*skip first four lines that is for my headingI have a little bit started. you can leave it or change it or move it doesn’t matter. Looking for a C-B paper, wouldn’t mind an A.Background= 1 page (what others have said on the topic). I will share my annotated bibliography with my sources. It is just background informationBody= 2 pages (all single spaced). Focus on the argument. Use plenty of quotes from my provided sources, or if u find another source thats cool too just have the link for me- talk about why affirmative action is a good starting solution for lessening racial disparity in schooling (universities).I have a partial outline with my main ideas I want included
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2 April 2019
Thesis: Although affirmative action has been in effect since 1961, there is still tremendous racial
disparity in schooling. Affirmative action has started narrowing the gap in college, and is a good
starting solution that doesn’t victimize white people (or other majorities).
Background.. What is affirmative action?
1. Affirmative action was initiated in 1961 (Nayyar p*). It is supposed to level out the
playing field for groups who have been formerly discriminated against by giving them
a. In the early years of it, it seemed to be working well. There was an increase of x
percent of this_race students in universities* (author page).
This has already shown improvement as there is more diversity, because
the percentages of many minorities are increasing while the percentages
for whites are decreasing.
It is also important to note that although the percentages of whites are
decreasing, it does not mean the number of whites getting accepted into
universities are decreasing. The lowering percentage scares and worries
people who don’t understand what’s happening.
b. Clearly, from these people who are ignorant, there is backlash. People would
always claim for things to be unfair. “No logical stopping point”-richard posner
(ruth Colker p.)
2. There are numerous misconceptions with what affirmative action is, which helps aid in
ignorance to those who are against it.
a. The first major misconception is that with affirmative action, people think it
means that someone who is unskilled or less skilled than another person for the
job will be chosen simply because he is a minority and the other person is white
(Ruth Colker, p 28).
This is one way in which white victimization can begin
b. The other major misconception about affirmative action is that it has a “negative
relationship” with the workplace (Colker 28).
3. The things most affected by affirmative action today are jobs and school institutions. In
this paper I am going to be focusing on the schooling aspect.
End Background. Start Argument: why white people aren’t discriminated against, focus on
1. People started seeking social justice in the late 20th century. (Nayyar 54)
a. To achieve social justice, there has to be consensus with everyone-including those
who are privileged. (54)
b. This is hard to achieve as those who are privileged wither will not acknowledge it
or they don’t want to give up what they have. (54)
2. The next issue is with the SAT
a. It started out with influence from Madison Grant, who is known to be a racist.
If we use his ideologies, that are agreed to be false today (source) we have
to question this. Why haven’t we either completely changed the SAT or
gotten rid of it all together
-background: discussion on what OTHER people have said about this. So include the
-argument: body. What is my argument. Affirmative action is good because.. It has worked so
far… it is a good solution
Although affirmative action has been in effect since 1961, there is still tremendous racial
disparity in schooling. Many people disagree over this. Affirmative action has started narrowing
the gap in college, and is a good starting solution that doesn’t victimize white people.
People tend to have false assumptions about what affirmative action brings about. There
are two major incorrect assumptions that some people have about it, which is why there has
always been huge controversy over it. The first incorrect assumption which people have about
affirmative action is that someone who is unskilled or less skilled than another person for the job
will be chosen for it simply because he is a minority, and the other person is white (Colker 28).
The second major false assumption people have
Valls, Andrew. “The Libertarian Case for Affirmative Action.” Social Theory and Practice, vol.
25, no. 2, 1999, pp. 299–323. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23559141.
This source describes the libertarian mindset and why obviously they wouldn’t think affirmative
action is a good thing- it involves government meddling which is against what libertarianism is.
The author brings up many opposing points with their arguments, especially based on history. It
ties into libertarianism and focuses on of the three major exceptions where they do allow
government meddling: “only that the distribution of wealth is just if no rights were violated in
the original acquisition of holdings” (300).
This will help with my paper as it partially answers all of my research questions. I will
effectively be able to incorporate it along with my other sources which I find to completely
answer all the research.
“AFFIRMATIVE ACTION.” American Law in the Age of Hypercapitalism: The Worker, the
Family, and the State, by Ruth Colker, NYU Press, New York; London, 1998, pp. 27–61.
This source is about how there is a lot of uproar about affirmative action since it clearly helps
minorities, but nobody called out anything about when white males hid behind the laissez-faire
capitalism. Richard Posner is mentioned and bring up that there’s “no logical stopping point” to
affirmat. action, and that the government is too involved in it, but when asked questions he is
conflicted to answer them. (Debunks his argument)
This is beneficial to me as it answers what affirmative action is, and mentions false assumptions
people make about it. Also, one of my main thoughts is portrayed in the paper by the following
quotes“When upper-class members of society receive benefits, no one notices, but when
minority members receive benefits , everyone notices and criticize s these benefits.” (28). I will
be able to expand on this idea with this reliable source.
Fish, Stanley. “Affirmative Action and the SAT.” The Journal of Blacks in Higher Education,
2, 1993, pp. 83–83. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/2962574.
This source talks about the colleges basing admissions partially on SAT scores, and how some
whites may score higher than minorities but due to affirmative action the minority is still selected
to get into the college. It explains how the SAT is made by a private company itself and favors
the kids who live in certain zip codes and have a certain income. Finally, it ends off with the fact
that the SAT was devised based on Madison Grant’s paper, which was racist itself.
This will help me in my paper because it gives evidence into one of the systematic racist things
in place in American society that is still here today. I like the counterargument that people think
it’s unfair that they scored higher but didn’t get into à college because they weren’t a minority,
when in fact it is only because they were more privileged is why they scored higher in the first
place on a biased test.
HAMMON, BRETT. “Playing the Race Card: White Americans’ Sense of Victimization in
Response to Affirmative Action.” Texas Hispanic Journal of Law & Policy, vol. 19,
Spring 2013, pp. 95–120. EBSCOhost,
This source explains the huge issue of white people pulling the “race card” which is not even a
real thing. Hammon continues to reveal that most of the Justices today believe that white
victimization is a thing, and explains why it is problematic.
The graph on p.117 will help me incorporate quantitative data. Additionally, this paper is
basically what I am trying to argue and will give me facts on what I need to know. I will be able
to synthesize its information with other sources.
Myslinska, Dagmar Rita. “Intra-Group Diversity in Education: What If Abigail Fisher Were an
Immigrant..” Pace Law Review, vol. 34, no. 2, Spring 2014, pp. 736–813. EBSCOhost,
This is about Abigail Fisher, who stood in a court trial against university of texas. She claimed to
be discriminated against due to affirmative action, and this article questions what if she was an
immigrant. It goes over the difference between immigrant groups and talks about equality in
education across different groups.
This will help me with my paper because it gives me a specific example of white victimization,
which is made up, which i would also like to brush over with my topic. It is also pretty recent,
unlike some other sources which were in the late 90’s.
NAYYAR, DEEPAK. “Discrimination and Justice: Beyond Affirmative Action.” Economic and Political
Weekly, vol. 46, no. 42, 2011, pp. 52–59. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/23047306.
This is about how affirmative action has been initiated, but the main point is that it is not enough to
bring about justice. It focuses on some situations in where discrimination began, as it is important to
know the history of things.
This relates to my article because I think that although it is à start, affirmative action alone is
definitely not enough. I want to include possible ideas as to what else can be proposed to get closer
to bringing about justice, and it is important to know how things, like discrimination, came about in
the first place.
Beauchamp, Tom L. “In Defense of Affirmative Action.” The Journal of Ethics, vol. 2, no. 2, 1998, pp.
143–158. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25115575.
This paper focuses on affirmative action and why it is important. It also has mention of common
ground- that both the people who support it and those who are against it want the same thing in the
end : “ a color-blind, sex-blind society”
This is really helpful to my paper as it will help with my bias. I clearly am taking one side, but to those
who are on the other side of the issue, I want them to know I understand why they think their side,
and it makes sense logically, but ultimately after they know that then they can be willing to listen to
the real truth.
Shaw, Bill. “Affirmative Action: An Ethical Evaluation.” Journal of Business Ethics, vol. 7, no. 10,
1988, pp. 763–770. JSTOR, www.jstor.org/stable/25071832.
This is about basically 4 of the most common arguments made revolving affirmative action. It is the
best thing in place today that we have, and this is also a very factual and philosophical text.
This well help me with my paper as it gets into the deep issues and meaning behind affirmative
action. I can easily synthesize this with my other sources, as it includes much of the same big ideas
with more details and smaller points.
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