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Análisis de la situación, su estrategia, sus objetivos, su (s) objetivo (s) de reserva y su BATNA. Piense en esto como una nota para su supervisor que solicita la autoridad de negociación. Informe los resultados de la negociación (resumen del acuerdo, logro de objetivos, ajustes realizados, etc.). Considere esto como una nota para su supervisor que informa sobre los resultados de la negociación y cualquier ajuste que haya tenido que hacer.
el_tek_audio__1_.pdf

el_tek_audio__1_.pdf

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El-Tek
Role of Chris Carlson, President of Audio Components
By Max H. Bazerman & Jeanne M. Brett
You are Chris Carlson, President, Audio
Components, a Division of El-Tek, Inc. El-Tek is an
international organization engaged in the design,
manufacture, sale, and servicing of a wide variety of
electrical products and components. Today, it is
recognized as a leader in the electrical industry with
sales over $30 billion. The firm employs over
100,000 people at locations throughout the world.
El-Tek is a decentralized, product-centered
organization. Divisions are responsible for particular
product lines and are operated as profit centers.
Division presidents have the responsibility for
determining and implementing policies and practices
related to the development of new products,
discontinuation or expansion of product lines,
production facilities, and the costing, pricing and
selling of products. Division presidents are rewarded
primarily on the basis of the bottom line profitability
of their divisions.
Divisions are chartered to sell and license their
products to customers outside the company. Divisions
that use another division’s product as a component in
their own products have the authority to either
purchase the component from the other El-Tek
division or to produce it themselves; buying the
product outside of El-Tek is also on option, but only
under special circumstances. Divisions selling
products within the company are expected to make a
“reasonable profit” of 10% on these internal sales.
The division charters were intended to preclude
competition among the divisions on the sale of
general product lines to customers outside the
company. They were not designed to diminish
competition among the divisions in such areas as
product development, production, and sales within
the company. In choosing this organizational
structure the CEO realized that there would be
problems to be resolved among the divisions.
However, the CEO also realized that unless division
presidents made as many decisions as possible on
their own and among themselves, the small top
corporate management team would be overwhelmed.
In addition, the CEO believed that a decentralized
structure would increase the entrepreneurial spirit in
the company, and that this benefit outweighed any
potential loss of coordination. A further consideration
in adopting this structure was the belief that effective
managers should be able to deal with the coordination
issues that arise in a decentralized structure. For all
these reasons, the charters give division presidents
broad authority to make decisions and work out
problems among themselves. The CEO also made it
clear that a pattern of kicking decisions up to
corporate would be disadvantageous to managers’
careers.
Your division, Audio Components, manufactures and
sells a wide variety of miniaturized products and
components related to sound amplification, such as:
hearing aids, microphones and special-purpose
amplifiers. Net sales are slightly under $2 billion, and
bottom line profit is slightly under $280 million.
Magnets are an important component in threequarters of the 200 different products manufactured
by Audio Components. You currently purchase $7
million worth of magnets annually from Magnetic
Advances, another division of El-Tek. You also
manufacture more specialized low volume magnets in
Audio Components’ own foundry. Audio Components
also sells about $10 million in magnets and magnetic
components to other divisions within the company.
The reason that Audio Components makes some of its
own magnets is that Audio Components often needs
small lots of production that Magnetic Advances is
not interested in producing, and has no other
customers for. Audio Components’ variable costs on
manufacturing magnets are 65% of sales. Fixed costs
on making magnets are typically 25% of sales. These
costs are best estimates for the newest magnetic
© 1996-2014 Dispute Resolution Research Center (DRRC), Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University.
All rights reserved. Revised 2002.
DRRC/KTAG teaching materials are protected by copyright law. DRRC requires a per person royalty for use of its exercises.
Each purchase of an exercise authorizes copying or electronic distribution of that exercise equal to the quantity purchased.
Access DRRC/KTAG materials at www.negotiationexercises.com Contact DRRC at drrc@kellogg.northwestern.edu
material that Audio Component engineers have just
finished developing.
same magnet). Audio Components might also lose the
competitive advantage of having this magnet in its
products before their direct competitors have it in
theirs.
The history of the new magnetic material is as
follows. Three years ago, El-Tek’s Advanced
Development Laboratory (ADL, the basic research
laboratory of El-Tek) developed a theoretical concept
for a new magnetic material that would have
properties that might permit the manufacture of highpowered, small, inexpensive magnets. In conformity
with company policy, the ADL approached the
Magnetic Advances division as the logical group to
do the developmental research on the new concept.
At the reception following the public announcement
of Z-25, Sal Granger, the President of Magnetic
Advances, came up to congratulate you on the
outstanding success that Audio Components had in
developing Z-25. Sal went on to say that Magnetic
Advances was ready to exploit all of the commercial
possibilities of the new product and begin
manufacturing Z-25. Sal asked when you could get
together to discuss the transfer of the Z-25
technology.
Magnetic Advances is responsible for the
manufacture and sale of magnets and magnetic
materials. According to the charter, it is the only ElTek division with the right to sell or license magnets
externally. Its net sales are about $1.6 billion
annually. $400 million of these sales are to divisions
of El-Tek including $7 million to Audio Components.
Magnetic Advances’ variable costs in manufacturing
magnets are 60% of sales. Fixed costs of making
magnets have been 25% of sales for Magnetic
Advances.
Though you do not want to transfer the technology,
you recognize that Audio Components is not
chartered to sell Z-25 externally. You agreed with Sal
to put teams from each of your divisions together to
discuss transferring Z-25 to Magnetic Materials.
Granger knows that Z-25 has vast commercial
potential. If you had not agreed to meet, Granger
might raise the issue about the commercial marketing
of Z-25 with top management. However, you suspect
that Granger also does not want the decision about
the commercial marketing of Z-25 kicked upstairs,
since that would make Magnetic Advances’ previous
decision not to develop Z-25 more salient to upper
management.
Magnetic Advances’ engineers were dubious that the
ADL’s concept could be developed, let alone
produced commercially, and passed on the
opportunity to develop the new magnetic material.
ADL then offered the concept to Audio Components.
Audio Components invested three years and $12
million (in today’s dollars) before the new magnetic
concept, called Z-25, became a commercial reality.
Audio Components owns the rights to Z-25. Magnetic
Advances would only obtain these rights by reaching
a mutually acceptable agreement with you. You
would only consider selling them these rights if it
were profitable for your division to do so. The
expected life of this advance in magnet technology is
two years. You want to recoup the $12 million in
development costs for Z-25, make a significant profit,
and protect your division’s products that will use Z-25
from competition. Overall, you want to maximize
profit for your division.
In preparing to announce the new magnetic material,
called Z-25, you had mixed feelings. You were sure
that Z-25 had enormous commercial possibilities.
Audio Components would have no problem
manufacturing Z-25 for its own use and that of the
other divisions in El-Tek, but you recently found out
that the charter precludes Audio Components from
selling Z-25 externally. Besides, you would prefer
that Audio Components’ direct competitors not have
access to Z-25.
To prepare for your meeting with Magnetic
Advances, you had your division’s best financial
analysts estimate the net profit to Audio Components
for producing Z-25 and selling it internally, as well as
the implications of selling the rights for the magnet to
Magnetic Advances. The chart on the last page shows
the future profitability to Audio Components for
various agreements that you might be able to reach
with Magnetic Advances. Remember that you have
already incurred $12 million (in today’s dollars) in
development costs and that these costs have not been
considered in the future profit figures in the chart.
If Z-25 is to be sold commercially, Audio
Components would have to turn it over to Magnetic
Advances. Your division does not have the capacity
for or capability of meeting the external demand for
magnets. If Magnetic Advances sells the magnets
externally, Audio Components would lose the profit
from selling Z-25 internally (Magnetic Advances
would also sell to the internal market since it would
not make sense for both divisions to be producing the
2
El-Tek/President of Audio Components
Also, if you transfer the magnet to Magnetic
Advances, you will end up buying back $5 million a
year worth of Z-25 magnets over the two-year life of
the product (beyond the $7 million a year that you
currently buy from them). This $5 million has been
considered in the future profit figures in the chart.
Outcomes #2 through #11. Look at #3; here
Magnetics agrees not to sell to your direct
competitors for 6 months, although Magnetics could
sell to competitors of El-Tek divisions other than
Audio during that time. Your profit would be $25
million from your competitive advantage plus the
transfer price (TP) paid to you by Magnetics. Note
that the more protection the greater your profit, thus,
you are primarily interested in preventing distribution
to direct Audio competitors. You place some value on
prohibiting sales to competitors of El-Tek Divisions
other than Audio because protection will also benefit
them and will help avoid Z-25 reaching your direct
competitors through illegal means. However, you are
far more concerned with a prohibition against sales to
your direct competitors than sales to competitors of
El-Tek divisions other than Audio.
The numbers in the chart estimate the bottom-line
profitability of various solutions over the two-year
life of the product in today’s dollars. You are not
limited to these eleven agreements. Rather, this
information is presented to help you plan for the
upcoming negotiation. Although you may reach
agreements not on this chart, you should interpolate
to figure your division’s profits in this case.
Many of the outcomes include a dollar figure for
Audio Components’ profits depending on different
competitive advantage scenarios and the transfer
price (TP) Magnetic Advances pays for the product.
The competitive advantage comes from having the
new technology in your product, while your direct
competitors do not have this technology. In outcome
#1 where you manufacture Z-25 and use it in your
products and sell it internally, your profit would be
$55 million. This $55 million breaks down into $15
million, a 10% profit on $150 million worth of Z-25
you can sell internally, and a $40 million in profit
from the competitive advantage of having Z-25 in
your products before the competition. You are very
confident of these estimates.
In this chart, TP is equal to an amount that is
negotiated between the two divisions. TP can be a
dollar amount, a percent of Magnetics’ profit, or any
other mutually agreed upon form of payment. All of
the amounts in this chart represent incremental profit
as a result of Z-25, over and above what your division
is currently earning.
Keep in mind that Magnetics will be making a 10%
profit on the $5 million worth of Z-25 that you expect
to buy back from them. Since you know divisions are
allowed to profit 10% from internal sales you can
assume that Magnetics will receive a $500,000 profit
from selling Z-25 back to you.
If you transfer the material to Magnetic Advances to
produce and sell, your profits will be as indicated in
3
El-Tek/President of Audio Components
Carlson and the Audio Components Negotiating Team
Lifetime Profit –
Net Profit to AC
Lifetime Profit-Outcome
1) Audio Components produces Z-25 and the product is sold only internally
$55M
2) Magnetic Advances produces Z-25 and no limits are put on its distribution
TP
3) Magnetics produces Z-25 and is prohibited from selling to Audio’s direct competitors for 6
months
$25M + TP
4) Magnetics produces Z-25 and is prohibited from selling to competitors of any El-Tek
divisions for 6 months (Audio’s direct competitors and competitors of other El Tek
divisions)
$26M + TP
5) Magnetics produces Z-25 and is prohibited from selling to Audio’s direct competitors for
12 months
$30M + TP
6) Magnetics produces Z-25 and is prohibited from selling to Audio’s direct competitors for
12 months and from selling to competitors of El-Tek divisions other than Audio for 6
months
$31M + TP
7) Magnetics produces Z-25 and is prohibited from selling to competitors of any El-Tek
divisions for 12 months (Audio’s direct competitors and competitors of other El Tek
divisions)
$32M + TP
8) Magnetics produces Z-25 and is prohibited from selling to Audio’s direct competitors for
20 months
$35M + TP
9) Magnetics produces Z-25 and is prohibited from selling to Audio’s direct competitors for
20 months and from selling to competitors of El-Tek divisions other than Audio for 6
months
$36M + TP
10) Magnetics produces Z-25 and is prohibited from selling to Audio’s direct competitors for
20 months and from selling to competitors of El-Tek divisions other than Audio for 12
months
$37M + TP
11) Magnetics produces Z-25 and is prohibited from selling to competitors of any El-Tek
divisions for 20 months (Audio’s direct competitors and competitors of other El Tek
divisions)
$38M + TP
M= Million
4
El-Tek/President of Audio Components
El-Tek
Role of Chris Carlson, President of Audio Components
By Max H. Bazerman & Jeanne M. Brett
You are Chris Carlson, President, Audio
Components, a Division of El-Tek, Inc. El-Tek is an
international organization engaged in the design,
manufacture, sale, and servicing of a wide variety of
electrical products and components. Today, it is
recognized as a leader in the electrical industry with
sales over $30 billion. The firm employs over
100,000 people at locations throughout the world.
El-Tek is a decentralized, product-centered
organization. Divisions are responsible for particular
product lines and are operated as profit centers.
Division presidents have the responsibility for
determining and implementing policies and practices
related to the development of new products,
discontinuation or expansion of product lines,
production facilities, and the costing, pricing and
selling of products. Division presidents are rewarded
primarily on the basis of the bottom line profitability
of their divisions.
Divisions are chartered to sell and license their
products to customers outside the company. Divisions
that use another division’s product as a component in
their own products have the authority to either
purchase the component from the other El-Tek
division or to produce it themselves; buying the
product outside of El-Tek is also on option, but only
under special circumstances. Divisions selling
products within the company are expected to make a
“reasonable profit” of 10% on these internal sales.
The division charters were intended to preclude
competition among the divisions on the sale of
general product lines to customers outside the
company. They were not designed to diminish
competition among the divisions in such areas as
product development, production, and sales within
the company. In choosing this organizational
structure the CEO realized that there would be
problems to be resolved among the divisions.
However, the CEO also realized that unless division
presidents made as many decisions as possible on
their own and among themselves, the small top
corporate management team would be overwhelmed.
In addition, the CEO believed that a decentralized
structure would increase the entrepreneurial spirit in
the company, and that this benefit outweighed any
potential loss of coordination. A further consideration
in adopting this structure was the belief that effective
managers should be able to deal with the coordination
issues that arise in a decentralized structure. For all
these reasons, the charters give division presidents
broad authority to make decisions and work out
problems among themselves. The CEO also made it
clear that a pattern of kicking decisions up to
corporate would be disadvantageous to managers’
careers.
Your division, Audio Components, manufactures and
sells a wide variety of miniaturized products and
components related to sound amplification, such as:
hearing aids, microphones and special-purpose
amplifiers. Net sales are slightly under $2 billion, and
bottom line profit is slightly under $280 million.
Magnets are an important component in threequarters of the 200 different products manufactured
by Audio Components. You currently purchase $7
million worth of magnets annually from Magnetic
Advances, another division of El-Tek. You also
manufacture more specialized low volume magnets in
Audio Components’ own foundry. Audio Components
also sells about $10 million in magnets and magnetic
components to other divisions within the company.
The reason that Audio Components makes some of its
own magnets is that Audio Components often needs
small lots of production that Magnetic Advances is
not interested in producing, and has no other
customers for. Audio Components’ variable costs on
manufacturing magnets are 65% of sales. Fixed costs
on making magnets are typically 25% of sales. These
costs are best estimates for the newest magnetic
© 1996-2014 Dispute Resolution Research Center (DRRC), Kellogg School of Management, Northwestern University.
All rights reserved. Revised 2002.
DRRC/KTAG teaching materials are protected by copyright law. DRRC requires a per person royalty for use of its exercises.
Each purchase of an exercise authorizes copying or electronic distribution of that exercise equal to the quantity purchased.
Access DRRC/KTAG materials at www.negotiationexercises.com Contact DRRC at drrc@kellogg.northwestern.edu
material that Audio Component engineers have just
finished developing.
same magnet). Audio Components might also lose the
competitive advantage of having this magnet in its
products before their direct competitors have it in
theirs.
The history of the new magnetic material is as
follows. Three years ago, El-Tek’s Advanced
Development Laboratory (ADL, the basic research
laboratory of El-Tek) developed a theoretical concept
for a new magnetic material that would have
properties that might permit the manufacture of highpowered, small, inexpensive magnets. In conformity
with company policy, the ADL approached the
Magnetic Advances division as the logical group to
do the developmental research on the new concept.
At the reception following the public announcement
of Z-25, Sal Granger, the President of Magnetic
Advances, came up to congratulate you on the
outstanding success that Audio Components had in
developing Z-25. Sal went on to say that Magnetic
Advances was ready to exploit all of the commercial
possibilities of the new product and begin
manufacturing Z-25. Sal asked when you could get
together to discuss the transfer of the Z-25
technology.
Magnetic Advances is responsible for the
manufacture and sale of magnets and magnetic
materials. According to the charter, it is the only ElTek division with the right to sell or license magnets
externally. Its net …
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