic region and such strategies motivated China to focus in developing its relations with
Arctic countries where trade goods were exchanged at an affordable price. The trading activities
between China, Canada and other countries in East Asia improved the economy of China and
currently, China contributes 1/3 of economic growth globally(Whitney et al., 28). Therefore,
China had a strategy to empower its economy when it was joining the Arctic where there were
friendly countries like Finland to conduct business with.
In the Arctic, China is ranked as the country with well-developed military and in 2013
allocated a budget of $114.3 budget to the defense system for the purpose of protecting the
Chines boundaries. China budgets highly on its military to catch up with the military
developments in other countries like the United States where autonomous military systems were
first invented and used in World War II. The position of China in the Arctic is also strategic to
help the country assert territorial and maritime properties which were taken during the World
Wars(Whitney et al., 28). Therefore, the event of China situating its operations in the Arctic
before expanding them to Africa and Latin America was to first prepare for military
empowerment, economic growth, and creation of better relationships with neighboring countries
in the Arctic region. By first focusing in East Asia, China could be recognized to have a great
military power that defends its dynasties. Having a position in the Arctic will enable easier
management of its seaports.
To protect its seaports, China came up with a grand strategy that promoted domestic
developments. For China to develop domestically as a member of the Arctic region, the
government focused on protecting some parts of the Arctic ocean, Iceland, adjacent seas and
frozen underground ice. After China organized events to defend its grand strategy and lost
maritime and territories, government officials moved their focus from regional business to
international investments(Whitney et al., 30). However, China remains strategic in the Arctic
region for it has business partnerships with people of Alaska, Canada, and Russia. The current
foreign policy adopted in China is to cater for security, sovereignty, and economic developments
both in Arctic and Western countries.
In 2010, Dai Bingguo recognized China as a country enjoying political stability and has
the socialist ideology in maintaining peace in a state. Canada as a state in Arctic region created
interest in the operations of the Chinese people. Other countries classified under Arctic region
like Finland also agree with the territorial integrity, social development, sovereign security and
national unification efforts adopted by Chinese citizens(Whitney et al., 31). Since China proved
to be the developing country in Arctic region, countries gained more interests with its business
partnerships with some countries like Beijing criticizing the economic efforts of the Chinese
people. Beijing, for instance, organized events claiming that China is not yet developed and
requires more change strategies that will revolutionize its military and trade. As Beijing
criticized the economic developments in China, members of the Arctic celebrates the efforts of
the Chinese government to help people from poverty in Arctic desert by offering relief food and
funds to import more foods.
China recognizes East Asia especially Arctic region as important in settling its
commercial activities. Chinese strategists propose business suppliers from China to working with
residents of the Arctic first, then native Africans before accepting Europeans. In adopting a better
global situation, the Chinese government decided not to ignore the business operations in Arctic
region. No matter the level of global affairs organized by Chinese people and the Western
Europeans, investors from China first explore the economic conditions in Arctic before
expanding business operations to Europe and America. In case Finland or Russia strains in
raising agricultural products, Chinese governments takes it as a state responsibility to fund for
basic needs of such people before focusing on European imports and exports. China likes
working with states in the Arctic region to help them deal with desert disasters in the region and
develop their economy(Whitney et al., 33). The United States supports capitalism and China
uses socialism and this sometimes become a factor pushing the Chinese government to work
with Arctic countries more easily or spend less time than western country.
China focuses on national strength guided by the strategies of the “reform era”. The
foreign policy in China ensure military forces is created for defense purpose. Also, the pragmatic
foreign policy improves power status in China and ensure there is a balanced strategy for
measuring the developments of China if compared in the demands of the international
community. In modern days, china has transfer its attention on domestic development such as
manufacturing and focused on relating to western powers like Britain who organizes trade based
on demands of their international community. The arctic ambitions of China are still active and
coordinate with countries in Arctic region to control the anonymous military systems.
Implementation of treaties like the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty cannot be possible through
efforts of China solely but require support from Canada, and other members of the Arctic
region(Whitney et al., 34). After coordinating with Arctic states, China embraces international
understanding to ensure the operations in Arctic do not limit its foreign investments in Africa.
In 1984, China was motivated by the interests of the Arctic to join the agencies which
provided advanced nuclear plants like the International Atomic Energy Agency. By joining
IAEA, China authorized its chemical engineers to work with the agency to understand the
working of the autonomous military weapons, aerial robots and other sophisticated inventions in
the military. China uses an instrumental approach when strategizing on matters related to
international organizations. After working for long with Arctic countries, China was trusted by
many countries and allowed by Brazil and Argentina to participate in nuclear developmental
programs. Further activities of China in Arctic allowed the country to join the Missile
Technology Control Regime in 1992 to help in regulating foreign exchanges for development of
its economy(Whitney et al., 34). International perceptions still motivate China to invest in
autonomous military systems, foreign trade and struggle to meet the demands of Cultural
Chinese activities in the Arctic are still studied by the Arctic scholars. By use of regional
diplomacy, China connects with political organizations in the Arctic and cope with international
politics while maintaining the demands of Arctic communities. China is ambitious to have
political influence on regional politics in the Arctic. Chinese people try all available
opportunities that will enable them to pursue political and economic interests. China has utilized
several strategies to form economic partnerships in the Arctic which help the country maintain its
territories especially the near seas. Economists from Beijing argue that China is lulling the
operations of states in the Arctic claiming they are bringing commercial benefits and improving
security(Whitney et al., 34). However, China uses a pragmatic strategy to explore the global and
regional energy market that will benefit its citizens now and in the future.
China’s ambitions in the Arctic are focused to extract energy, and the Chinese leaders
organize events with native leaders from the Arctic region to discuss opportunities for economic
developments. In all discussions or events organized by Chinese leaders with politicians from the
Arctic, China targets convincing local people to extract oil and get other raw materials for their
developing industries. The role of China in the Arctic has developed its economy and survey
made at the end of 2017 revealed that China has the largest economy globally. Economic
prosperity experienced in China is as a result of its focus in oil and other raw materials which are
sources of energy.The procurement of affordable commodities is a global priority for Chinese
investors(Whitney et al., 34). Therefore, the situation of China in the Arctic region is to acquire
affordable products that will benefit its citizens and maintain its relations with foreign investors
from US and United Kingdom. In 1993, China while still, a renowned state in the Arctic used
pragmatic strategy to explore African regions and its efforts made it an active marketer of oil in
the arctic region. Developing the Chinese energy industry after taking an active business role in
Arctic region indicates that China is focused on avoiding economic fluctuations in Arctic region.
China is the cures territories in Arctic region to protect oil fields and gas reserves until
they mature. While importing oil, China ignores the seaways controlled by the US navy and uses
routes in the Arctic which are less prone to insecurity. Therefore, most of the secure reserves
China depends on for exportation and importation purposes are in the Arctic, and this explains
why China is focused on working with Arctic states. The grand strategy by Chinese people helps
them behave appropriately in the Arctic region(Whitney et al., 35). Chinese investors behave
well in their coastal seas and when exploring Arctic regions to maintain their reputation. The
economic order of China is currently adopted by Arctic states, and any effort to work with
Chinese investors in the Arctic involves the adoption of their grand strategy. Grand strategy is
concerned with product quality, technological innovation, environmental protection, and
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