1.200-300 words each questions2.Single spaced
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Directions: Respond to the following questions with short answers, in paragraph format, 200-300
Grading: Students will be graded ten points per answer, for a total of 100 points. Each response
is qualitatively graded based on thoroughness of response, evidence presented, and clarity of
answers. Citations are preferred if direct quotes are used, “Woodard said to use quotations and
make inline citations” (Woodard 2019:77).
1) Kathleen Deagan (1973, 1983) describes the archaeological and documentary record of St.
Augustine. Here, she is interested in culture contact, exchange, and synthesis, whereby once
separate peoples begin to merge on cultural, social, and biological levels. What evidence does
Deagan offer for the creolization and mestizaje processes of colonial St. Augustine? Give
specific examples of Deagan’s evidence and her interpretations for these exchanges.
2) Using Dawdy’s discussion of “ethnic acculturation” and “hybridization” (2000:111) within
French contexts of Louisiana, how are “creole” spaces defined by her? What archaeological and
documentary evidence does she provide for her interpretations?
3) Archaeologists at Thomas Jefferson’s Monticello have investigated the workspaces and homes
of the enslaved quarter, known as Mulberry Row. There, Frasier Neiman argues subfloor pits
were not “Africanisms” but rather “an adaptation to environmental or social circumstances that
were unique to the Chesapeake (2008:177). Describe Neiman’s evidence and interpretations of
these “safety deposit boxes.”
4) In her data-rich article on the archaeology of “Building O,” Diana Crader argues that the
enslaved diet at Monticello shows signs of status difference among the laborers. Using her
discussion and conclusions section as a guide (1990:713-715), overview the evidence and
5) The CSS Hunley sank in the Charleston Harbor nearly 150 years ago, but was recovered and
researched by archaeologists over the last twenty-five years. What surprising stories have
emerged from the investigations of the Hunley and what mysteries have been solved?
6) Excavations of the Catawba Indian Reservation reveal an artifactual record of Native
consumption and production, and that of trade between the Natives and Euro-Americans. Based
on class discussions, the images, and data on Catawba pottery of the 18th and 19th centuries,
briefly overview the ceramic research’s main conclusions or “significance and implications”
7) Lightfoot el al (2007) discuss their methodology for a collaborative research project, one that
is “holistic, broadly comparative, and focused on change over time” (228). Provide key elements
to the civic engagement at the Fort Ross Archaeological Project.
8) Based on the article by Wegars (1993) describe the artifactual record of Chinese women in the
American West. From what geographies (i.e. cities/states) and types of sites (i.e. businesses)
were these artifacts recovered? Give specific examples of the artifacts, their locations, and
9) In the television program “Custer’s Last Stand” from the series Battlefield Detectives,
researchers found that the surface collection survey of the 1876 Little Bighorn Battlefield
revealed many ammunition cartridges and shells from different guns, in differing locations. What
did these artifacts tell us about the battle and its participants? How did researchers map and
record the data?
10) In the same program “Custer’s Last Stand,” archaeologists and forensic researchers
investigated the human remains of the U.S. 7th Cavalry from the Little Bighorn. Evidence found
by the inquirers indicated substantive battlefield trauma to the military men. Provide examples of
what the bones revealed and the interpretations of the causes.
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